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# SDH Networking and Protection

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Objectives

## Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

Describe the common SDH network topology and features Explain the protection mechanism

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Contents
1. SDH Network Topologies 2. Survivable networks and their protection mechanisms

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Contents
1. SDH Network Topologies
1.1 Optical networking introduction 1.2 Classification of topologies 1.3 Sub-networks

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## Optical Networking Introduction

An SDH network consists of Network Elements (NE) interconnected with optical fiber.

The geometrical layout of the NEs and optical transmission lines is called the network topology.

The efficiency, reliability and the cost performance of a network highly depend on its topology.

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Classification of Topologies

Mesh

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## Chain network (Point-to-point or point-to-multi-point network)

In a chain network, all nodes are connected one after another on a line with both ends open.

NE A

NE B

NE C

NE D

Chain network is used when the networks nodes are arranged in a long line. e. g. along railway lines, highways, power supply lines, etc.

## Classification of Topologies (Cont.)

Star network

In a star network there is a central node to which the other nodes are directly connected. There are no direct links between other nodes.
NE B NE E

NE C

NE A

NE D

Star network is mainly used in access networks or rural telephone networks in which nodes are scattered here and there and the traffics are not important.

## Classification of Topologies (Cont.)

Tree network

A tree network can be considered as a combination of the chain and star topologies.
NE A

NE B
NE C NE D

NE E

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## Classification of Topologies (Cont.)

Ring network

Ring network is such a structure in which all nodes are connected one after another to form a circle. NE A
NE B NE E

NE C

NE D

survivability.

## Classification of Topologies (Cont.)

Mesh network

Mesh network is such a structure in which many nodes are interconnected together via direct links.
NE A NE B NE E

NE C

NE D

## Mesh network is suitable for the regions with large amount of

traffic and for high hierarchy communication networks.

## Other possible combination networks

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Sub-network

Sub-network

In backbone networks or large region networks, there are a large number of NEs and links. In order to simplify the network management, a large network can be divided into several subnetworks according to the administrative regions.

## links and even lower level sub-networks.

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Sub-network (Cont.)
Subnet

Sub-network A

Sub-network D

Sub-network B

Sub-network C
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Contents
1. SDH Network Topologies 2. Survivable networks and their protection mechanisms

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Contents
2. Survivable networks and their protection mechanisms
2.1 Survivable networks introduction 2.2 Types of protection

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## Causes of network failures

Accidents: Cable/fiber cuts Human errors: Incorrect maintenance, installation, Environmental hazards: Floods, fire, Sabotages: Physical, electronic, Operational disruptions: Schedule upgrade, maintenance, power outage,

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## Survivable Networks Introduction (Cont.)

Survivable networks can restore traffic in the event of a failure Requirements for survivability of network includes

Robust equipment (Strong cross-connect capability, intelligent nodes) Security (Physical, electronic) Design networks with enough resource Redundant routes as standby routes Fast failure detection and fast traffic rerouting to redundant routes No human intervention

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Types of Protection

Line
1+1 linear MS M:N linear MS

Ring
Multiplex section protection (MSP)
2-fiber bidirectional MSP Ring (2f-MS SPRing) 2-fiber unidirectional MSP Ring (2f-MS SPRing)

## 4-fiber bidirectional MSP Ring (4f-MS SPRing)

Path protectionPP 2-fiber unidirectional Path Protection Ring

Node

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Line Protection

## Use in point-to-point or chain networks Switch is within two interconnected nodes

Working Channels

NE A

NE B

NE C

NE D

Protection Channels

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Linear 1+1 MS

Traffic source node sends the traffic on both working and protection

## channels (Concurrent sending).

Traffic sink node receives the traffic from working channel (Selective receiving).

When the working channel fails, traffic sink node switches to receive the traffic from protection channel

NE A

NE B

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## Linear 1+1 MS (Cont.)

Switching Modes
Single-ended (Unidirectional) Dual-ended (Bidirectional)

Restoration Modes
Revertive (WTR Default: 600 sec) Non-revertive

## when Single-ended and Non-revertive are selected.

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Linear M:N MS
M Protection channels N Working channels
Switching

NE A

Switching

Switching

NE B

Switching

Protection Channel

Working Channel 1

Working Channel 2

Working Channel N
Extra traffic Normal traffic

## Linear M:N MS (Cont.)

Switching mode:

Bidirectional switching

Restoration mode:

Revertible mode

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Line Protection

## Protection switch criteria:

Signal Fail (SF): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC. Signal Degrade (SD): B2_SD. Externally initiated protection switching command

Network Capacity:

1+1 linear MS: 1 x STM-N. 1:N linear MS without extra traffic: N x STM-N. 1:N linear MSP system with extra traffic: (1+N) x STM-N.

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Questions

Which linear protection type switches the fastest? Which type can carry extra traffic?

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Ring Protection

## Path protection (PP) Multiplex section protection (MSP)

Traffic directions:

Unidirectional (PP Diversely routed, MSP Dedicated) Bidirectional (PP Uniformly routed, MSP Shared)

Number of fiber:

2 fiber 4 fiber
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A

B

OUT C IN

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## 2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Working channel (S): VC4 #1 ~ VC4 #8 S1 S2
NE A

## Protection channel (P): VC4 #9 ~ VC4 #16 P1 P2

NE B

2f-MSSPRing STM-16

NE D

NE C

## Protection channels (P)

VC-4 #1 VC-4 #2 VC-4 #3 VC-4 #4 VC-4 #5 VC-4 #6 VC-4 #7 VC-4 #8 VC-4 #9 VC-4 #10 VC-4 #11 VC-4 #12 VC-4 #13 VC-4 #14 VC-4 #15 VC-4 #16

Fiber

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S1

NE A

NE B

S2
NE C

NE D

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P2

Bridge &

NE A

P1

Switch
NE B

S2

NE C

NE D

S1

P2
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## 2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

When fiber is repaired, traffic switches back to working channels after WTR time
S1
NE A

NE B

S2
NE C

NE D

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## 2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Protection switching trigger conditions: APS Signal Failure (SF): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC (Default) Signal Degrade (SD): B2_SD (Optional) Externally initiated protection switching command Forced switch Manual switch Exercise switch Protection switching restoration: APS Clearing of SF: R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC Clearing of SD: B2_SD WTR (Wait to Restore): 10 minutes (5-12 minutes provisionable) External commands Clearing of Forced switch Clearing of Manual switch
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APS controller:

## Transition of APS controller status

I = Idle P = Pass-through S = Switching WTR = Wait to Restore

I I I I

S S P P WTR

WTR P P

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## 2f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Features of 2f-MSSPRing:

## Time slots can be reused

High network capacity: x M x STM-N M is the number of nodes on the ring, STM-N is the STM level

## Mechanism is complicated Maximum number of nodes on one ring is limited to 16

Application:

Mainly for STM-4 and STM-16 or above systems Scattered traffic distribution
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## Four-fiber Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring (4f-MS SPRing)

Structure:

4 fibers Working channels (fibers) S1, S2, carry normal traffic Protection channels (fibers) P1, P2, protect normal traffic

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

D
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A

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

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## 4f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Traffic flow after only the working channel (s) is (are) broken :

Span switching

A

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

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## 4f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Traffic flow after the working and protection channels are broken:

Ring switching

A

E
S1 S2 P1 P2

DA

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## Clear of SF (Signal Failure): R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC

Clear of SD (Signal Degrade): B2_SD WTR (Wait to Restore): 10 minutes (5-12 minutes provisionable)

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## 4f-MS SPRing (Cont.)

Features of 4f_MSSPRing:

## Time slots can be reused

High network capacity: M*STM-N

## Maximum number of nodes on one ring is limited to 16

Mechanism is complicated
Expensive

Application:

## Mainly STM-16 or above system Scattered traffic distribution Backbone system

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Summary
MSP ring 2f_MSSPRing 4f_MSSPRing

## APS protocol necessary

Nodes number on MSP ring 16 Similarity SCC unit configures MSP protocol Dual slots Bidirectional and dispersed traffics

## M*STM-N/2 capacity M*STM-N capacity

(without extra traffic) (without extra traffic) Difference Unique span switch K1 & K2 bytes are in the protection fiber

## Traffic transmit and

2M

Concurrent sending
out

## receive conditions in normal situation.

out in

in

out

in

A
out in

B
in out

PP Ring

D
in

out

in out

C
out in

Selective receiving

2M
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## Traffic transmit and

2M

Concurrent sending
out

out in

in

out

in

A
out in

B
in out

PP Ring

D
in out

in out

out

in

2M
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Features:

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Questions

## Can the services between stations A and E be protected?

in out in

2M
in

Concurrent sending
out

out

in

A
out in

B
out

PP

D
in out

in

C
out

out

in

STM-N

E 2M

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Node protection

## Subnetwork connection protection (SNCP)

Protection features:

Traffic transmit end sends concurrently, receive end receives selectively 2 fiber unidirectional traffic (Diversely routed) 1 + 1 single-ended protection

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## Subnetwork connection protection (SNCP)

Sub-Network 1
SNC Starting Node

Working SNC

## SNC Termination Node

NE A

Protection SNC
Sub-Network 2

NE E
Selector

Working channel

Protection channel Switch Traffic out Bridge Traffic in Switch Traffic out

Bridge Traffic in

Normal condition

## Failure in working channel

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SNCP (cont.)
Concurrent sending

## Traffic transmit and receive conditions in normal situation.

out in

2M
in out

out

in

A
out in

B
in

SNCP Ring

D
in out

out

Sub-Network 1

in
out

C
out

Sub-Network 2
in

STM-N

Selective receiving

2M

SNCP (cont.)
Concurrent sending

## Traffic transmit and receive conditions in fiber failure situation.

in out out in

2M
in out

out

in

A
out in

SNCP Ring

D
in out

Sub-Network 1

in out

out

in

STM-N

Switching

Selective receiving

2M

SNCP (cont.)

## Protection switching trigger conditions :

Default

AU_AIS, AU_LOP, TU_AIS, TU_LOP, HP_LOM, HP_UNEQ B3_EXC, Unplug the line card

Optional

## HP_TIM, HP_SLM, B3_SD

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SNCP (cont.)

Protection Restoration:

## Wait to restore time 10 minutes (5-12 minutes provisionable)

S1

S1 P1

A D C

P1 B

A
D C

switching

10 minutes later

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Questions

What is the difference between unidirectional (diverse) and bidirectional (uniform) traffics?

## Which type of network protection can carry extra traffic?

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Summary

A survivable network is capable of restoring services within a very short time and without any human intervention in the event of a failure.

Linear protection networks can be classified into 1+1 linear MS and 1:N linear MS.

Ring protection networks can be classified into Path Protection (PP) ring, Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) ring.

## Sub-Network Protection (SNCP) is used for node protection.

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Summary (cont.)
Item APS protocol Typical services Switch level (objective) Suitable networking Switching implementing boards Switch time Network Capacity (without extra service) Extra traffic 2f_MSSPRing Necessary Bidirectional and distributed MS Only ring LU, XC 50ms SNCP Unnecessary Unidirectional and

centralized
SNC services Any topology LU, XC 50ms

K*STM-N/2
Supported

STM-N
Not supported

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Summary (cont.)
Linear MS
Support

Equipment
Metro 100

2f-MS SPRing
No

4f-MS SPRing
No

PP
No

SNCP
Support

Metro 200/500
Metro 1000V2 Metro 1000V3/1050 Metro 2050/3000 Metro 5000, OSN 1500/2500/3500/7500/9500

Support
Support Support Support Support

No
Support Support Support Support

No
No No Support Support

Support
Support No Support No

Support
Support Support Support Support