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Submitted to: Mr. Rohit Goel

Submitted by: vinesh textile 6th Sem.

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Types of satellites Synchronous satellites Frequency band allocation Band spectrum Advantages and disadvantages of satellites

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Types of satellites
Satellite orbits are also classified based on their heights above the earth:

Molniya Orbit

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Geostationary earth orbit (GEO)

Orbit is synchronous with the earths rotation. From the ground the satellite appears fixed. Altitude is about 23,000 miles. Coverage to 40% of planet per satellite.
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Originally proposed by Arthur C. Clarke Circular orbits above the equator Angular separation about 2 degrees - allows 180 satellites Orbital height above the earth about 23000 miles/35000km. GEO satellites require more power for communications The signal to noise ratio for GEOs is worse because of the distances involved. A few GEOs can cover most of the surface of the earth Note that polar regions cannot be seen by GEOs
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Basic of GEOs
Geostationary satellites are commonly used for communications and weather-observation.

The typical service life expectancy of a geostationary satellite is 10-15 years.

Because geostationary satellites circle the earth at the equator, they are not able to provide coverage at the Northernmost and Southernmost latitudes.

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Low earth orbit (LEO)

LEO satellites are much closer to the earth than GEO satellites, ranging from 500 to 1,500 km above the surface. LEO satellites dont stay in fixed position relative to the surface, and are only visible for 15 to 20 minutes each pass. A network of LEO satellites is necessary for LEO satellites to be useful
Revolution time: 90 min - 3 hours

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Medium earth orbit (MEO)

A MEO satellite is in orbit somewhere between 8,000 km and 18,000 km above the earths surface. These orbits are primarily reserved for communications satellites that cover the North and South Pole. Unlike the circular orbit of the geostationary satellites, MEOs are placed in an elliptical (oval-shaped) orbit.
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Synchronous satellites OR
geo-synchronous satellites
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Synchronous satellites
A geosynchronous orbit is the one with an orbital period (the time needed to orbit once around the Earth) that matches the rotation rate of the Earth. This is a sidereal day, which is 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds in length. There is only one geosynchronous earth orbit. It is occupied by a large number of satellites. In fact, the geosynchronous orbit is the most widely used earth orbit for the obvious reason. This stipulation equates to an angular separation of 4 or more, which limits the number of satellite vehicles in a geosynchronous earth orbit to less than 100.

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Satellites in geo-synchronous orbit

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Geosynchronous satellites
A geostationary orbit is a special case of a geosynchronous orbit.
A satellite is in a geostationary orbit when it appears stationary from the point of view of an observer on the Earth's surface.

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Geostationary satellites
This can only occur when: The orbit is geosynchronous. The orbit is a circular. The orbit lies in the plane of the Earth's equator. Thus, a geosynchronous satellite will be geostationary only with the additional restrictions of it being in a circular orbit situated over the equator. The satellite velocity in this orbit is 3075 m/s. Operate in the 2.0 GHz to 18 GHz range. When the inclination and eccentricity of the orbit is zero, the satellite appears to be stationary to an observer from ground.

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Geo-stationary satellites
Applications: Telecommunication systems Radio Data Transmission systems

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Frequency Spectrum concepts:

Frequency: Rate at which an electromagnetic wave reverts its polarity (oscillates) in cycles per second or Hertz (Hz).
Wavelength: distance between wavefronts in space. Given in meters as: = c/f Where: c = speed of light (3x108 m/s in vacuum) f = frequency in Hertz

Frequency band: range of frequencies.

Bandwidth: Size or width (in Hertz) or a frequency band.

Electromagnetic Spectrum: full extent of all frequencies from zero to infinity.
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Radio Frequencies (RF)

RF Frequencies: Part of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. Interesting properties: Efficient generation of signal power Radiates into free space

Efficient reception at a different point.

Differences depending on the RF frequency used:

- Signal Bandwidth
- Propagation effects (diffraction, noise, fading) - Antenna Sizes
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Microwave Frequencies
Sub-range of the RF frequencies approximately from 1GHz to 30GHz. Main properties: Line of sight propagation (space and atmosphere). Blockage by dense media (hills, buildings, rain) Wide bandwidths compared to lower frequency bands. Compact antennas, directionality possible. Reduced efficiency of power amplification as frequency grows: Radio Frequency Power OUT Direct Current Power IN
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Spectrum Regulation
International Telecommunication Union (ITU): Members from practically all countries around the world. Allocates frequency bands for different purposes and distribute them around the planet. Creates rules to limit RF Interference (RFI) between countries that reuse same RF bands. Mediates disputes and creates rules to deal with harmful interference when it occurs.

Meets bi-annually with its members, to review rules and allocations: World Radio Communication Conference (WRC).
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Frequency band allocation

Different kinds of satellites use different frequency bands.

L-band S-band C-band X-band Ku-band Ka-band

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Early satellite communications

Used C band in the range 3.7-4.2 GHz Could interfere with terrestrial communications

Beam-width is narrower with higher frequencies

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Radio Frequency Spectrum

Commonly Used Bands
0.1 1





10 100



Terrestrial Bands Space Bands Shared (Terrestrial and Space)

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Communication frequencies
Microwave band terminology
L band 800 MHz - 2 GHz S band 2-3 GHz C band 3-6 GHz X band 7-9 GHz Ku band 10-17 GHz Ka band 18-22 GHz

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Frequency bands
Band L S Downlink, GHz 1.5 1.9 Uplink, GHz 1.6 2.2 Bandwidth, MHz 15 70
Used by MSS , NASA , deep space research used by FSS uses

used by MSS

Ku Ka

11 20

14 30

500 3500
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used by FSS

Three bands are mostly used

6/4 Ghz band 14/12 Ghz band 20/30 Ghz band

6/4 band is mostly used. Because they offer the fewest propagation problems
o Rain attenuation and sky noise is low , so it is easy to build low noise temp. in receiving system

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Ghz band

o Crowding/congestion of 6/4 band with band width of 500 Mhz is high , to over come this problem 14/12 band is used in commercial application o Uplink freq. is 12.75 to 14.80 Ghz and downlink freq. is 10.7 to 12.3 Ghz o Rain attenuation is a problem at this band.

20/30 Ghz band

o For require higher capacities 20/30 Ghz band is used with a band width of 2.5 Ghz o Uplink is 27.50 to 31 Ghz o Downlink is 18.10 to 21.20 Ghz

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Advantages of satellites
Capable of transmitting high capacities over long distances.

Has a unique geometry, so it is used as a broadcast medium to

transmit signs from one point to no. of points in coverage area i.e( wide area broadcast). It can be installed rapidly. Has unique degree of flexibility in interconnecting mobile vehicles.

So its good for mobile communication.

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Also useful for thin route remote area communication. Like (Hilly area) Sikkim, Islands. Can reach over large geographical area Flexible (if transparent transponders) Easy to install new circuits

Circuit costs independent of distance

1-for-N multipoint standby possibilities
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Disadvantages of satellites
Communication path between transmitter and receiver is approximately 7500 km, with a velocity of 3x10^8m/s. There is a delay of sec. b/w transmission & reception. Efficiency is reduced for long file transfers.

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