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SDH Networking and Protection

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Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

Describe the common SDH network topology and features Explain the protection mechanism

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Page1

Contents
1. SDH Network Topologies 2. Survivable networks and their protection mechanisms

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Page2

Contents
1. SDH Network Topologies
1.1 Optical networking introduction 1.2 Classification of topologies 1.3 Sub-networks

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Page3

Optical Networking Introduction

An SDH network consists of Network Elements (NE) interconnected with optical fiber.

The geometrical layout of the NEs and optical transmission lines is called the network topology.

The efficiency, reliability and the cost performance of a network highly depend on its topology.

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Page4

Classification of Topologies

Chain Star Tree Ring

Mesh

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Page5

Classification of Topologies (Cont.)

Chain network (Point-to-point or point-to-multi-point network)

In a chain network, all nodes are connected one after another on a line with both ends open.

NE A

NE B

NE C

NE D

Chain network is used when the networks nodes are arranged in a long line. e. g. along railway lines, highways, power supply lines, etc.
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Classification of Topologies (Cont.)

Star network

In a star network there is a central node to which the other nodes are directly connected. There are no direct links between other nodes.
NE B NE E

NE C

NE A

NE D

Star network is mainly used in access networks or rural telephone networks in which nodes are scattered here and there and the traffics are not important.
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Classification of Topologies (Cont.)

Tree network

A tree network can be considered as a combination of the chain and star topologies.
NE A

NE B
NE C NE D

NE E

Tree network is mostly used for broadcasted services like CATV.

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Page8

Classification of Topologies (Cont.)

Ring network

Ring network is such a structure in which all nodes are connected one after another to form a circle. NE A
NE B NE E

NE C

NE D

Ring network is widely used in SDH networking due to its high

survivability.
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Classification of Topologies (Cont.)

Mesh network

Mesh network is such a structure in which many nodes are interconnected together via direct links.
NE A NE B NE E

NE C

NE D

Mesh network is suitable for the regions with large amount of


traffic and for high hierarchy communication networks.
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Classification of Topologies (Cont.)

Other possible combination networks

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Page11

Sub-network

Sub-network

In backbone networks or large region networks, there are a large number of NEs and links. In order to simplify the network management, a large network can be divided into several subnetworks according to the administrative regions.

A sub-network functions as a container. It can include NEs,

links and even lower level sub-networks.

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Page12

Sub-network (Cont.)
Subnet

Sub-network A

Sub-network D

Sub-network B

Sub-network C
Page13

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Contents
1. SDH Network Topologies 2. Survivable networks and their protection mechanisms

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page14

Contents
2. Survivable networks and their protection mechanisms
2.1 Survivable networks introduction 2.2 Types of protection

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Page15

Survivable Networks Introduction

Causes of network failures

Accidents: Cable/fiber cuts Human errors: Incorrect maintenance, installation, Environmental hazards: Floods, fire, Sabotages: Physical, electronic, Operational disruptions: Schedule upgrade, maintenance, power outage,

Hardware/software failures: Line unit failure, faulty laser, software crash

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Page16

Survivable Networks Introduction (Cont.)


Survivable networks can restore traffic in the event of a failure Requirements for survivability of network includes

Robust equipment (Strong cross-connect capability, intelligent nodes) Security (Physical, electronic) Design networks with enough resource Redundant routes as standby routes Fast failure detection and fast traffic rerouting to redundant routes No human intervention

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Page17

Types of Protection

Line
1+1 linear MS M:N linear MS

Ring
Multiplex section protection (MSP)
2-fiber bidirectional MSP Ring (2f-MS SPRing) 2-fiber unidirectional MSP Ring (2f-MS SPRing)

4-fiber bidirectional MSP Ring (4f-MS SPRing)


Path protectionPP 2-fiber unidirectional Path Protection Ring

Node

2-fiber bidirectional Path Protection Ring Sub-network connection protection (SNCP)

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Page18

Line Protection

Use in point-to-point or chain networks Switch is within two interconnected nodes


Working Channels

NE A

NE B

NE C

NE D

Protection Channels

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Page19

Linear 1+1 MS

Traffic source node sends the traffic on both working and protection

channels (Concurrent sending).

Traffic sink node receives the traffic from working channel (Selective receiving).

When the working channel fails, traffic sink node switches to receive the traffic from protection channel

NE A

NE B

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Page20

Linear 1+1 MS (Cont.)


Switching Modes
Single-ended (Unidirectional) Dual-ended (Bidirectional)

Restoration Modes
Revertive (WTR Default: 600 sec) Non-revertive

Automatic Protection Switch (APS) protocol is not required

when Single-ended and Non-revertive are selected.

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Page21

Linear M:N MS
M Protection channels N Working channels
Switching

NE A

Switching

Switching

NE B

Switching

Protection Channel

Working Channel 1

Working Channel 2

Working Channel N
Extra traffic Normal traffic
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Linear M:N MS (Cont.)

Switching mode:

Bidirectional switching

Restoration mode:

Revertible mode

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Page23

Line Protection

Line protection types

Linear 1+1 MS Linear M:N (M=1)

Protection switch criteria:

Signal Fail (SF): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC. Signal Degrade (SD): B2_SD. Externally initiated protection switching command

Network Capacity:

1+1 linear MS: 1 x STM-N. 1:N linear MS without extra traffic: N x STM-N. 1:N linear MSP system with extra traffic: (1+N) x STM-N.

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Page24

Questions

Which linear protection type switches the fastest? Which type can carry extra traffic?

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Page25

Ring Protection

Ring protection types:


Path protection (PP) Multiplex section protection (MSP)

Traffic directions:

Unidirectional (PP Diversely routed, MSP Dedicated) Bidirectional (PP Uniformly routed, MSP Shared)

Number of fiber:

2 fiber 4 fiber
Page26

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Two-fiber Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring (2f-MS SPRing)

Fiber connection and slots requirements:


A

2 fibers Line boards must be inserted in dual slots


B

Left line board W Right line board E


OUT C IN

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Page27

2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)


Working channel (S): VC4 #1 ~ VC4 #8 S1 S2
NE A

Protection channel (P): VC4 #9 ~ VC4 #16 P1 P2

NE B

2f-MSSPRing STM-16

NE D

NE C
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2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Exploded view of one fiber for STM-16 in 2f-MSSPRing


Section overheads Working channels (S)

Protection channels (P)

VC-4 #1 VC-4 #2 VC-4 #3 VC-4 #4 VC-4 #5 VC-4 #6 VC-4 #7 VC-4 #8 VC-4 #9 VC-4 #10 VC-4 #11 VC-4 #12 VC-4 #13 VC-4 #14 VC-4 #15 VC-4 #16

Fiber

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Page29

2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Normal traffic flow between NE A & NE C


S1

NE A

NE B

2f-MS SPRing STM-16


S2
NE C

NE D

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Page30

2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Switched traffic flow between NE A & NE C


P2

Bridge &

NE A

P1

Switch
NE B

S2

2f-MS SPRing STM-16 Pass-through


NE C

NE D

S1

P2
Page31

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2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

When fiber is repaired, traffic switches back to working channels after WTR time
S1
NE A

NE B

2f-MS SPRing STM-16


S2
NE C

NE D

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Page32

2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Protection switching trigger conditions: APS Signal Failure (SF): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC (Default) Signal Degrade (SD): B2_SD (Optional) Externally initiated protection switching command Forced switch Manual switch Exercise switch Protection switching restoration: APS Clearing of SF: R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC Clearing of SD: B2_SD WTR (Wait to Restore): 10 minutes (5-12 minutes provisionable) External commands Clearing of Forced switch Clearing of Manual switch
Page33

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2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

APS controller:

Processes APS protocol, which is carried in the K1, K2 bytes.

Transition of APS controller status


I = Idle P = Pass-through S = Switching WTR = Wait to Restore

I I I I

S S P P WTR

WTR P P

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Page34

2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Features of 2f-MSSPRing:

Advantages:

Time slots can be reused


High network capacity: x M x STM-N M is the number of nodes on the ring, STM-N is the STM level

Disadvantages:

Mechanism is complicated Maximum number of nodes on one ring is limited to 16

Application:

Mainly for STM-4 and STM-16 or above systems Scattered traffic distribution
Page35

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Four-fiber Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring (4f-MS SPRing)

Structure:

4 fibers Working channels (fibers) S1, S2, carry normal traffic Protection channels (fibers) P1, P2, protect normal traffic

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

D
Page36

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4f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Traffic flow when network is normal:

Working channels = S1, S2 Protection channels = P1, P2

A
AD DA

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

DA AD

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Page37

4f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Traffic flow after only the working channel (s) is (are) broken :

Span switching

A
AD DA

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

DA AD

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Page38

4f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Traffic flow after the working and protection channels are broken:

Ring switching

A
AD DA

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

DA

AD
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4f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Protection switching trigger conditions:

Automatic protection switching: Ring or Span

SF (Signal Failure): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC SD (Signal Degrade): B2_SD

External initiated protection switching: Ring or Span

Forced switch Manual switch Exercise switch

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Page40

4f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Protection switching restoration:

Automatic protection switching: Ring or Span


Clear of SF (Signal Failure): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC


Clear of SD (Signal Degrade): B2_SD WTR (Wait to Restore): 10 minutes (5-12 minutes provisionable)

External command: Ring or Span


Clear of Forced switch Clear of Manual switch

APS controller status:


Idle Switching Pass-through WTR

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Page41

4f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Features of 4f_MSSPRing:

Advantages:

Time slots can be reused


High network capacity: M*STM-N

Disadvantages:

Maximum number of nodes on one ring is limited to 16

Mechanism is complicated
Expensive

Application:

Mainly STM-16 or above system Scattered traffic distribution Backbone system


Page42

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Summary
MSP ring 2f_MSSPRing 4f_MSSPRing

APS protocol necessary


Nodes number on MSP ring 16 Similarity SCC unit configures MSP protocol Dual slots Bidirectional and dispersed traffics

M*STM-N/2 capacity M*STM-N capacity


(without extra traffic) (without extra traffic) Difference Unique span switch K1 & K2 bytes are in the protection fiber
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Two-fiber Unidirectional Path Protection Ring (Diversely Routed PP Ring)

Traffic transmit and


2M

Concurrent sending
out

receive conditions in normal situation.


out in

in

out

in

A
out in

B
in out

PP Ring

D
in

out

in out

C
out in

Selective receiving
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2M
Page44

Diversely routed pp ring

Traffic transmit and


2M

Concurrent sending
out

receive conditions in fiber failure situation.


out in

in

out

in

A
out in

B
in out

PP Ring

D
in out

in out

out

in

Switching Selective receiving


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2M
Page45

Diversely routed pp ring

Protection switching trigger conditions

TU_AIS, TU_LOP, BIP_EXC

Features:

Every path (2M) switches independently. Restoration mode is revertive.

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Page46

Questions

Can the services between stations A and E be protected?


in out in

2M
in

Concurrent sending
out

out

in

A
out in

B
out

PP

D
in out

in

C
out

out

in

STM-N

Will the services be selectively received here?

E 2M

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Page47

Node protection

Node protection type:

Subnetwork connection protection (SNCP)

Protection features:

Traffic transmit end sends concurrently, receive end receives selectively 2 fiber unidirectional traffic (Diversely routed) 1 + 1 single-ended protection

Protection switching criteria:

Signal fail (SF) Signal degrade (SD) Externally initiated command

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Page48

Subnetwork connection protection (SNCP)


Sub-Network 1
SNC Starting Node

Working SNC

SNC Termination Node

NE A

Protection SNC
Sub-Network 2

NE E
Selector

Working channel

Protection channel Switch Traffic out Bridge Traffic in Switch Traffic out

Bridge Traffic in

Normal condition
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Failure in working channel


Page49

SNCP (cont.)
Concurrent sending

Traffic transmit and receive conditions in normal situation.


out in

2M
in out

out

in

A
out in

B
in

SNCP Ring

D
in out

out

Sub-Network 1

in
out

C
out

Sub-Network 2
in

STM-N

Selective receiving

2M
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SNCP (cont.)
Concurrent sending

Traffic transmit and receive conditions in fiber failure situation.


in out out in

2M
in out

out

in

A
out in

SNCP Ring

D
in out

Sub-Network 1

in out

out

in

STM-N

Switching

Selective receiving

2M
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SNCP (cont.)

Protection switching trigger conditions :

Default

AU_AIS, AU_LOP, TU_AIS, TU_LOP, HP_LOM, HP_UNEQ B3_EXC, Unplug the line card

Optional

HP_TIM, HP_SLM, B3_SD

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Page52

SNCP (cont.)

Protection Restoration:

Wait to restore time 10 minutes (5-12 minutes provisionable)

S1

S1 P1

A D C

P1 B

A
D C

switching

10 minutes later

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Page53

Questions

What is the difference between unidirectional (diverse) and bidirectional (uniform) traffics?

What is the difference between SNCP and MSP protection schemes?

Which type of network protection can carry extra traffic?

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Page54

Summary

A survivable network is capable of restoring services within a very short time and without any human intervention in the event of a failure.

Linear protection networks can be classified into 1+1 linear MS and 1:N linear MS.

Ring protection networks can be classified into Path Protection (PP) ring, Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) ring.

Sub-Network Protection (SNCP) is used for node protection.

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Page55

Summary (cont.)
Item APS protocol Typical services Switch level (objective) Suitable networking Switching implementing boards Switch time Network Capacity (without extra service) Extra traffic 2f_MSSPRing Necessary Bidirectional and distributed MS Only ring LU, XC 50ms SNCP Unnecessary Unidirectional and

centralized
SNC services Any topology LU, XC 50ms

K*STM-N/2
Supported

STM-N
Not supported

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Page56

Summary (cont.)
Linear MS
Support

Equipment
Metro 100

2f-MS SPRing
No

4f-MS SPRing
No

PP
No

SNCP
Support

Metro 200/500
Metro 1000V2 Metro 1000V3/1050 Metro 2050/3000 Metro 5000, OSN 1500/2500/3500/7500/9500

Support
Support Support Support Support

No
Support Support Support Support

No
No No Support Support

Support
Support No Support No

Support
Support Support Support Support

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Page57

Thank you
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