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Artificial Lift Methods

GAS LIFT SUCKER ROD PUMP ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMP OTHERS

PENDAHULUAN (1)
Pwh Psep Psep Pwh

Pwf<Psep+dPf+dPt Flowing Well Pwf=Psep+dPf+dPt No - Flow Well

Pwf

Pwf
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PENDAHULUAN (2)
Untuk mengangkat fluida sumur:
Menurunkan gradien aliran dalam tubing Memberikan energy tambahan di dalam sumur untuk mendorong fluida sumur ke permukaan
Psep Pwh

Gradien ?

No - Flow Well

Energy ?

Pwf
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PENDAHULUAN (3)

Figure 1

Gas Lift Well

ESP Well

Sucker Rod Pump Well


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PENDAHULUAN GAS LIFT (1)


Persamaan Umum Pressure Loss
Psep Pwh

Pengurangan gradien aliran dengan menurunkan densitas fluida

Pwf
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PENDAHULUAN GAS LIFT (2)


N Re

vd
Gradient Friksi

Gradient Elevasi Densitas Campuran

?
Gradient Akselerasi

PENDAHULUAN GAS LIFT (3)


Pwf<Psep+dPf+dPt Psep Pwh

Pwf>Psep+(dPf+dPt) Berkurang Pwf


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GAS LIFT (1)


Gas lift technology increases oil production rate by injection of compressed gas into the lower section of tubing through the casingtubing annulus and an orifice installed in the tubing string. Upon entering the tubing, the compressed gas affects liquid flow in two ways: (a) the energy of expansion propels (pushes) the oil to the surface and (b) the gas aerates the oil so that the effective density of the fluid is less and, thus, easier to get to the surface.
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SURFACE COMPONENTS

SUB-SURFACE COMPONENTS

RESERVOIR COMPONENTS
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Detail Gas Lift Surface Operation

Res. Fluid + Inj. Gas

Injected Gas

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Sistem Sumur Gas Lift


Flow Line Gas Injection Line Wellhead Subsystem : Production subsystem wellhead production choke pressure gauge Injection subsystem injection choke Unloading Gas Lift Mandrells

Separator

Compressor Subsystem intake system outlet system choke pressure gauge injection rate metering

Separator Subsystem: separator manifold pressure gauges flow metering

Gas Injection Valve Valve Subsystem

Pt

Pc

Wellbore Subsystem: perforation interval tubing shoe packer

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Compressor Sub-System
Horse Power Compressor

Pintake

Pdischarge
DPgas

Pinjection@wellhead Wellhead

Qgas

Qgas

Pinjection@wellhead=Pdischarge - DP

Separator

Compressor

Wellhead

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Wellhead Sub-System
Surface Injection Pressure Production Choke

Injection Choke

Wellhead Pressure

Production Fluid
Gas Injection

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Gas Lift Valve Sub-System

Gas Injeksi

Pc
Pc = Pt Pt Fluida Produksi

Pt

Pc

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Gas Lift Valve

Gas Injection

Tubing Pressure

Close condition

Open condition

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Kriteria Operasi Sumur Gas Lift


There are four categories of wells in which a gas lift can be considered: High productivity index (PI), high bottom-hole pressure wells High PI, low bottom-hole pressure wells Low PI, high bottom-hole pressure wells Low PI, low bottom-hole pressure wells
Wells having a PI of 0.50 or less are classified as low productivity wells. Wells having a PI greater than 0.50 are classified as high productivity wells. High bottom-hole pressures will support a fluid column equal to 70% of the well depth. Low bottom-hole pressures will support a fluid column less than 40% of the well depth.
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2 Types of Gas Lift Operation


Continuous Gas Lift
A continuous gas lift operation is a steady-state flow of the aerated fluid from the bottom (or near bottom) of the well to the surface. Continuous gas lift method is used in wells with a high PI (0:5 stb=day=psi) and a reasonably high reservoir pressure relative to well depth.

Intermittent Gas Lift


Intermittent gas lift operation is characterized by a start-and-stop flow from the bottom (or near bottom) of the well to the surface. This is unsteady state flow. Intermittent gas lift method is suitable to wells with (1) high PI and low reservoir pressure or (2) low PI and low reservoir pressure.

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Materi Perencanaan Sumur Gas Lift


This chapter covers basic system engineering design fundamentals for gas lift operations. Relevant topics include the following: 1. Liquid flow analysis for evaluation of gas lift potential 2. Gas flow analysis for determination of lift gas compression requirements 3. Unloading process analysis for spacing subsurface valves 4. Valve characteristics analysis for subsurface valve selection 5. Installation design for continuous and intermittent lift 19

Evaluation of Gas Lift Potential


Evaluation of gas lift potential requires system analyses to determine well operating points for various lift gas availabilities. The principle is based on the fact that there is only one pressure at a given point (node) in any system; no matter, the pressure is estimated based on the information from upstream (inflow) or downstream (outflow). The node of analysis is usually chosen to be the gas injection point inside the tubing, although bottom hole is often used as a solution node.

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Gas Injection Rates


Four gas injection rates are significant in the operation of gas lift installations:
1. Injection rates of gas that result in no liquid (oil or water) flow up the tubing. The gas amount is insufficient to lift the liquid. If the gas enters the tubing at an extremely low rate, it will rise to the surface in small semi-spheres (bubbly flow). 2. Injection rates of maximum efficiency where a minimum volume of gas is required to lift a given amount of liquid. 3. Injection rate for maximum liquid flow rate at the optimum GLR. 21

THE GAS IS INJECTED CONTINUOUSLY TO ANNULUS

CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT

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Continuous Gas Lift Operation


The tubing is filled with reservoir fluid below the injection point and with the mixture of reservoir fluid and injected gas above the injection point. The pressure relationship is shown in Fig. 13.4.

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Gas Lift Operation Pressure vs Depth

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Parameter Design
Jumlah gas injeksi yang tersedia Jumlah gas injeksi yang dibutuhkan Tekanan Gas Injeksi yang dibutuhkan di setiap sumur Tekanan Kompresor yang dibutuhkan

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GAS LIFT PERFORMANCE CURVE

GAS INJEKSI YANG DIPERLUKAN

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Unlimited amount of lift gas

Availability amount of Gas Injection


Limited amount of gas
If only a limited amount of gas is available for the gas lift, the gas should be distributed to individual wells based on predicted well lifting performance, that is, the wells that will produce oil at higher rates at a given amount of lift gas are preferably chosen to receive more lift gas.
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In a field-scale valuation, if an unlimited amount of lift gas is available for a given gas lift project, the injection rate of gas to individual wells should be optimized to maximize oil production of each well.

Kebutuhan Gas Injeksi (1)


Nodal Analysis:
2500 2000
Tekanan Alir Dasar Sumur, psi

1500

IPR Curve Tubing Performance Curve GLR formasi


IPR 200 scf/stb 400 scf/stb

1000

Variasi GLR
GLR-total (assume) Q g-inj = Qtotal Qq-f
400 600 800 1000

500

600 scf/stb 800 scf/stb 1000 scf/stb 1200 scf/stb

0 0 200 Laju Produk si, stb/d

Plot Q g-inj vs Qliquid

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Kebutuhan Gas Injeksi (2)


700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Perbandingan Gas-Cairan, scf/stb

Q g-inj >> maka Qliq >> Pertambahan Qliq makin kecil dengan makin meningkatnya Q g-inj Sampai suatu saat dengan pertambahan Q g-inj, Qliq berkurang Titik puncak dimana Qliq maksimum disebut sebagai Qoptimum
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Laju Produksi, stb

Unlimited Gas Injection Case


If an unlimited amount of gas lift gas is available for a well, the well should receive a lift gas injection rate that yields the optimum GLR in the tubing so that the flowing bottom-hole pressure is minimized, and thus, oil production is maximized. The optimum GLR is liquid flow rate dependent and can be found from traditional gradient curves such as those generated by Gilbert (Gilbert, 1954).
700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Perbandingan Gas-Cairan, scf/stb

Laju Produksi, stb

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Unlimited Gas Injection Case


After the system analysis is completed with the optimum GLRs in the tubing above the injection point, the expected liquid production rate (well potential) is known. The required injection GLR to the well can be calculated by
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Limited amount of gas injection


If a limited amount of gas lift gas is available for a well, the well potential should be estimated based on GLR expressed as
700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Perbandingan Gas-Cairan, scf/stb

Laju Produksi, stb

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Gas Flow Rate Requirement


The total gas flow rate of the compression station should be designed on the basis of gas lift at peak operating condition for all the wells with a safety factor for system leak consideration, that is,
where qg = total output gas flow rate of the compression station, scf/day Sf = safety factor, 1.05 or higher Nw = number of wells
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POINT OF INJECTION

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Output Gas Pressure Requirement (1)


Kickoff of a dead well (non-natural flowing) requires much higher compressor output pressures than the ultimate goal of steady production (either by continuous gas lift or by intermittent gas lift operations).Mobil compressor trailers are used for the kickoff operations.
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Output Gas Pressure Requirement (2)


Horse Power Compressor

Pintake

Pdischarge
DPgas

Pinjection@wellhead Wellhead

Qgas

Qgas

Pinjection@wellhead=Pdischarge - DP

Separator

Compressor

Wellhead

The output pressure of the compression station should be designed on the basis of the gas distribution pressure under normal flow conditions, not the kickoff conditions. It can be expressed as Sf Pout PL
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COMPRESSOR

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Output Gas Pressure Requirement (3)


The injection pressure at valve depth in the casing side can be expressed as:

Pc,v Pt ,v DPv
It is a common practice to use Dpv = 100 psi. The required size of the orifice can be determined using the choke-flow equations presented in Subsection 13.4.2.3

Gas Injeksi P
c

Pc Pc = Pt Pt Fluida Produksi

Pt

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Tekanan Tubing @ Valve Gas Lift

Pwf

Dp @ tubing

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Output Gas Pressure Requirement (4)


Accurate determination of the surface injection pressure pc,s requires rigorous methods such as the Cullender and Smith method (Katz et al., 1959). However, because of the large crosssectional area of the annular space, the frictional pressure losses are often negligible. Then the average temperature and compressibility factor model degenerates to (Economides et al., 1994) Surface Injection Pressure Production Choke

Injection Choke

Wellhead Pressure

Production Fluid Gas Injection


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Up-Stream Choke / Injection Choke


Surface Injection Pressure Production Choke The pressure upstream of the injection choke depends on flow condition at the choke, that is, sonic or subsonic flow. Whether a sonic flow exists depends on a downstream-toupstream pressure ratio. If this pressure ratio is less than a critical pressure ratio, sonic (critical) flow exists. If this pressure ratio is greater than or equal to the critical pressure ratio, subsonic (subcritical) flow exists. The critical pressure ratio through chokes is expressed as

Injection Choke

Wellhead Pressure

Production Fluid Gas Injection

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Gas Lift Injection Parameters


Compressor Pressure

Pwf

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Point of Injection

Pc,v Pvf DPv

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Point of Balanced

Pc,v Pvf DPv

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Unloading Process Gas Lift Wells

UNLOADING VALVES DESIGN

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Persiapan Operasi Sumur Gas Lift

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TAHAP O
Choke Tutup Permukaan Killing fluid Valve 1 : Terbuka No flow

Valve 2 : Terbuka

Valve 3 : Terbuka

Valve 4 : Terbuka

Katup Unloading sudah dipasang. Sumur masih diisi killing fluid Fluida produksi masih belum mengalir ke dalam tubing

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Tahap I

No flow Permukaan Killing fluid Valve 1 : Terbuka

Valve 2 : Terbuka

Valve 3 : Terbuka

Valve 4 : Terbuka

Pada Gambar 1 ditunjukkan penampang sumur yang siap dilakukan proses pengosongan (unloading). Pada tubing telah dipasang empat katup, yang terdiri dari 3 katup, yaitu katup (1), (2) dan (3), yang akan berfungsi sebagai katup unloading. Sedangkan katup (4) akan berfungsi sebagai katup operasi. Sebelum dilakukan injeksi semua katup dalam keadaan terbuka. Sumur berisi cairan work-over, ditunjukkan dengan warna biru, dan puncak cairan berada diatas katup unloading (1). Gas mulai diinjeksikan, maka gas akan menekan permukaan cairan work over kebawah, dan penurunan permukaan cairan ini akan mencapai katup unloading (1). Pada saat ini gas akan mengalir dalam tubing melalui katup (1) yang terbuka.

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Tahap II
Pada Gambar 2 gas injeksi mendorong permukaan cairan work-over, dan telah melampaui katup unloading (1) dan mencapai katup unloading (2). Pada saat ini katup unloading (1) tertutup dan gas injeksi mendorong permukaan cairan kebawah. Bagian bawah tubing yang semula berisi cairan work-over ditempati oleh fluida formasi. Pada saat ini gas akan masuk kedalam tubing, melalui katup unloading (2) yang terbuka. Dengan masuknya gas injeksi tersebut kedalam tubing maka kolom cairan dalam tubing akan lebih ringan dan aliran cairan work over ke permukaan akan berlanjut.

Valve 1 : Tertutup Permukaan Killing fluid

Valve 2 : Terbuka Valve 3 : Terbuka

Permukaan Fluida Res.

Valve 4 : Terbuka

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Tahap III
Pada Gambar 3 gas injeksi mendorong permukaan cairan work-over, sampai melampaui katup unloading (1), (2) dan (3). Setiap saat permukaan kolom cairan workover mencapai katup unloading, maka gas injeksi akan mengalir masuk kedalam tubing dan aliran cairan work-over dalam tubing akan tetap berlangsung. Jika per-mukaan kolom cairan work-over mencapai katup unlaoding (3), maka katup unloading (2) akan tertutup, dan gas injeksi akan masuk melalui katup unloading (3). Selama ini pula permukaan cairan formasi akan bergerak ke permukaan. Pada saat cairan work-over mencapai katup terakhir, yaitu katup operasi (4), maka katup unloading (3) akan tertutup dan seluruh cairan work-over telah terangkat semua ke permukaan, dan hanya katup operasi yang terbuka.

Valve 1 : Tertutup Permukaan Fluida Res. Valve 2 : Tertutup

Valve 3 : Tertutup

Permukaan Killing fluid

Valve 4 : Terbuka

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TAHAP IV

Fluida Produksi

Valve 1 : Tertutup Valve 2 : Tertutup Valve 3 : Tertutup

Valve 4 : Terbuka

Pada Gambar 4 ditunjukkan bahwa semua cairan work-over telah terangkat dan sumur berproduksi secara sembur buatan. Katup operasi (4) akan tetap terbuka, sebagai jalan masuk gas injeksi kedalam tubing. Katup ini diharapkan dapat bekerja dalam waktu yang lama. Dimasa mendatang akan terjadi perubahan perbandingan gas-cairan dari formasi, yang cenderung menurun serta peningkatan produksi air, maka jumlah gas injeksi dapat ditingkatkan dan diharapkan katup injeksi dapat menampung peningkatan laju injeksi gas tersebut. Dengan demikian pemilihan ukuran katup injeksi perlu direncanakan dengan baik.

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UNLOADING VALVES DESIGN

gas lift Valve gas lift Valve Mechanics

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Gas Lift Valve

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Gas Lift Valve

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Contoh Penampang Sumur Gas Lift

Gas Lift Mandrell Gas Lift Valves

Gas Lift Valves: Mandrell + Dummy Valves Mandrell + Valves Valves Operating Conditions: Casing pressure Test Rack Opening Pressure Port Size Temperature @ Lab. Jenis Valves

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Gas Lift Valve

Gas Injeksi

Pc
Pc = Pt Pt Fluida Produksi

Pt

Pc

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Penampang Gas Lift Valve

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Jenis Gas Lift Valves

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Gas Lift Valve

Gas Injection

Tubing Pressure

Close condition

Open condition

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