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Team & Members Abstract Intention Existing System Projected System Block Diagram Block Explanation Software and

are and hardware Experimental results Advantages Disadvantages Conclusion Future works References

Pradeepa.S
Sabreen

Taj Sakthivel.S Sreerekha.R

31608106066 31608106074 31608106078 31608106095

GUIDE
Mr. Ananth Ravindran (Asst professor)

The

development of an Automatic Power Meter Reading (APMR) system is presented in this paper. The APMR system is consists of Digital Power meters installed in every substation. The Digital Power meter (DPM) is a single phase digital kWh power meter with embedded ZIGBEE modem which utilizes the ZIGBEE network to send its power usage reading wirelessly. At the receiver side an LCD displays the current and voltage readings and the power along with power loss, update the database.

This

project aims at wireless communication between substations using ZIGBEE module. Automatic meter reading (APMR) is an effective means of data collection that allow substantial saving through the reduction of meter re-read , greater data accuracy. With the advent of digital technology analog electro-mechanical meter is continuously replaced by digital electronic meter. ZAPMR has wide coverage and retrieve meter reading back wirelessly. The most important of these are performance and reliability

To

implement automatic Power meter reading for providing high flexibility, accuracy using ZIGBEE Network

Meter

reading taken manually Errors occurred due to less concentration Meter reading not accurate Huge Manpower needed

Meter

reading taken automatically using zigbee technology Normal work happen at any time and external conditions Less Manpower High Accurate meter reading

LCD

CT PT

Signal Conditioning

Microcontroller

Serial Communication RS232

Actuator ZIGBEE

Network

Serial communication

Input power supply given to consumer through actuator Actuator acts as a switch, it is controlled by microcontroller Current transformer and potential transformer are used measure the power by microcontroller Display unit are used to display meter readings and bill status The meter reading send to admin center through ZIGBEE using serial communication

Power

supply PIC16F877A microcontroller ZIGBEE Current Transformer Voltage Transformer Display unit(LCD) Relay Max232 serial communication

The

operation of power supply circuits built using filters, rectifiers, and then voltage regulators. Starting with an AC voltage, a steady DC voltage is obtained by rectifying the AC voltage, Then filtering to a DC level, and finally, regulating to obtain a desired fixed DC voltage. The regulation is usually obtained from an IC voltage regulator Unit, which takes a DC voltage and provides a somewhat lower DC voltage, Which remains the same even if the input DC voltage varies, or the output Load connected to the DC voltage changes.

PIC16F877A

microcontroller is used for this

project It is 8-bit Microcontroller System is RISC Architecture It has Small set of Instruction set It has 35-Instructions only Compatibility: avail 28/40 Pin ICs

Operating

Speed Max 20 MHz, Voltage-(2-

5.5)v Memory: Flash Program 8Kx14 Words, RAM 368 Bytes, EEPROM Data Memory 256 Bytes Low power, High speed Flash/EEPROM Technology

It

has 5 Ports for Internal and External usage It has on chip Timers. 3 Timers are avail It has in built Analog to Digital Converter In built Multiplexer availability for signal Selection It has serial as well as Parallel Communication facilities In built Capture, Compare and Pulse width modulation

VDD SW2 R5 220 ohm RESET R6 1k


11 32 12 VSS 31 VSS

0.1 uF C10

VDD

MCLR RA0

RA0 RA1 RA2 RA3 RA4 RA5 RE0 RE1 RE2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13 14

VDD

MCLR/Vpp RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/Vref RA3/AN3/Vref + RA4/T0CKI RA5/AN4/SS RE0/AN5/RD RE1/AN6/WR RE2/AN7/CS OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT

RB7/PGD RB6/PGC RB5 RB4 RB3/PGM RB2 PIC16F877 RB1 U3 RB0/INT

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33

RB7 RB6 RB5 RB4 RB3 RB2 RB1 RB0

Y1 4 Mhz C8 27 pF C9 27 pF

RC0 RC1 RC2 RC3 RC4 RC5 RC6 RC7

15 16 17 18 23 24 25 26

RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RC2/CCP1 RC3/SCK/SCL RC4/SDI/SDA RC5/SDO RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT

RD7/PSP7 RD6/PSP6 RD5/PSP5 RD4/PSP4 RD3/PSP3 RD2/PSP2 RD1/PSP1 RD0/PSP0

30 29 28 27 22 21 20 19

RD7 RD6 RD5 RD4 RD3 RD2 RD1 RD0

TX RX

PTs

or VTs are the most common devices used. These devices are conventional transformers with two or three windings (one primary with one or two secondary). They have an iron core and magnetically couple the primary and secondary. The high side winding is constructed with more copper turns than the secondary(ies), and any voltage impressed on the primary winding is reflected on the secondary windings in direct proportion to the turns ratio or PT ratio.

current transformer (CT) is a type of instrument transformer designed to provide a current in its secondary winding proportional to the alternating current flowing in its primary. They are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents, often in the presence of high voltages. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured.

PIC microcontroller and write the code to initialize the USART and use it to send and receive data Data you need to transmit and it will do the rest. It transmits data at standard speeds of 9600,19200 bps etc The advantage of hardware USART is that you just need to write the data to one of the registers of USART and your done, you are free to do other things while USART is transmitting the byte. USART automatically senses the start of transmission of RX line and then inputs the whole byte and when it has the byte it informs you(CPU) to read that data from one of its registers

RS232 standard is an asynchronous serial communication method. The word serial means, that the information is sent one bit at a time. Asynchronous tells us that the information is not sent in predefined time slots. Data transfer can start at any given time and it is the task of the receiver to detect when a message starts and ends.

The

USART always transmits data on pin RC6/TX The USART always receives data on pin RC7/RX The RS-232 standard defines lots of other signals other than TX and RX used for handshaking.

relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts.

Diagram that a relay uses an electromagnet. This is a device consisting of a coil of wire wrapped around an iron core. When electricity is applied to the coil of wire it becomes magnetic, hence the term electromagnet. The A B and C terminals are an SPDT switch controlled by the electromagnet. When electricity is applied to V1 and V2, the electromagnet acts upon the SPDT switch so that the B and C terminals are connected. When the electricity is disconnected, then the A and C terminals are connected. It is important to note that the electromagnet is magnetically linked to the switch but the two are NOT linked electrically

ZigBee

is a Ad-hoc networking technology for LR-WPAN Based On IEEE 802.15.4 standard that defines the PHY and Mac Layers for ZigBee. Intended for 2.45 Ghz , 868 Mhz and 915 Mhz Band. Low in cost ,complexity & power consumption as compared to competing technologies. Intended to network inexpensive devices Data rates touch 250Kbps for 2.45Ghz ,40 Kbps 915Mhz and 20Kbps for 868Mhz band.

The HD44780U dot-matrix liquid crystal display controller and driver LSI displays alphanumeric, Japanese kana characters, and symbols. It can be configured to drive a dot-matrix liquid crystal display under the control of a 4or 8-bit microprocessor. Since all the functions such as display RAM, character generator, and liquid crystal driver, required for driving a dot-matrix liquid crystal display are internally provided on one chip, a minimal system can be interfaced with this controller/driver A single HD44780U can display up to one 8-character line or two 8-character lines The low power supply (2.7V to 5.5V) of the HD44780U is suitable for any portable battery-driven product requiring low power dissipation

Pin 1 - GND Pin 2 - VCC (+5V) Pin 3 Contrast Pin 4 RS Pin 5 R/W Pin 6 Enable Pin 7-14 Data(DB7DB14) Pin 15 LED+ Pin 16 LED-

LCD DISPLAY UNIT


11 32 12 31 GND VCC CNT RS R/W E D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 VCC GND
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 8 9 10 30 29 28 27 22 21 20 19 RD7 RD6 RD5 RD4 RD3 RD2 RD1 RD0 RB7 RB6 RB5 RB4 RB3 RB2 RB1 RB0 12 9 14 7

VSS

VDD

VDD

VSS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C5

MCLR/Vpp RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/Vref RA3/AN3/Vref + RA4/T0CKI RA5/AN4/SS

RB7/PGD RB6/PGC RB5 RB4 RB3/PGM RB2 PIC16F877 RB1 U5 RB0/INT RE0/AN5/RD RE1/AN6/WR RE2/AN7/CS

CAP NP Y1 CRY STAL C6

13 14 15 16 17 18 23 24 25 26

OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RC2/CCP1 RC3/SCK/SCL RC4/SDI/SDA RC5/SDO RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT

CAP NP

RD7/PSP7 RD6/PSP6 RD5/PSP5 RD4/PSP4 RD3/PSP3 RD2/PSP2 RD1/PSP1 RD0/PSP0

VDD R9 1k VCC_BAR

C1

10 uF

16

R2IN Q5 BC547 K2 RELAY DPDT C2 10 uF TX

13 8 11 10 1 3 4 5 6

R1IN R2IN T1IN T2IN C+ C1C2+ C2V-

VCC

R1OUT R2OUT T1OUT T2OUT MAX232 U1

V+

RX T2OUT

GND

C3 10 uF

C4 10 uF

15

RELAY 1

3 2 1

1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9 5
SERIAL_COMM

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

MPLAB

IDE Hi-tech c compiler Visual basic c++ 6.0

ORCAD

design Visual basic

Using

zigbee accurate values is being taken for nearly two substations and is being transmitted to the administrative office. In this external load is being added . Loads can be varied by using potentiometer. Since data logging is done it is very useful to get back all the data. Automatic power shut down is done in case of high input given.

Less

operation cost Less manpower High efficiency and reliability

Utility

metering Power Industries

In this paper we have shown the updated power readings and the way of detecting power loss. Traditional meter reading for electricity consumption is done by human operator from station to station. This requires huge number of labor operators and long working hour to achieve complete area data reading. Human being may make errors while noting so to overcome all those problems we have introduced ZIGBEE a wireless modem The development of a ZIGBEE Automatic Power Meter Reading (APMR) system is presented in this paper. So by using ZIGBEE huge work is reduced and also labors. It is a wireless modem through which readings are displayed and can be monitored without any effort and also readings are data logged for future reference. At the receiver side the meter reading , updated database is obtained.

It

is useful to check for power loss and safe guard circuit from damage. WIFI can be used to cover a maximum area.

BOOK REFERENCE : Bio ID Face Database Zhang Yu, Research on High Level Model and Performance Estimation Southeast University PHD thesis, 2007. Teresko, J., "Winning with wireless," Industry Week, 252(6), Available Pro Quest, 2003.

WEB REFERENCES: www.atmel.com www.dallas.com www.gpsfavorities.com www.holtek.com www.microcontroller.com http://www.hp.com/go/HPVEE