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SASTRA UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

BOILERS

The function of the boiler is to generate steam at the desired conditions efficiently and with low operating costs.
Low pressure steam is used in cogeneration plants for heating or process applications, and high pressure superheated steam is used for generating power via steam turbines. Boilers form an important part of the plant utilities.

Horizontal , Vertical And Inclined


According to the axis of the shell

BOILER CLASSIFICATION

Fire Tube And Water Tube


According to the flow of water and hot gasses

Externally And Internally Fired


According to the position of the furnace

Forced Circulation And Natural Circulation


According to the circulation of water

High Pressure And Low Pressure


According to the pressure of steam developed

Stationary And Portable Boiler Single Tube And Multy Tube Boilers
According to the number of fire tubes

Natural Draught And Forced Draught


According to the movement of air circulation

BOILERS
BABCOCK AND WILCOX BOILER La MONT BOILEER BENSON BOILER

Boiler shell
9 meters length and 2 meters dia

Water tubes
5 to 15 and 10 cm dia

Up take header and Down take header Grate Furnace BABCOCK AND Baffles Superheater WILCOX BOILER Mud box Damper Inspection door

SPECIFICATIONS
Diameter of drum 1.5 to 2 m Length 6to 10m Diameter of water tubes 7.5 to 10.5cm Diameter of superheater tubes 3.5 to 5.5cm Working pressure 40 bar ( max) Efficiency 60 to 80%

BABCOCK AND WILCOX BOILER

La-M0NT BOILER
Feed tank Economizer Radiant evaporator Convection evaporator Convection superheater Steam outlet Capacity 50000kg/hr , 170 bar , 5000C

BENSON BOILER
Mark Benson Critical pressure of steam 200 bar

Steam rate capacity is 1,50,000 kg/hr Temp of steam is around 650

At the critical pressure , both water and steam have the same density so bubbles will not form The first modern high pressure drumless boiler developed by mark benson was put into operation in 1927 in a German power plant.

BENSON BOILER
Feed tank Economizer Radiant evaporator Convection evaporator Convection superheater Steam outlet Capacity
150000kg/hr , 200 bar , 6500C

Boiler Mountings and Accessories


Fitting and devices which are necessary for the safety and control are knows as boiler mountings Fitting or devices which are provided to increase the efficiency of the boiler and help in the smooth working of the plant are knows as boiler accessories.

Fittings which are essential from the safety point of view are as follows,
Water level indicators Safety valves Combined high steam and low water safety valve Fusible plug

Fittings which are essential from the control point of view are as follows,

Pressure gauge Junction or stop valve Feed check valve Blow-off cock Man hole and Mud Box
The important accessories are

Superheater Economiser Air-preheater Feed pump or injector

TURBINES

Turbine is also called as a prime mover

A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.

The main components of an turbines are:


Nozzle shaft disc with curved blades fixed on its periphery casing

CLASSIFICATION
Impulse turbine
Simple impulse turbine( De- Laval turbine) Velocity compounded impulse turbine(Curtis Turbine) Pressure - compounded impulse turbine(Rateau Turbine) Pressure - Velocity compounded impulse turbine

Reaction turbine or Impulse Reaction turbine ( Parsons Turbine)

IMPULSE TURBINE
The turbine in which the impulse action of high velocity jet of steam , due to its change in direction, is used to rotate the turbine shaft is known as impulse turbine. In this turbine the kinematic energy of steam is converted in to mechanical energy in the moving blades.

IMPULSE TURBINE De- Laval turbine

Impulse Stage

IMPULSE TURBINE

P R E S S U R E
C O M P O U N D I N G

REACTION TURBINE
The turbine in which the reaction force, due to expansion of high pressure steam where it passes through sets of moving and fixed blades, is used to rotate the turbine shaft is known as reaction turbine Due to expansion of steam ,pressure drop occurs continuously over both fixed and moving blades. Because of this continuous pressure drop there is always a difference of pressure between the two sides of both fixed and moving blades. This pressure difference exerts a thrust on the blades. The resulting reaction force imparts rotary motion.

REACTION TURBINE
High pressure steam from the boiler is directly supplied to the reaction turbine, without passing through nozzles. Steam expands as it flows through the fixed and moving blades. Since the steam expands as it flows through the moving blades, there will be continuous drop of pressure of steam. This produces a reaction on the blades and this reaction force causes the rotor to rotate. Since the propulsive force causing the rotation of the rotor is the reaction force ,the turbine is called reaction turbine.

REACTION TURBINE

Reaction Turbine

Compounding methods.
The disadvantage of single stage impulse turbine is that its extremely high speed, of the order of about 30,000 rpm , cannot be directly used for practical purposes. To reduce the high speed, more than one set of moving blades are used. This is called compounding of impulse turbine. There are three main types of compounding .These are:
Pressure-compounding Velocity compounding Pressure-velocity compounding

VELOCITY COMPOUNDING

Velocity-compounded Stage

Pressure-compounded Stage

IMPULSE TURBINE

P R E S S U R E
C O M P O U N D I N G

Pressure-velocity Compounded Turbine

The difference between impulse and reaction turbine goes here...... In case of an impulse turbine the pressure remains same in the rotor or runners, but in case of reaction turbine the pressure decreases in runners as well as stators also. In case of impulse turbine the pressure drop happens only in the nozzle part by means of its kinetic energy. In case of Reaction one the stators those are fixed to the diaphragm act as a nozzle.

COMPARISONS
1. It consists of nozzles and moving blades 2. Steam strikes the blades with Kinetic energy 3. Pressure drops in nozzles 4. Because of large pressure drop the blade speed and steam speed are high 5. Profile type blade shape 6. Not much power developed 7. Due to more pressure drop the number of stages required is less 8. Low efficiency 9. Suitable for small power requirements 10. Occupies less space per unit power
1. It consists of moving blades and fixed blades 2. Steam passes over the moving blades with pressure and kinetic energy 3. Pressure in fixed blades as well as moving blades 4. Because of small pressure drop the blade speed and steam speed are less 5. Aerofoil type blade shape 6. Power developed is considerable 7. Because of small pressure drop in each the number of stages require is more . Reaction turbines are multi stage turbines only 8. Higher efficiency 9. Suitable for medium and high power requirements 10. More space required

The plant that produces electricity is called as power plant The working principle of all power plants is based on First Law of Thermodynamics and Second Law of Thermodynamics As per the first law of thermodynamics the energy can neither be created nor it can be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to the other The second law of thermodynamics states that the heat flows from body as high temperature to the body at low lower temperature.

POWER PLANTS

POWER PLANTS
STEAM ( THERMAL) HYDEL NUCLEAR GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE SOLAR WIND TIDAL GEOTHERMAL

A generating station which converts heat energy of coal combustion in to electrical energy is known as Thermal power plant or Steam power plant

ADVANTAGES The fuel used is quite cheap. Less initial cost as compared to other generating plants. It can be installed at any place irrespective of the existence of coal. The coal can be transported to the site of the plant by rail or road. It require less space as compared to Hydro power plants. Cost of generation is less than that of diesel power plants. DISADVANTAGES It pollutes the atmosphere due to production of large amount of smoke and fumes. It is costlier in running cost as compared to Hydro electric plants.

STEAM TURBINE TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY

Oil could be used instead of coal.

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Steam engines are also used to power the train.

(QSG)

Steam Turbine Power Plant


Heat Loss
superheated steam

in hot gases

compressed Steam Generator water


Pump C

WP

(WST)
Steam Turbine

in

out

Gen saturated water


Condenser

saturated steam cooling water Heat Loss

HYDRO POWER PLANT

HYDRO POWER PLANT

How Hydropower Works


Water from the reservoir flows due to gravity to drive the turbine. Turbine is connected to a generator. Power generated is transmitted over power lines.

How Hydropower Works (2)


A water turbine that cover the energy of flowing or falling water into mechanical energy that drives a generator, which generates electrical power. This is a heart of hydropower power plant. A control mechanism to provide stable electrical power. It is called governor. Electrical transmission line to deliver the power to its destination.

Sizes of Hydropower Plants


Pico hydroelectric plant Up to 10kW, remote areas away from the grid Micro hydroelectric plant Capacity 10kW to 300kW, usually provided power for small community or rural industry in remote areas away from the grid Small hydroelectric plant Capacity 300kW to 1MW Mini hydroelectric plant Capacity above 1MW Medium hydroelectric plant 15 - 100 MW usually feeding a grid Large hydroelectric plant More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity grid

Potential Energy

Electrical Energy Electricity

Kinetic Energy

Mechanical Energy

Gas Turbine Power Plant


fuel
compressed air
Compressor Combustion Chamber

hot gases

Gas Turbine

Gen

air

gases to the stack

Gas Turbine to produce Electricity

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Gas turbine power plant


Gas turbine:
Working principle : Air is compressed(squeezed) to high pressure by a fan-like device called the compressor. Then fuel and compressed air are mixed in a combustion chamber and ignited. Hot gases are given off, which spin the turbine wheels. Most of the turbines power runs the compressor. Part of it drives the generator/machinery.

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Gas turbine power plant


Gas turbine:
Description:

Gas turbines burn fuels such as oil,


nature gas and pulverised(powdered) coal. Instead of using the heat to produce steam, as in steam turbines, gas turbines use the hot gases directly to turn the turbine blades. Gas turbines have three main parts: Air compressor Combustion chamber

i) ii)

iii) Turbine
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Gas turbine power plant


Gas turbine:
Air compressor: The air compressor and turbine are mounted at either end on a common horizontal axle(shaft), with the combustion chamber between them. Gas turbines are not self starting. A starting motor initially drives the compressor till the first combustion of fuel takes place, later, part of the turbines power runs the compressor. The air compressor sucks in air and compresses it, thereby increasing its pressure.

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Gas turbine power plant


Gas turbine:
Combustion chamber: In the combustion chamber, the compressed air combines with fuel and the resulting mixture is burnt. The greater the pressure of air, the better the fuel air mixture burns. Modern gas turbines usually use liquid fuel, but they may also use gaseous fuel, natural gas or gas produced artificially by gasification of a solid fuel. Note : The combination of air compressor and combustion chamber is called as gas generator.
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Gas turbine power plant


Gas turbine:
Turbine: o The burning gases expand rapidly and rush into the turbine, where they cause the turbine wheels to rotate. o Hot gases move through a multistage gas turbine. o Like in steam turbine, the gas turbine also has fixed(stationary) and moving(rotor) blades. o The stationary blades guide the moving gases to the rotor blades and adjust its velocity. o The shaft of the turbine is coupled to a generator or machinery to drive it.
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Gas turbine power plant


Applications of gas turbine:
Gas turbines are used to drive pumps, compressors and high speed cars. Used in aircraft and ships for their propulsion. They are not suitable for automobiles because of their very high speeds. Power generation(used for peak load and as stand-by unit). Note : Gas turbines run at even higher temperatures than steam turbines, the temperature may be as high as 1100 12600C. The thermal efficiency of gas turbine made of metal components do not exceed 36%. Research is underway to use ceramic components at turbine inlet temperature of 13500C or more, and reach thermal efficiencies over 40% in a 300 kW unit.
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Layout of a gas turbine power plant

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Layout of gas turbine power plant


Starting motor: Gas turbines are not self starting. They require a starting motor to first bring the turbine to the minimum speed called coming in speed, for this purpose a starting motor is required. Low pressure compressor(LPC): The purpose of the compressor is to compress the air. Air from the atmosphere is drawn into the LPC and is compressed.

Intercooler: The air after compression in the LPC is hot. It is cooled by the intercooler. The intercooler is circulated with cooling water.
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Layout of gas turbine power plant


High pressure compressor(HPC): The air from the intercooler enters the HPC where it is further compressed to a high pressure. The compressed air passes through a regenerator. Regenerator(Heat exchanger): The air entering the combustion chamber(CC) for combustion must be hot. The heat from the exhaust gases is picked up by the compressed air entering the combustion chamber.

Combustion chamber: The fuel(natural gas, pulverized coal, kerosene or gasoline) is injected into the combustion chamber. The fuel gets ignited because of the compressed air. The fuel along with the compressed air is ignited sometimes with a spark plug.
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Layout of gas turbine power plant


High pressure compressor(HPC): The air from the intercooler enters the HPC where it is further compressed to a high pressure. The compressed air passes through a regenerator. Regenerator(Heat exchanger): The air entering the combustion chamber(CC) for combustion must be hot. The heat from the exhaust gases is picked up by the compressed air entering the combustion chamber.

Combustion chamber: The fuel(natural gas, pulverized coal, kerosene or gasoline) is injected into the combustion chamber. The fuel gets ignited because of the compressed air. The fuel along with the compressed air is ignited sometimes with a spark plug.
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Layout of gas turbine power plant


High pressure turbine (HPT): In the beginning the starting motor runs the compressor shaft. The hot gases(products of combustion) expands through the high pressure turbine. It is important to note that when the HPT shaft rotates it infact drives the compressor shaft which is coupled to it. Now the HPT runs the compressor and the starting motor is stopped. Note : About 66% of the power developed by the gas turbine power plant is used to run the compressor.

Only 34% of the power developed by the plant is used to generate electric power.

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Layout of gas turbine power plant


Low pressure turbine (LPT): The purpose of the LPT is to produce electric power. The shaft of the LPT is directly coupled with the generator for producing electricity. The hot gases(products of combustion) after leaving the HPT is again sent to a combustion chamber where it further undergoes combustion. The exhaust gases after leaving the LPT passes through the regenerator before being exhausted through the chimney into the atmosphere.
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The heat from the hot gases is used to preheat the air entering the combustion chamber. This preheating of the air improves the efficiency of the combustion chamber.

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Gas turbine power plant


Advantages of gas turbine power plant :
Storage of fuel requires less area and handling is easy. The cost of maintenance is less. It is simple in construction. There is no need for boiler, condenser and other accessories as in the case of steam power plants. Cheaper fuel such as kerosene , paraffin, benzene and powdered coal can be used which are cheaper than petrol and diesel. Gas turbine plants can be used in water scarcity areas. Less pollution and less water is required. Disadvantages of gas turbine power plant : 66% of the power developed is used to drive the compressor. Therefore the gas turbine unit has a low thermal efficiency. The running speed of gas turbine is in the range of (40,000 to 100,000 rpm) and the operating temperature is as high as 1100 12600C. For this reason special metals and alloys have to be used for the various parts of the turbine. High frequency noise from the compressor is objectionable.

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NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

PRESSURISED WATER REACTOR ( PWR) BOILING WATER REACTOR ( BWR)

NUCLEAR REACTOR

A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb, in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is uncontrolled causing an explosion.

U235 + n fission + 2 or 3 n + 200 MeV

If each neutron releases two more neutrons, then the number of fissions doubles each generation. In that case, in

10 generations there are 1,024 fissions and in 80 generations


about 6 x 10 23 (a mole) fissions.

Outline of BWR Power Plant

Nuclear Power Plant to produce Electricity

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COMBINED CYCLE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT ( GAS AND THERMAL )

TOPPING CYCLIC BOTTOM CYCLIC

Steam / Gas entry

Steam / Gas outlet

Gas Turbine (GT)


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Steam Turbine (ST)

Combined Power Plant (GT & ST)

Auto (Self) Ignition Temperature Ignition combustion

2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e

IC Engine
4S and 2S engines CI and SI engines Gasoline (Otto) engine
Spark ignition Compresses air-fuel mixture

Diesel engine
Compressed ignition Compresses air only

2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e

Compression ratio Scavanging

2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e

Comparison (power, efficiency and pollutants)

2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e

Four stroke cycle theory

Each stroke takes 180 of crankshaft rotation to complete All cylinders fire in 720 of crankshaft rotation 720 divided by number of cylinders = firing interval Odd fire V-6 engine (90 block with 120 rod journals)

Four stroke diesel theory


Compression ignition Uses high compression ratios instead of spark plugs Engine components are more robust

Diesel fuel low has volatility

Four stroke diesel theory


Indirect Injection Indirect injection begins in a pre-chamber Initial combustion takes place there

Slows the rate of combustion to reduce noise Glow plugs are needed to provide heat

Four stroke diesel theory


Direct Injection Fuel is injected directly into cylinder The piston has a chamber built into it

More reliable than indirect


More noisy than indirect

Diesel fuels
Cetane volatility numbers 50-55 Higher cetane #1 fuel for cold weather Lower cetane #2 fuel for warm weather Paraffin separates from fuel at 20F

Four stroke diesel theory


Diesel advantages Higher engine torque Better fuel economy Diesel disadvantages Engine noise Exhaust smell

Long engine life

Hard start cold Heavier Fuel availability

Valve events
Intake valve opening BTDC Low pressure in cylinder Intake valve closing ABDC Cylinder pressure is effected by timing Exhaust valve opening BBDC Residual pressure helps blowdown Exhaust valve closing ATDC Low pressure in exhaust port draws air in

Effects on valve timing


Intake valve opening Late Reduced VE Early Dilution of intake with exhaust Intake valve closing Late Reduces cylinder pressure Early Increases cylinder pressure Exhaust valve opening Late Pumping losses Early Power reduction Exhaust valve closing Late Reduces vacuum Early Reduces VE

Combustion
Spark ignition Maximum cylinder pressure 15 ATDC Tumble and swirl Motion reduces misfires Excess motion inhibits flow AFR 14.7:1 at part throttle, 12.5:1 under load Compression ignition 18:1 direct injection 23:1 pre-chambers for better starting Compression heats to 800-1200 F

Four stroke diesel theory


Combustion Ignition is delayed after fuel is injected Rapid combustion when fuel 1st starts to burn Cylinder pressure rises quickly Engine knock (almost always detonating) Controlled combustion as injection continues

Piston dwell time

Piston travel is at a minimum. . . TDC and BDC Crank moves horizontally Piston velocity Maximum when rod is 90 to crank Acceleration Maximum 30 earlier Best VE is obtained by synchronizing valve opening with piston speeds

Other engine cycles

Overlap Both valves are open End of exhaust & start of intake Low pressure in exhaust port

Blowdown Exhaust valve opens before BDC To help evacuate cylinder before piston reverse Pumping losses at end of exhaust stroke

Simple Carburettor Fuel System for a Piston Engine

WHERE ARE THE FUEL TANKS IN AIRCRAFT?

IN THE OTHERWISE EMPTY WING SECTIONS

CI30 HERCULES

PISTON ENGINE Carburettor Fuel System - Aircraft Tanks

We are now going to look at how the carburettor controls the flow to the engine

This is done by the: -

THE FLOAT CHAMBER

FUEL NOZZLE

VENTURI

NEEDLE VALVE

AIR VENT

FUEL LEVEL FLOAT

FLOAT CHAMBER

FUEL FEED

SIMPLIFIED PISTON ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM

AIR/FUEL MIXTURE FLOWS TO ENGINE AIR FLOW AIR FLOW

AIR IS SUCKED THROUGH VENTURI BY.. A PISTON MOVING DOWN ON INDUCTION STROKE THE LOWER AIR PRESSURE PULLS FUEL THROUGH THE JET

FUEL FLOW

FUEL LEVEL DROPS

MOVING AIR HAS LOWER PRESSURE

SIMPLIFIED PISTON ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM

We now need to look at controlling the air/fuel mixture flowing into the engine

Controlling the air/fuel mixture means controlling the engine

The carburettor part which controls the flow is.

THE THROTTLE

Carburetion
Carburetors were the predominant method used to meter fuel on gasoline engines before the widespread use of fuel injection. A variety of injection systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine.

Fuel Injection
Fuel injection is a system which is replaced by carburetors in an internal combustion engines. The primary difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel injection atomizes the fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small nozzle under high pressure, while a carburetor relies on low pressure created by intake air rushing through it to add the fuel to the airstream.

2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e

Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Meter - the appropriate quantity of fuel, as demanded

(speed and the load on the engine)

Distribute - the metered fuel equally among cylinders in a multicylinder engine. Inject the fuel at the correct time (with respect to crank angle) Inject the fuel at the correct rate (per unit time or crank angle degree). Inject the fuel with the correct spray pattern and sufficient atomization as demanded by the design of the combustion chamber Begin and end injection sharply without dribbling or after injection.

6.

Pintle nozzle Hole type Pintaux Pintle auxiliary

Injector

2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e

CRDI (Common Rail Diesel Injection)


Common rail - common fuel rail/pressure resv. Robert Huber of Switzerland 1960 Engine control unit (ECU) which opens each injector electronically rather mechanically Robert Bosch , Delphi Systems, Denso Corporation Brand name CRDe / DICOR / Multijet / DDiS

Sub functions of a CRFI system


COMMON RAIL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Low pressure circuit High pressure circuit ECU with sensors

COMMON RAIL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM SUMMARY


1. The basic functional groups: Low pressure circuit , high pressure circuit ECU and sensors. 2. In the low pressure circuit, the fuel is cleaned by a filter and then transported to the high pressure circuit 3. Maximum pressure of 1,350 bar is generated in the accumulator (Rail), maintained at a constant level , and the fuel is taken - every time an injection takes place. 4. The ECU controls and monitors the complete

MPFI - Multi Point Fuel Injection


(Direct Injection)

Each cylinder has number of injectors to supply/spray fuel in the cylinders in contrast to one injector located centrally to supply/spray fuel in case of single point injection system.

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

MPFI - Advantages
More uniform A/F mixture will be supplied to each cylinder, hence the difference in power developed in each cylinder is minimum No need to crank the engine twice or thrice in case of cold starting Immediate response, in case of sudden acceleration / deceleration More accurate amount of A/F mixture will be supplied and as a result complete combustion will take place

MPFI
For Fuel Injection MPFI (Multi Point Fuel Injection System) Used in Petrol cars In Hero Honda Glamour electronic fuel injection (EFI), unit is used which is Electronically Regulated the Air Fuel Ratio.

Ignition Parts
BATTERY provides power for system. IGNITION SWITCH allows driver to turn ignition on and off.

IGNITION COIL changes battery voltage to 30,000V during normal operation and has a potential to produce up to 60,000V.

SWITCHING DEVICE mechanical or electronic switch that operates Ignition coil(Pick-up coil, Crank sensor, Cam sensor).

SPARK PLUG uses high voltage from ignition coil to produce an arc in the combustion chamber.

IGNITION SYSTEM WIRES connect components.

Ignition Circuits
PRIMARY CIRCUIT Includes all the components working on low voltage (Battery, Alternator).

SECONDARY CIRCUIT Consists of wires and points between coil out-put and the spark plug ground.

Ignition Coil
Primary Windings are made up of several hundred turns of heavy wire wrapped around or near the secondary windings.

Secondary Windings consist of several thousand turns of very fine wire, located inside or near the secondary windings.

Distributor

Actuates the on/off cycle of current flow through the ignition coil primary windings.

It distributes the coils high voltage to the plugs wires.

Functions of Lubricants
Lubrication, thus reducing friction Cools various engine parts Seals the combustion chamber Cleans the engine Aids in preventing corrosion Serves as a cushion between impacting parts

Pressure Lubrication
In a pressure lubrication system, a mechanical pump supplies oil under pressure to the bearings Oil flows into the inlet of the pump through the pump and into an oil manifold which distributes it to the crankshaft bearings

Splash Lubrication and Combination Systems


Although pressure lubrication is the principle method of lubrication on all aircraft engines, some engines use splash lubrication also Splash lubrication is never used by itself All lubrication systems are pressure systems or combination pressure/splash systems

Reduces strength of materials used in piston and piston rings Unusual expansion of engine parts Decomposition of lubricants Burning of valves and valve seats Pre ignition of spark plugs Reduction of efficiency of engine

DIRECT OR AIR COOLING

INDIRECT OR WATER COOLING

Direct method of cooling Metallic fins are provided on the outside surface of the cylinder Fins: Fixed to cylinder block Height:2-5cms Increases heat tranfer surface by 5 to 10 times of original value

Used widely in small engines like scooters and motor cycle engines Light weight, hence used in aircraft engines Coolant is not required This system can be used in cold climates, where if water is used it may freeze.

Comparatively it is less efficient

Types of Water Cooling System


There are two types of water cooling system :
Thermo Siphon System In this system the circulation of water is due to difference in temperature (i.e. difference in densities) of water. So in this system pump is not required but water is circulated because of density difference only.

Pump Circulation System In this system circulation of water is obtained by a pump. This pump is driven by means of engine output shaft through V-belts.

Uniform cooling of cylinder, cylinder head and valves. If we employ water cooling system, then engine need not be provided at the front end of moving vehicle. Engine is less noisy as compared with air cooled engines, as it has water for damping noise
If the water cooling system fails then it will result in severe damage of engine. The water cooling system is costlier as it has more number of parts. Also it requires more maintenance and care for its parts.

S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6

FACTOR METHOD DESIGN COOLANT LEAKAGE INSTALLATION WORKING

AIR COOLING DIRECT SIMPLE AND COSTLY DOES NOT NEED A COOLANT NIL EASY SMOOTH WORKING,CAN WITHSTAND TO CERTAIN DEGREE OF DAMAGE EASY SCOOTERS,AIRCRAFT ENGINES NON UNIFORM

WATER COOLING INDIRECT COMPLICATED AND COSTLIER WATER IS THE COOLANT PROBABILITY IS MORE DIFFICULT CANNOT WITHSTAND ANY DAMAGE IN THE SETUP DIFFICULT CARS,TRUCKS,BUSSES UNIFORM

7 8 9

MAINTANENCE USES COOLING

10

HEAT TRANSFER

LESS

350 TIMES OF AIR COOLING SYSTEM

COMPONENTS
LETS GET THESE IN OUR NOTES UNDER LIQUID COOLING

WATER JACKETS
PASSAGES MADE (CAST) INTO CYLINDER BLOCKS AND HEADS SPACES WHERE COOLANT FLOWS

WATER PUMP

CAUSES COOLANT TO FLOW USUALLY DRIVEN BY BELT FROM CRANK SHAFT SUPPORTED BY BEARNING SEAL PREVENTS COOLANT LEAKAGE

WEEP HOLE TO PREVENT LEAKING COOLANT AWAY FROM BEARING

OVER TIGHTING BELT WILL CAUSE BEARING FAILURE

UNDER TIGHTING WILL CAUSE BELT SLIPAGE ENGINE OVER HEAT WILL RESULT BELT FAILURE WILL RESULT

RADIATORS