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Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.

Model 1: The Five Stage Model Model 2: The PunctuatedEquilibrium Model (Temporary Groups w/Deadlines)

The Five Stage Model


Prestage I Stage I Forming Stage II Storming

Stage III Norming

Stage IV Performing

Stage V Adjourning

Chapter 8

Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity.

Meet for the first time

Execute the plans coming out of the Transition.

Group Member Resources

Group Task

External Conditions

Group Processes

Performance and Satisfaction

Group Structure

Chapter 8

Internal or external discord that results from differences in ideas, values, or feelings between two or more people. Conflict is also created when there are differences in economic and professional values and when there is competition among professionals. Scarce resources, restructuring, and poorly defined role expectations also are frequent sources of conflict in organizations.

Substantive Conflict Occur on just about any issue, but its moving force is that the two parties simply disagree about an issue. Personalized Conflict Fuelled primarily by emotion (usually anger, frustration) and perceptions about someone else's personality, character or motives.

Occurs between 2 or more groups of people, departments, or organizations.

Occurs within the person. Involves an internal struggle to clarify contradictory values or wants.

Also known as Horizontal Violence or Bullying. Happens between 2 or more people with differing values, goals and beliefs.

Latent Conflict (Also called antecedent conditions

Felt Conflict

Perceived Conflict

Manifest Conflict

Conflict Resolution Or Conflict Management

Conflict Aftermath

It implies the existence of antecedent conditions such as short staffing and rapid change. In this stage, conditions are ripe for conflict, although no conflict has actually occurred and none may ever occur. Much unnecessary conflict could be prevented or reduced if managers examined the organization more closely for antecedent conditions.

Perceived/ Substantive
Is intellectualized and often involves issues and roles. The person recognizes it logically and impersonally as occurring. Sometimes, conflict can be resolved at this stage before it is internalized or felt.

Felt
Occurs when conflict is emotionalized. Felt emotions include hostility, fear, mistrust, and anger. Also referred to as Affective Conflict. It is possible to perceive conflict and not feel it. A person can also feel the conflict but not perceive the problem.

Manifest
Also called Overt Conflict. In this stage, action is taken. It may be to withdraw, compete, debate, or seek conflict resolution.

Conflict aftermath
It is the end result of conflict. It is always present and is either positive or negative.

Solution Strategies
Identification Awareness in dealing with conflict Move to Substantive Issues Focus on specific issues. Work to Prevent Personalization Occurs because conflict on substantive issues is handled badly. Good managers coach employees to handle peer-to-peer issues themselves Communications Triangle in most organizations.

Conflict Resolution
Conflict simply stems from differing viewpoints. Since no two people view the world exactly the same way, disagreement is quite normal. The conflict is usually in relation to interests or ideas that are personally meaningful to either one or both of the parties involved. Unmanaged conflict can lead to bad feelings and even violence. The key to managing conflict effectively is to learn the skills necessary to become good at handling conflict.

AREAS WHERE CONFLICT OCCURS


Conflicts in Interpersonal Relationships someone who is normally upbeat and friendly toward you suddenly begins avoiding you or being rude Conflicts in Meetings conflicts are disagreements. Conflicts in Negotiations

Cooperation involves individuals or groups working together for the achievement of their individual or collective goals. In its simplest form, cooperation may involve only two people who work together towards a common goal.

TYPES OF COOPERATION
Direct Cooperation People do like things together play together. Indirect Cooperation People do definitely unlike tasks toward a single end. Primary Cooperation Means and goals become one

TYPES OF COOPERATION
Secondary Cooperation Highly formalized and specialized Tertiary Cooperation The two groups may cooperate and work together for antagonistic goals.

WAYS TO FACILITATE COOPERATION

Focus on doing well. Attempt to do well and trying to beat others are two separate mental processes. It is impossible to concentrate on both. Of the two, cooperating with yourself and others to create a positive outcome has more rewards. Allow ample time. Cooperation comes to a grinding halt as time pressures increase. Time pressures produce non-agreement, decreased information exchanges, and firmer negotiator demands. The perception of available time facilitates cooperation

Use similar language. If someone is hoping you will cooperate with him or her on a particular venture, ask questions using the same works they used to describe the plan originally. Share leadership. Cooperation as a form of leadership, equally shared by all group members. By sharing the leadership, you allow others to take on initiative and to be integral parts of the group. There is an increased sense of "ownership" of plans and ideas by all members, and the work environment is pleasurable.

Learn cooperative problem-solving tools. That these are really creativity tools by another name. Practice reciprocity. When someone helps you out, make it a point to help them. Express your gratitude by helping them before they expect it. A policy of general reciprocity - people helping people facilitates cooperation. This particular technique has been shown empirically (especially in international studies) as one of the few ways to gain an adversary's cooperation.

Share resources and information. When people are vying for knowledge, work space, personnel, or anything to help them get the job done, cooperation decreases. Resource exchange, however, encourages one person to work with another. Reinforce team efforts. Rather than praising one person for a job well done, utilize a team approach to problem solving. When the team does well, the entire group is rewarded. This minimizes individual competition, and maximizes cooperation. Distribute the rewards equally among group members

Act cooperatively. Research supports the fact that individuals who have witnessed a cooperative act will "pass it on," sharing some degree of cooperation with the next person they meet. Anytime you help another person feel better, you have increased the probability that he or she will be cooperative toward you. For your health's sake, experience cooperation. Make it a point to notice how much better you feel when you cooperate with others. As the researchers suggest, once you experience the positive feelings, there seems to be no other way to work except cooperatively.