Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

Chapter 7: Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness

  • 7.1 Introduction

  • 7.2 Specimen size requirements

  • 7.3 Plain strain fracture specimens

  • 7.4 Specimen preparation

  • 7.5 Fracture test

7.1 Introduction

In chapter 4, we have shown that the plain-strain condition leads to the largest constraint and the smallest plastic zone. Based on the Griffith-Irwin fracture theory, we can argue that the smallest plastic zone results in the lowest fracture toughness. The plain-strain fracture toughness is designated by ‘KIC’ or ‘GIC’ for mode I loading. The plain- strain toughness is used to design nuclear structures, oil pipe lines, or where the structure is subjected to low temperatures. The test methods are documented in American Society for Testing and Materials Handbooks (E-399).

7.1 Introduction In chapter 4, we have shown that the plain-strain condition leads to the largest

Small

Plane Strain Test Procedure

  • 1. Selection of specimen geometry/configuration.

  • 2. Starter notch.

  • 3. Introduction of Sharp Crack

Fatigue cracking & validity of the fatigue cracked specimen. 0.95 aav ≤ ai ≤ aav |(as aav)|/aav ≤ 0.1 amin > 0.05-in

  • 4. Fracture test.

Load versus deflection plot Fracture load Calculate SIF

a s = Crack length at the surface a av = Average Crack length a min = Minimum crack length

7.2

Specimen size requirements

Parameters those influence the validity of the plain-strain fracture toughness are the crack length, specimen thickness, and uncracked ligament (W-a). These parameters have to be large compare to the plain-strain plastic zone size (Irwin’s equation).

7.2 Specimen size requirements Parameters those influence the validity of the plain-strain fracture toughness are the

P

rp B
rp
B
a W-a W
a
W-a
W

P

Thickness B >> rp

Crack length, a >> rp Uncracked ligament, W-a >> rp

r

p

K

2

IC

  • 3 

2

ys

2

K

B 2.5

a 2.5

IC

25 r

p

y s

K

IC

y s

2

K

25 r

p

2

W

a

2.5

IC

y s

7.2 Specimen size requirements Parameters those influence the validity of the plain-strain fracture toughness are the
7.2 Specimen size requirements Parameters those influence the validity of the plain-strain fracture toughness are the

KIC

KIC

25 r

p

Crack length, a

Thickness, B

7.3 Plain Strain Fracture Toughness Test Specimens

Plain strain conditions:

  • - Highest triaxsial constraint.

  • - Smallest plastic zone (about 1/3 of plain stress)

  • - Therefore, expect smallest

fracture toughness.

American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM) - Established test procedure (E339) Developed by Ed Srawley and Frank Brown.

Compact (B = 0.25 W to 0.5 W)

K

P

B P a = 0.45 - 0.55 W W 0.25 W P 1.25 W 2 
B
P
a = 0.45 - 0.55 W
W
0.25
W
P
1.25
W
2
a 
a
 a 
2
 
0.866
4.64
13.32
14.72 
W
W
W
 
1.2 W
0.55 W

a

W

3

5.6

a

W

4

 

1 BW 2
1
BW
2
3  a  2  1    W 
3
a 
2
 1 
W

Bend (B = 0.25 W to 1.0 W)

P B W a = 0.45 - 0.55 W S=4W P/2 P/2
P
B
W
a = 0.45 - 0.55 W
S=4W
P/2
P/2

5W

K

PS

3 BW 2
3
BW
2
1  2 2     a  a  a  a 
1
2
2
 
 a 
a 
a 
a
 a 
3
1.99
1
2.15
3.93
2.7 
W
W
W
W
W
 
  
3
a  
a 
2
2
1
2
 
1 
W
 
W

7.4 Specimen Preparation

  • 1. Starter Notch

  • 2. Fatigue cracking

* 0.95

a

av

a

i

1.05

a

B B Fatigue Cracks a1 a2 a3 Notch
B
B
Fatigue
Cracks
a1
a2
a3
Notch

Normal Edge Notch

B

B
B

Chevron Notch

*

a

S

a

av

0.1 a

av

*

a

min

0.05 in

7075-T651 Al-alloy

K

IC

27

ksi

in
in

y s

79 ksi

Maximum SIF during fatigue cracking = 0.6 KIC

KIC

40 30 20 10
40
30
20
10

 

K

max FATIGUE

y s

 

2

0.042

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

 

 

K

max FATIGUE

ys

 

 

2

, inches

1.0

1.2

7.5 Fracture Test

Conduct fracture test, record load (P) and load-point displacement (v)

Load- Displacement Response Pmax Pmax PQ P5 PQ PQ=P5 P5 95% 95% 95% Load, P
Load- Displacement Response
Pmax
Pmax
PQ
P5
PQ
PQ=P5
P5
95%
95%
95%
Load, P

Displacement,

Select Critical Load, PQ Check the Validity of the test

7.5 Fracture Test • Conduct fracture test, record load (P) and load-point displacement (v) Load- Displacement

based on the above figure.

P

max

P

Q

1.1

    K    

Q

ys

    K    

Q

ys

Compute K Q from PQ

a 2.5

Check :

initial crack length

Check :

thickness

B 2.5

2

2

If yes, then

KQ =KIC, Fracture toughness of the material

Repeat for 3 to 5 specimens