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Fundamentals of LIMITS, FITS and TOLERANCES

Different types of tolerances are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Dimensional Tolerances Form Tolerances Position Tolerances Surface Roughness values Combination Tolerances

Other details shown on drawing are

Material specification Special treatments if any Heat treatments Assembly condition Special notes
2

0.025 M
35,95

59,45

0.125
0,45

0.025 M 0.015 M A
C0.5(BOTH SIDES)

0.125

0.025 A 0.025 M
0 -1.0

0.05 M
R0,5(TYP) R4 4,15 R5 1,5

0.6(MAX) x 45

DETAIL AT B
0.0 -0.2 0 -0.2 +0.1

SCALE 5:1 REFER FORGING DRAWING NO RD 040660 03 FOR MATERIAL, HARDNESS & OTHER DETAILS

25.25

C1.15

40

95,68

73,5

38.0

+0.016

M
29.2

0.02 M

NOTE : ALL MACHINED SURFACES TO BE FREE FROM RUST AND DENT MARKS

-0.350

26,58

CAD REF . : DN NGT_GSL_RD040669-04

PN : TRANSMISSION TOOLS

0.025 FOR ENGG. REF. AT BOSS FACE FRONT FACE BORE ALLOWANCE 0.15 0.075 0.15 0.075 0.2
48,3

0.030 M

DO NOT SCALE : IF IN DOUBT. REFER DESIGN OFFICE MATERIAL UNSPECIFIED APPD. MACHINING DEVIATION AS NOTED DGNR
LINEAR DIMENSION ANGULAR DIMN. Above Upto Devn. Short side of mm Deg. of min 1 0.5 6 0.1 angle 6 30 0.2 Above Upto 30 120 0.3 10 0.1 10 120 315 0.5 10 50 0.2 30 315 1000 0.8 50 120 0.5 20 1000 2000 1.2 120 0.8 10

BY

SIGN DATE

SIZE - C TO BE USED ON
TOOL NO : XXXX/Y

SCALE 1 :1

PART NAME: FIFTH GEAR - LAYSHAFT TOOL NAME: BLANK DRAWING(TURNED)

SHEET 1 OF 1

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Tolerance: Tolerance is the total permissible variation from the specified basic size of the part. It is defined as the magnitude of permissible variation of a dimension or measured control criterion from specified value. Basic size: The basic size is the size on which variation permitted. Actual size: The size of a feature obtained by measurement

TOL not specified


Follow general engineering tolerance IS 2102 fine, medium, course & very course Unless otherwise specified, it is medium. Or else it can be IT 14 VALUE, bilateral All drawings need contain conditions on general tolerance.
5

1. Open tolerances or General Engineering tolerances Standards used are IS 2102 ( Part 1) 1993 / ISO 2768 - 1 : 1989 General Tolerances Part 1: Tolerances for Linear and Angular dimensions without individual tolerance indications Part 2: Geometrical Tolerances for features without individual tolerance indications Ex: 20.0, 20-f, 20-f H

Table 1 Permissible deviations for linear dimensions except for broken edges (external radii and chamfer heights, see table 2) Values in millimeters Permissible deviations for basic size range Tolerance Class 0.5 up to 3 0,05 0,1 0,2 Over 3 up to 6 0,05 0,1 0,3 0,5 Over 6 up to 30 0,1 0,2 0,5 1 Over 30 up to 120 0,15 0,3 0,8 1,5 Over 120 up to 400 0,2 0,5 1,2 2,5 Over 400 up to 1000 0,3 0,8 2 4 Over 1000 up to 2000 0,5 1,2 3 6 Over 2000 up to 4000 2 4 8

Desig Descripti nation on f m c v fine medium coarse very coarse

1) For nominal sizes below 0,5 mm, the deviations shall be indicated adjacent to the relevant nominal size (s). 7

Table 2 Permissible deviations for broken edges ( external radii and chamfer heights) Values in millimeters Permissible deviations for basic size range

Tolerance Class

Designation Descriptio n
f m c v fine medium coarse very coarse

0.5 up to 3
0,2

Over 3 up over 6 to6


0,5 1

0,4

0,1

1) For nominal sizes below 0.5 mm, the deviations shall be indicated adjacent to the relevant nominal size(s).

Table 3 Permissible deviations of angular dimensions Permissible deviations for ranges of lengths, in millimeters, of the shorter side of the angle concerned over 10 up to 50 00 30 10 20 over 50 up to 120 00 20 00 30 10 over 120 up to 400 00 10 00 15 00 30 over 400 00 5 00 10 00 20

Tolerance Class

Desig Descript up to 10 nation ion F m c v fine medium coarse very coarse 10 30 30 10

Table 1 General tolerances on straightness and flatness


Values in millimeters

Straightness and flatness tolerances for ranges of nominal lengths

Tolerance Class up to 10 over 10 up to 30 over 30 up to 100 over 100 up to 300 over 300 up to 1000 Over 1000 up to 3000

0,02

0,05

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,05

0,1

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

0,1

0,2

0,4

0,8

1,2

1,6

10

Table-2 General tolerances on perpendicularity


Values in millimeters

Perpendicularity tolerances for ranges of nominal lengths of the shorter side Tolerance Class up to 100 over 100 up to 300 over 300 up to 1000 over 1000 up to 3000

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,4

0,6

0,8

0,6

1,5

11

Table-3 General tolerances on symmetry Values in millimeters

Symmetry tolerances for ranges of nominal lengths Tolerance Class up to 100 over 100 up to 300 over 300 up to 1000 over 1000 up to 3000

0,5

0,6

0,8

0,6

1,5

12

Table 4 General tolerances on circular run-out Values in mm

Tolerance class H K

Circular run-out tolerances 0,1 0,2

0,5

13

IS 2102 PART 2
VALUES FOR Straightness / perpendicularity / symmetry / Run out specified Circularity - limited to diameter tolerance or run out value Cylindricity Limited to combined effect of CIRCULARITY& PARALLELISM. Parallelism Limited to Dimensional Tolerance & flatness tolerance. Coaxiality - Limited to run out tolerance.
14

ISO 2768 - m General Engg. Tole Tolerance class medium

IS 2102 f General Engg. Tole class fine

15

ISO 2768 mK
General Engg. Tole for dimensions Tolerance class. m General Engg. Tole for form / position tolerance class. K

16

ISO 2768 - K
General tol. as dim not considered. Form/position as per tol. Class K.

17

SPECIFIED TOLERANCE
VALUE GIVEN VALUE AND POSISTIONAL STATUS GIVEN STD.SYMBOLS USED.

18

2. Specificied tolerances Standards used IS 919 (Part 1) 1993 / ISO 286 1 : 1988 ISO System of Limits and Fits
Part 1: Bases of tolerances, Deviations and Fits Part 2: Tables of standard tolerance Grades and limit Deviations for Holes and shaft. Example : 20H7, 20g6, 30 + 0.02 Specific tolerance should be less than open tolerance
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STANDARD SPECIFICATION Need contain


HOW MUCH IS THE VALUE OF TOL. WHERE IT IS DISPOSED.

20

HOW MUCH IS THE VALUE


IS 919 / SP46 OR STD CHARTS SPECIFY. 18 GRADES ARE SPECIFIED. VALUE IS ATTACHED TO A GRADE IT=INTERNATIONALTOLERANCE GRADE. AND 18 REPRESENT THE ROUGHFEST Mfg process EVERY MANUFACTURING PROCESS IS ATTRIBUTED WITH A RANGE OF ACCURACY GRADE
21

HOW MUCH IS THE VALUE


FOR EX; TURNING IT7, 8 OR 9 GRINDING IT 5, OR 7 MILLING IT 6, 7, OR 8 LAPPING IT 1, 2, 3, OR 4 SAND CASTING IT 16, 17, 18 PRESS WORKING IT 10, 11 OR 12 INJ. MOULDING IT 12. 123 OR 14
22

Grades of tolerances obtainable manufacturing processes

by

various

According to IS 18 grades of tolerances or accuracy grades of manufacturing IT1, IT2, IT3.IT18

IT GRADE is generally indicated by numbers from 1 to 18

23

Manufacturing Processes

IT grades

Lapping Honing

1, 2, 3, 4 35

Laser beam machining

5, 6, 7

Super finishing Grinding

46 48
24

Electric Discharge machining Boring Reaming Broaching Turning (Diamond tools) Turning Milling Shaping

67 59 58 59 47 7 12 8 10 10 14
25

Drilling Extrusion Blanking

11 14 9 12 12 18

Drawing
Die Casting Sand casting

10 14
12 15 14 16
26

HOW MUCH IS THE VALUE.


EVERY DIM. ALONG WITH A GRADE RECEIVE A TOL. VALUE. FOR EX. DIM 40 & GRADE 8, TOL= ? STD. FORMULA APPLIES TO THIS VALUE FOR CONVENIENCE, DIMES. ARE GROUPED. 0 TO 3; 3 TO 6; 6 TO 10 etc. SAME VALUE OF TOL. VALID FOR A DIA GROUP WITH ONE GRADE.
27

Table 1 Numerical values of standard tolerance grades IT for basic sizes up to 3 150 mm
Basic size mm
Up to and including

Standard tolerance grades


IT1
2)

IT2

2)

IT3

2)

IT4

2)

IT5

2)

IT6

IT7

IT8

IT9

IT10

IT11

IT12

IT13

IT143)

IT153)

IT163)

IT173)

IT183)

Above

Tolerances m mm

3 6 10 18 30 50 80 120 180 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500

0,8 1 1 1,2 1,5 1,5 2 2,5 3,5 4,5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 15 18 22 26

1,2 1,5 1,5 2 2,5 2,5 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 13 15 18 21 25 30 36

2 2,5 2,5 3 4 4 5 6 8 10 12 13 15 16 18 21 24 29 35 41 50

3 4 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 33 39 46 55 68

4 5 6 8 9 11 13 15 18 20 23 25 27 32 36 40 47 55 65 78 96

6 8 9 11 13 16 19 22 25 29 32 36 40 44 50 56 66 78 92 110 135

10 12 15 18 21 25 30 35 40 46 52 57 63 70 80 90 105 125 150 175 210

14 18 22 27 33 39 46 54 63 72 81 89 97 110 125 140 165 195 230 280 330

25 30 36 43 52 62 74 87 100 115 130 140 155 175 200 230 260 310 370 440 540

40 48 58 70 84 100 120 140 160 185 210 230 250 180 320 360 420 500 600 700 860

60 75 90 110 130 160 190 220 250 290 320 360 400 440 500 560 660 780 920 1100 1350

0,1 0,12 0,15 0,18 0,21 0,25 0,3 0,35 0,4 0,46 0,52 0,57 0,63 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,05 1,25 1,5 1,75 2,1

0,14 0,18 0,22 0,27 0,33 0,39 0,46 0,54 0,63 0,72 0,81 0,89 0,97 1,1 1,25 1,4 1,65 1,95 2,3 2,8 3,3

0,25 0,3 0,36 0,43 0,52 0,62 0,74 0,87 1 1,15 1,3 1,4 1,55 1,75 2 2,3 2,6 3,1 3,7 4,4 5,4

0,4 0,48 0,58 0,7 0,84 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,85 2,1 2,3 2,5 2,8 3,2 3,6 4,2 5 6 7 8,6

0,6 0,75 0,9 1,1 1,3 1,6 1,9 2,2 2,5 2,9 3,2 3,6 4 4,4 5 5,6 6,6 7,8 9,2 11 13,5

1 1,2 1,5 1,8 2,1 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,6 5,2 5,7 6,3 7 8 9 10,5 12,5 15 17,5 21

1,4 1,8 2,2 2,7 3,3 3,9 4,6 5,4 6,3 7,2 8,1 8,9 9,7 11 12,5 14 16,5 19,5 23 28 33

6 10 18 30 50 80 120 180 250 315 400 500 630 800


2 2 2 2 2

1000 1250 1600 2500 3150

20002
2 2

1) Values for standard tolerance grades IT01 and IT0 for basic sizes less than or equal to 500 mm are given in ISO 286 1, annex A,28 table 5. 2) Values for standard tolerance grades IT1 to IT5 (incl.) for basic sizes over 500 mm are included for experimental use. 3) Standard tolerance grades IT14 to IT18 (incl.) shall not be used for basic sizes less than or equal to 1 mm.

Table 1 Numerical values of standard tolerance grades IT for basic sizes up to 3 150 mm
Basic size mm
Up to and including

Standard tolerance grades


IT12) IT22) IT32) IT42) IT52) IT6 Tolerances m IT7 IT8 IT9 IT10 IT11

Above

3 6 10 18 30 50 80 120 180 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500

0,8 1 1 1,2 1,5 1,5 2 2,5 3,5 4,5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 15 18 22 26

1,2 1,5 1,5 2 2,5 2,5 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 13 15 18 21 25 30 36

2 2,5 2,5 3 4 4 5 6 8 10 12 13 15 16 18 21 24 29 35 41 50

3 4 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 33 39 46 55 68

4 5 6 8 9 11 13 15 18 20 23 25 27 32 36 40 47 55 65 78 96

6 8 9 11 13 16 19 22 25 29 32 36 40 44 50 56 66 78 92 110 135

10 12 15 18 21 25 30 35 40 46 52 57 63 70 80 90 105 125 150 175 210

14 18 22 27 33 39 46 54 63 72 81 89 97 110 125 140 165 195 230 280 330

25 30 36 43 52 62 74 87 100 115 130 140 155 175 200 230 260 310 370 440 540

40 48 58 70 84 100 120 140 160 185 210 230 250 180 320 360 420 500 600 700 860

60 75 90 110 130 160 190 220 250 290 320 360 400 440 500 560 660 780 920 1100 1350

6 10 18 30 50 80 120 180 250 315 400 500 630 800


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150

1) Values for standard tolerance grades IT01 and IT0 for basic sizes less than or equal to 500 mm are given in ISO 286 1, annex A, table 5. 2) Values for standard tolerance grades IT1 to IT5 (incl.) for basic sizes over 500 mm are included for experimental use. 29 3) Standard tolerance grades IT14 to IT18 (incl.) shall not be used for basic sizes less than or equal to 1 mm.

Table 1 Numerical values of standard tolerance grades IT for basic sizes up to 3 150 mm
Basic size mm
Up to and including

Standard tolerance grades


IT12 IT13 IT14
3)

IT153) Tolerances

IT163)

IT173)

IT183)

Above

mm

3 6 10 18 30 50 80 120 180 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500

33 6 10 18 30 50 80 120 180 250 315 400 500 630


2

0,1 0,12 0,15 0,18 0,21 0,25 0,3 0,35 0,4 0,46 0,52 0,57 0,63 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,05 1,25 1,5 1,75 2,1

0,14 0,18 0,22 0,27 0,33 0,39 0,46 0,54 0,63 0,72 0,81 0,89 0,97 1,1 1,25 1,4 1,65 1,95 2,3 2,8 3,3

0,25 0,3 0,36 0,43 0,52 0,62 0,74 0,87 1 1,15 1,3 1,4 1,55 1,75 2 2,3 2,6 3,1 3,7 4,4 5,4

0,4 0,48 0,58 0,7 0,84 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,85 2,1 2,3 2,5 2,8 3,2 3,6 4,2 5 6 7 8,6

0,6 0,75 0,9 1,1 1,3 1,6 1,9 2,2 2,5 2,9 3,2 3,6 4 4,4 5 5,6 6,6 7,8 9,2 11 13,5

1 1,2 1,5 1,8 2,1 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,6 5,2 5,7 6,3 7 8 9 10,5 12,5 15 17,5 21

1,4 1,8 2,2 2,7 3,3 3,9 4,6 5,4 6,3 7,2 8,1 8,9 9,7 11 12,5 14 16,5 19,5 23 28 33

8002 10002 12502 16002 20002 2500


2

31502

1) Values for standard tolerance grades IT01 and IT0 for basic sizes less than or equal to 500 mm are given in ISO 286 1, annex A, table 5. 2) Values for standard tolerance grades IT1 to IT5 (incl.) for basic sizes over 500 mm are included for experimental use. 3) Standard tolerance grades IT14 to IT18 (incl.) shall not be used for basic sizes less than or equal to 1 mm.

30

HOW MUCH IS THE VALUE


60% INCREASE IN TOL. VALUE FOR EVERY GRADE UP FOR A DIA GROUP EVERY 6TH GRADE GETS 100% MORE TOL VALUE

31

WHERE TO DISPOSE TOLE.


TOL. CAN BE DISPOSED ABOVE BASIC DIM. BELOW BASIC DIM DISTRIBUTED ON EITHER SIDE

32

WHERE TO POSITION
POSITIONING IS REPRESENTED BY CAPITAL LETTERS FOR HOLES A,B,H BY SMALL LETTERS FOR SHAFTS a,b,h STD DISTANCES ARE KEPT EACH LETTER & FOR EACH DIA GROUP FROM BASIC DIM. THE DISTANCE TO THE BASIC DIM WITH LEAST VALUE IS TERMED AS FUNDEMENTAL DEVIASION; FD IS FIXED FOR A DIA-DIM COMBINATION.
33

34

35

Schematic representation of the positions of fundamental deviations


36

37

FITS When two parts to be assembled, the relation resulting from the difference between the size before assembly is called a fit. A fit is represented by 30 H 7 / g6, 30 H 7 / p6, 40 H7k6, 40 H7p6,

40 H7/h6,

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

MMC, LMC & RFS


MMC - Dimension corresponding to Maximum Metal Condition (biggest shaft size or smallest hole size) LMC - Dimension corresponding to Least Metal Condition (smallest shaft or biggest hole size) RFS - Regardless of feature size
47

Actual Dimension vary from MMC limit to LMC limit Worst assembly condition exist when mating parts at MMC Functional assembly requirements can be related to actual dimension by symbol M in the drawing

48

Thank You

49

Exercises: 1.Number of Fundamental Deviations as per the latest standard?

50

Exercises: 1.Number of Fundamental Deviations as per latest standards? 28 (including cd,ef&fg)

2.The standard applicable for unspecified dimensional tolerances in IS is?

51

2.The standard applicable for unspecified tolerances in IS is? IS:2102


3.The fundamental deviation for H7 is

52

3.The fundamental deviation for H7 is zero. 4. H7 / p6 is fit

53

4. H7 / p6 is interference fit.
5. H7 / g6 is . Fit.

54

5. H7 / g6 is clearance Fit.
6. H7 / m6 is . Fit.

55

6. H7 / m6 is transition Fit.
7. F7 / h6 is . Fit.

56

7. F7 / f6 is clearance Fit.
8. The difference between Upper Specification Limit & Lower Specification Limit of a drawing dimension is known as ..

57

8. The difference between Upper Specification Limit & Lower Specification Limit of a drawing dimension is known as Tolerance. 9.The reference temperature for measurement is . Deg C.

58

9.The reference temperature for measurement is 20 Deg C.


10. All male feature dimensions are represented by . Letters.

59

10. All male feature dimensions are represented by small letters.

60