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Butter may be defined as a fat concentrate which is obtained by churning cream, gathering the fat into a compact mass and then working it.

FSSAI Definition with specifications : table (creamery) butter is the product obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof, or from cream or curd obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof, with or without the addition of common salt and annatto or carotene as coloring matter. It should be free from other animal fats, wax and mineral oils, vegetable oils and fats. No preservative except common salt and no coloring matter except annatto or carotene may be added. It must contain not less than 80 per cent by weight of milk fat, not more than 1.5 per cent by weight of curd and not more than 3 per cent by weight of common salt. Diacetyl may be added as a flavoring agent but, if so used, the total diacetyl content must not exceed 4 ppm. Ca(OH)2, NaHCO3, Na2CO3, Na3(PO4)2 may be added, but must not exceed the weight of butter as a whole by more than 0.2 %.

A. Pasteurized cream butter Made usually from pasteurized sweet cream. Such butter usually has a milder flavor than that made from similar cream not pasteurized. Ripened cream butter Made from cream in which a pleasant delicate aroma has been developed before churning by ripening (i.e. inoculating the cream with a butter culture and holding it at a desired temperature). Properly made, ripened cream butter has a delicate flavor which is sometimes referred to as 'real butter flavor. Unripened cream butter Made from unripened cream. The flavor of such butter is usually mild. B.


D. Salted butter Butter to which salt has been added. E. Unsalted butter Contains no added salt

E. Sweet cream butter ln this case, the acidity of the churned cream does not exceed 0.20 per cent.


Soar cream butter Made from cream which has more than 0.20 per cent acidity.

G. Fresh butter Such butter has not undergone cold storage. H. Cold storage butter Here, it has been stored at a temperature of about -18 0C (0 0F)for some time. I. Creamery butter Made in a creamery or dairy factory. lt is more uniform in quality than 'dairy butter'.

Constituents Butter fat Moisture Salt Percentage 80.2 16.3 2.5



Table.1 Approximate Composition of Butter


Rich source of fat!! Rich in fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, K.

Cream Separation Standardization (35-40 & fat) Pasteurization (82-88 0C)/No hold Cooling (5-10 0C) Ageing (5-10 0C) Churning Receiving milk Washing Salting & working Fig.1 Butter Manufacturing Receiving cream Neutralization

Preheating (35-40 0C)

Grading Weighing Sampling Testing

Grading Weighing Sampling Testing

Packaging and storage (-23 to -29'C)

Cooling and ageing of cream

Cream is cooled by lowering its temperature, and aged by holding it at this (low) temperature for a few hours. Cooling is essential since cream will not churn until the butterfat in the fat globules has at least partially solidified (crystallized).

Insufficiently solid cream will result in higher fat loss in the buttermilk and the butter obtained will have an unsatisfactory, weak body.
The optimum temperature for the cooling and ageing of cream should preferably be 5-10 0C (41-50 0F). 'Shock cooling of warm cream with ice is not conducive to proper fat crystallization, since there is a subsequent temperature rise due to latent heat. Consequently, inexhaustive churning and an unsatisfactory, weak bodied butter results.

Cooling and ageing of cream

Also excessive cooling & ageing one has to avoid, otherwise firm fat globules will coalesce with difficulty during churning only, greatly prolonging the churning process. The ageing period should be at least 2 to 4 hours, preferably 15-16 hours (overnight). The optimum temperature for cooling and ageing cream depends on: composition of fat size of fat globules fat percentage of cream period of ageing temperature of churning and acidity of cream

Ripening of cream
This refers to the fermentation of cream with the help of desirable starter cultures. Objects: o To produce butter with a pleasing, pronounced characteristic flavor and aroma, uniformly from day to day o To obtain exhaustive churning, i.e. a low fat loss in buttermilk. Procedure: o Addition of starter culture containing lactic acid producers such as Str. Iactis and/or Str. Cremoris, together with aroma (diacetyl) producers such as Str. diacetilactis, Leuc. citrovorum and Leuc. dextranicum, in correct proportions, at 0.5-2.0 %. o After being thoroughly mixed, the cream is incubated at 21 0C (70 0F) for 15-16 hours.

Ripening of cream
Role of diacetyl: o typical flavor of butter from ripened cream is mainly the effect of diacetyl, which is not present in sweet cream. o 0.2-0.6 p.p.m. imparts mild flavor while 0.7-1.5 p.p.m. results in full rich butter flavor.

Ripening process is expensive & time consuming; also most of the flavoring substances enter into the buttermilk and wash-water, and are lost to the butter. Hence, synthetic flavors are sometimes added during the working process. However, 1. such butter has a somewhat harsh unnatural aroma. 2. it lacks the pleasing, mellow, uniformly blended aroma of ripened-cream butter. 3. the aroma lacks permanence.

Churning of cream consists of agitation at a suitable temperature until the fat globules adhere, forming larger and larger masses, and until a relatively complete separation of fat and serum occurs. The object of churning cream is to produce butter, as it is meant for breaking emulsion. Churning cream is relatively easy as compared to whole milk as it contains more fat. Agitation is carried at low temperatures (31-36 0C), for less fat loss in buttermilk.

Factors influencing churnability of cream and body of butter: 1. Chemical composition of fat 2. Size of fat globules 3. Viscosity of cream 4. Temperature of cream at churning 5. Fat percentage of cream 6. Acidity of cream 7. Load of churn 8. Nature of agitation 9. Speed of churn 10.Pre-churning holding period

Operation Preparing the churn: A new churn (especially a wooden one) requires careful pre-treatment before use. An old churn (wooden and metal) requires proper sanitization and cooling, to render it clean.

Filing cream into the churn: The cream should be strained so as to remove lumps and chance objects. The amount then filled should preferably be slightly below the rated capacity.
Addition of butter color: This maintains the uniformity of yellow color in butter throughout the year for consumer satisfaction. The amount varies from 0 to 250 ml or more per 100 kg of butterfat. Annatto and carotene (veg. origin), Yellow AB/OB (mineral origin) are commonly used.

Operation Operating the churn: o After initial rotation for 5-10 mins, gas is removed by opening the churn vent. o After foaming, a stage comes when cream starts breaking away from spy glass which becomes clear & butter granules start appearing. o Sometimes, break water is added at this time to lower the temperature & thereby control the body of the butter. o Churning is continued till butter grains of desired size are obtained.

Factors affecting fat loss in buttermilk: Fat percentage of cream at churning: The lower the fat percentage of cream, the lower the fat percentage of buttermilk, but the greater is the per cent total fat loss in buttermilk, and vice versa. Size of fat globules: The greater the proportion of small sized fat globules (2 micron or less), the greater the fat loss, and vice versa. The small globules escape churning action and pass on to the buttermilk. Acidity of cream at churning: According to Hunziker, sour cream causes a lower fat loss than sweet cream; but according to McDowall, the reverse is true. Physical properties of fat: The softer the fat. the more the fat loss, and vice versa. Conditions of cooling and ageing: Insufficient cooling and ageing (i.e. improper fat crystallization) causes more fat loss, and vice versa.

Factors affecting fat loss in buttermilk: Conditions of churning: Over-loading, gross under-loading and under-churning all cause a greater fat loss.

Draining the buttermilk : When the cream has, been churned, the churn is stopped in the proper position, a drain-plug fixed, and the buttermilk removed through a sieve. Purpose of washing: 1. to remove all loose buttermilk adhering to butter grains so as to reduce the curd content of butter, thereby, improving its keeping quality 2. to correct defects in the firmness of butter by proper adjustment of wash water temperatures to decrease the intensity of certain off-flavors (in case of poor quality cream); etc.


Procedure of washing: After it has been drained, chilled water is added to the butter grains in the churn. The temperature of the water is usually 1-2 0C lower than the churning temperature of cream, and an amount equal to the quantity of buttermilk removed. After a few revolutions, the wash water is drained out. Normally one wash is enough for good quality butter. Quality of wash water: Should be physically clean and bacteriologically and chemically safe. lt is best to use freshly pasteurized and cooled water.

Salting and working

Salting:- This refers to the addition of salt to butter. Objects: 1. to improve keeping quality 2. to enhance taste 3. to increase overrun. Amount and quality: Usually, common salt is added at the rate of 2 to 2.5% of butterfat. The quality of salt should be good and it should be free from any extraneous matter and germs. Excessive salt damages the flavor of butter. Method of salting 1. Dry salting- most common. addition of dry salt (in installments, if required) by sprinkling it over the surface of the butter during working. 2. Wet salting. The calculated amount of salt is wetted in the least amount of potable water and then sprinkled over the butler during working. 3. Brine salting. The-salt is adcled in the form of a saturated soluticrn of brine. Practicable when only light salting is required.

Salting and working

Working:- This refers to the kneading of butter. Objects: 1. to completely dissolve, uniformly distribute and properly incorporate the salt. 2. to expel buttermilk and to control the moisture content of butter. 3. to fully incorporate the added make-up water in butter. 4. to bring the butter grains together into a compact mass fat inconvenient handling and packaging.

During working, the moisture in butter is reduced to droplet of microscopic size, which are mostly sterile.

Salting and working

Procedure The working should be continued until the butter has a compact body, a closelyknit grain, a tough waxy texture and an even distribution of salt and moisture. There should be no free moisture on the trier plug drawn from the butter. Throughout the working process, the temperature should be controlled. Both over-working and under-working are harmful and should be avoided; the former damages the body and texture of butter, while the latter produces leaky butter. Working increases the air-content of butter. Normally-worked butter has an aircontent of 0.5 to 10 ml (average 4.0 ml.) per 100g of butter. The air-content of butter is important because it affects the density of butter its microbial spoilage its oxidative spoilage.

Packaging and storage

Types of packs Bulk or wholesale: in boxes, tubs, casks Retail: 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 g pats; also in collapsible (metal) tubes Packaging materials Wood or timber: White Ash or Spruce, White Pine, Firkin Teakwood, etc. Parchment paper/substitutes: Vegetable parchment paper/butterpaper, cellophane, pliofilm, polythene, etc. Aluminium foil/laminates: Moisture and greaseproof, non-tainting and nontoxic, opaque, air-tight, etc. Tin-plate cans: Advantageous in tropical countries not in preventing melted butter from escaping in hot weather but in preventing absorption of foreign flavor.

Packaging and storage

Storage The temperature of commercial cold storage of butter ranges from -23 0C to -29 0C (-10 0F to -20 0F). Distribution This is usually done from the butter factory to the wholesaler in the original bulk package and to the retailer in wrapped pats in cartons/boxes or tin cans. The temperature during the entire period of distribution should preferably be at -18 0C to -29 0C (0 to 20 0F). It may also be sold in retail trade from a deep freeze refrigerated butter box.

Overrun may be defined as the increase in the amount of butter made from a given amount of fat. It is usually expressed as a percentage. Cause: Overrun is caused by the presence (in addition to that of fat) of moisture, curd, salt, etc. in butter. It is a source of profit to the butter-maker (economical aspect), and also helps to check the efficiency of factory operations ( technical aspect). % OR =
B-F 100 F

where, OR = overrun in butter (usually expressed as a percentage) B = butter made (kg) F = fat in churn (kg)

This is calculated by the formula: Y= where, Y F %OR
F (100 % OR) 100

= yield of butler (kg) = fat content of cream (kg) = percentage overrun in butter (avg=20-22)

Under Indian conditions, assuming the percentage overrun to be 20, Y = F 1.20


Item Flavor Body & Texture Color Salt Package Perfect score 45 30 10 10 5

Table. Score Card of Table Butter



Causes Using acid (sour) cream, Under-neutralization of Cream Over-neutralization of Cream intake of bitter-weeds by milch animals, Lipase activity during (raw) cream separation, Growth proteolytic bacteria in cream Growth of proteolytic bacteria leading to casein breakdown Prevention Using sweet cream, Optimum neutralization of cream Optimum neutralization of cream Eradication of offending Weeds, Checking lipase activity by avoiding the danger zone' (100-120 0F) during raw cream separation, Storage of cream at 5 0C or below to check bacterial growth Storage of cream at 5 0C or below to check bacterial growth

Name of defect Acid/Highacid/sour Alkaline Bitter

Cheesy Cooked

Table.6 Defects In Ice Creams, their Causes, & Prevention Overheating during Proper & controlled heating during pasteurization the same



Causes Prevention

Name of defect Feed and weed

Feeding of milk-tainting feeds and Feeding of milk-tainting feeds and weeds within three hours before weeds soon alter milking, milking Eradication of milk tainting weeds, vacreation High-acid salted butter in the presence of appreciable amounts of copper and/or iron content Unsalted sweet-cream Butter (under commercial cold storage conditions)



Low diacetyl/salt content in butter, Excessive washing of butter

Adequate ripening of cream before churning, Correct salt content in butter, Optimum washing of butter


Fat hydrolysis due to lipase action Inactivating lipase by proper in milk or cream pasteurization of milk/cream
Table. Defects In Table butter, their Causes, & Prevention



Causes Fat oxidization due to direct contact of milk/cream/butter with Cu/Fe, sunlight etc. Cream of poor quality held too long before churning, Butter stored at insufficient low temperatures Using old, yeasty cream for churning Prevention Feeding of milk-tainting feeds and weeds soon alter milking, Eradication of milk tainting weeds, vacreation Avoiding long storage of cream during churning, correct temperature for butter storage. Using fresh, sweet cream for churning

Name of defect Oxidized/oily/m etallic/tallowy



Table. Defects In Table butter, their Causes, & Prevention



Causes Prevention

Name of defect Crumbly

Under working of butter, seasonal controlled cooling, ageing, churning changes in fat composition, & washing temperatures, avoiding sudden chilling after production sudden chilling after production Overworking of butter, Excessively high temperature of wash water Adequate working, correct temperature of wash water



High proportion of high melting point fats

Avoid feed conatining high melting point fats


Under working of butter, Adequate working of butter, Correct excessive churning temperatures, churning temperature of cream, overchurning, incorrect cooling & Optimum churning of butter, Table.8 Defects In Ice Creams, their Causes, & Prevention ageing of cream Correct cooling and ageing of butter, Correct temperature of wash water



Causes Incorrect neutralization of highacid cream with lime, 'Oiling off of fat during butter making Low solids &/or stabilizers, long storage inadequate ageing, slow freezing & hardening, heat shock, Inadequate cooling and ageing of cream, Churning cream at too high a temperature, High proportion of low melting point fats Overworking of (crumbly) Butter Prevention Correct neutralization of high-acid cream with Lime, Avoiding 'oiling off of fat during butter making Optimum solids &/or stabilizers, adequate ageing, rapid freezing & hardening, avoiding heat shocks, short storage Adequate cooling and ageing of cream, Churning cream at optimum Temperature, Adjusting churning conditions Adequate working of Butter

Name of defect Mealy/Grainy




Table.9 Defects In Ice Creams, their Causes, & Prevention


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