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EE 6331, Spring, 2009

Advanced Telecommunication
Zhu Han

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Class 6

Feb. 5
th
, 2009


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Outline
Review
Channel capacity revisit
Free Space Propagation Model
Reflection
Diffraction
Scattering
Stochastic large scale models:
Log-distance path loss model
log-normal shadowing
Outdoor propagation models
Indoor propagation models
Homework due next Tuesday

ECE6331 Spring 2009
Large-scale small-scale propagation


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Free space propagation model
Assumes far-field (Fraunhofer region)
d >> D and d >> , where
D is the largest linear dimension of antenna
is the carrier wavelength
No interference, no obstructions
Black board 4.1
Effective isotropic radiated power
Effective radiated power
Path loss
Fraunhofer region/far field
In log scale
Example 4.1 and 4.2

ECE6331 Spring 2009
Radio Propagation Mechanisms
Refraction
Conductors & Dielectric materials (refraction)
Propagation wave impinges on an object which is large as compared to
wavelength
- e.g., the surface of the Earth, buildings, walls, etc.
Diffraction
Fresnel zones
Radio path between transmitter and receiver obstructed by surface with
sharp irregular edges
Waves bend around the obstacle, even when LOS (line of sight) does not
exist
Scattering
Objects smaller than the wavelength of the
propagation wave
- e.g. foliage, street signs, lamp posts
Clutter is small relative to wavelength


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Classical 2-ray ground bounce model
One line of sight and one ground bound

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Propagation Models
Large scale models predict behavior averaged over distances >>
Function of distance & significant environmental features, roughly
frequency independent
Breaks down as distance decreases
Useful for modeling the range of a radio system and rough capacity
planning,
Experimental rather than the theoretical for previous three models
Path loss models, Outdoor models, Indoor models
Small scale (fading) models describe signal variability on a scale of
Multipath effects (phase cancellation) dominate, path attenuation
considered constant
Frequency and bandwidth dependent
Focus is on modeling Fading: rapid change in signal over a short
distance or length of time.

ECE6331 Spring 2009
Free Space Path Loss
Path Loss is a measure of attenuation based only on the distance
to the transmitter
Free space model only valid in far-field;
Path loss models typically define a close-in point d
0
and
reference other points from there:



Log-distance generalizes path loss to account for other
environmental factors
Choose a d
0
in the far field.
Measure PL(d
0
) or calculate Free Space Path Loss.
Take measurements and derive | empirically.

2
0
0
) ( ) (
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
d
d P d P
r r
dB
dB r
d
d
d PL d P d PL
(

+ = =
0
0
2 ) ( )] ( [ ) (
dB
d
d
d PL d PL
(

+ =
0
0
) ( ) ( |

ECE6331 Spring 2009
Typical large-scale path loss


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Log-Normal Shadowing Model
Shadowing occurs when objects block LOS between transmitter
and receiver
A simple statistical model can account for unpredictable
shadowing
PL(d)(dB)=PL(d)+X0,
Add a 0-mean Gaussian RV to Log-Distance PL
Variance o is usually from 3 to 12.
Reason for Gaussian




ECE6331 Spring 2009
Measured large-scale path loss
Determine n and o by mean and variance
Equ. 4.70
Equ. 4.72
Basic of Gaussian
distribution

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Area versus Distance coverage model with
shadowing model
Percentage for
SNR larger than
a threshold
Equ. 4.79
Exam. 4.9

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Longley-Rice Model
Point-to-point from 40MHZ to 100GHz. irregular terrain model (ITS).
Predicts median transmission loss, Takes terrain into account, Uses path
geometry, Calculates diffraction losses
Inputs:
Frequency
Path length
Polarization and antenna heights
Surface refractivity
Effective radius of earth
Ground conductivity
Ground dielectric constant
Climate
Disadvantages
Does not take into account details of terrain near the receiver
Does not consider Buildings, Foliage, Multipath
Original model modified by Okamura for urban terrain

ECE6331 Spring 2009
Longley-Rice Model, OPNET implementation


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Durkins Model
It is a computer simulator for predicting field strength contours
over irregular terrain. Adopted in UK
Line of sight or non-LOS
Edge diffractions using Fresnel zone
The disadvantage are that it can not adequately predict
propagation effects due to foliage, building, and it cannot
account for multipath propagation.


Durkins model continues
The simulator has two parts.
The first part accesses a topographic data base of a proposed
service area and reconstructs the ground profile information
along the radial line joining Tx and Rx.
Assumptions
1. No multipath arrivals.
2. LOS
3. diffraction is only along radial


ECE6331 Spring 2009

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2-D Propagation Raster data
Digital elevation models (DEM) United States Geological Survey (USGS)

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Algorithm for line of sight (LOS)
Line of sight (LOS) or not

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Multiple diffraction computation


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Okumura Model
It is one of the most widely used models for signal prediction in urban areas,
and it is applicable for frequencies in the range 150 MHz to 1920 MHz
Based totally on measurements (not analytical calculations)
Applicable in the range: 150MHz to ~ 2000MHz, 1km to 100km T-R
separation, Antenna heights of 30m to 100m


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Okumura Model
The major disadvantage with the model is its low response to rapid changes
in terrain, therefore the model is fairly good in urban areas, but not as good in
rural areas.
Common standard deviations between predicted and measured path loss
values are around 10 to 14 dB.
G(hre)

m 30 m 1000
200
log 20 ) ( > >
|
.
|

\
|
=
te
te
te
h
h
h G
m 3
3
log 10 ) ( s
|
.
|

\
|
=
re
re
re
h
h
h G
m 3 m 10
3
log 20 ) ( > >
|
.
|

\
|
=
re
re
re
h
h
h G

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Okumura and Hatas model
Example 4.10

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Hata Model
Empirical formulation of the graphical data in the Okamura model.
Valid 150MHz to 1500MHz, Used for cellular systems
The following classification was used by Hata:
Urban area
Suburban area
Open area

E d B A L
dB
+ = log
C d B A L
dB
+ = log
D d B A L
dB
+ = log
b
h f A 82 . 13 log 16 . 26 55 . 69 + =
b
h B log 55 . 6 9 . 44 =
94 . 40 log 33 . 18 ) 28 / log( 78 . 4
2
+ + = f f D
4 . 5 )) 28 / (log( 2
2
+ = f C
MHz f h E
m
300 cities, large for 97 . 4 )) 75 . 11 (log( 2 . 3
2
> =
MHz f h E
m
300 cities, large for 1 . 1 )) 54 . 1 (log( 29 . 8
2
< =
cities small to medium for ) 8 . 0 log 56 . 1 ( ) 7 . 0 log 11 . 1 ( = f h f E
m

ECE6331 Spring 2009
PCS Extension of Hata Model
COST-231 Hata Model, European standard
Higher frequencies: up to 2GHz
Smaller cell sizes
Lower antenna heights

G E d B F L
dB
+ + = log
b
h f F log 82 . 13 log 9 . 33 3 . 46 + =
f >1500MHz
0
3
= G
Metropolitan centers
Medium sized city and suburban areas

ECE6331 Spring 2009
Walfisch and Bertoni Model
Path loss
L L L L
b o rts msd
= + +
(1) Free space path loss :
L d f
o
= + + 32 45 20 20
10 10
. log log
(1) (2) (3)
( ) | L h h f w L
m roof rts
+ + + = ) ( log 20 log 10 log 10 9 . 16
10 10 10
(2) Roof-top-to-street diffraction and scatter loss term :
( )
( )
( )
o
o
o
90 55 for ) 55 ( 114 . 0 0 . 4
55 35 for ) 35 ( 075 . 0 5 . 2
35 0 for 354 . 0 10
< s =
< s + =
< s + =
| | |
| | |
| | |
L
L
L
(3) Multiscreen diffraction loss :

ECE6331 Spring 2009
Walfisch and Bertonis model


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Wideband PCS Microcell Model
A 2-ray ground reflection model is a good estimate for path loss
in LOS microcells, Low antenna heights
A simple log-distance path loss model holds well for obstructed
microcells, Urban clutter
d
f
represents the distance at which the first Fresnel zone just
becomes obstructed by the ground

d h h h h
f t r t r
= + +
1
16
16
2 2 2 2 2
4



( )
PL d
n d PL d for d d
n d d n d PL d for d d
f
f f f
( )
log( ) ( )
log( / ) log( ) ( )
=
+ < <
+ + >

10 1
10 10
1 0
2 1 0

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Measured data from San Francisco


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Indoor Propagation Models
The distances covered are much smaller
The variability of the environment is much greater
Key variables: layout of the building, construction materials,
building type, where the antenna mounted, etc.
In general, indoor channels may be classified either as LOS or
OBS with varying degree of clutter
The losses between floors of a building are determined by the
external dimensions and materials of the building, as well as the
type of construction used to create the floors and the external
surroundings.
Floor attenuation factor (FAF)


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Partition
losses

ECE6331 Spring 2009
Partition
losses

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Partition losses between floors


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Partition losses between floors


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Log-distance Path Loss Model
The exponent n
depends on the
surroundings and
building type
X
o
is the variable
in dB having a
standard deviation
o.

PL d PL d n d d X ( ) ( ) log( / ) = + +
0 0
10
o

ECE6331 Spring 2009
Ericsson Multiple Breakpoint Model


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Attenuation Factor Model
FAF represents a floor attenuation factor for a specified number
of building floors.
PAF represents the partition attenuation factor for a specific
obstruction encountered by a ray drawn between the transmitter
and receiver in 3-D
o is the attenuation constant for the channel with units of dB per
meter.
PL d PL d n d d FAF
SF
( ) ( ) log( / ) = + +
0 0
10
PL d PL d n d d
MF
( ) ( ) log( / ) = +
0 0
10
PL d PL d d d d FAF ( ) ( ) log( / ) = + + +
0 0
10 o

+ PAF

+ PAF

+ PAF

ECE6331 Spring 2009
Measured indoor path loss


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Measured indoor path loss


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Measured indoor path loss


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Devasirvathams model


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Signal Penetration into Buildings
RF penetration has been found to be a function of frequency as
well as height within the building. Signal strength received
inside a building increases with height, and penetration loss
decreases with increasing frequency.
Walkers work shows that building penetration loss decrease at
a rate of 1.9 dB per floor from the ground level up to the 15
th

floor and then began increasing above the 15
th
floor. The
increase in penetration loss at higher floors was attributed to
shadowing effects of adjacent buildings.
Some devices to conduct the signals into the buildings


ECE6331 Spring 2009
Ray Tracing and Site Specific Modeling
Site specific propagation model and graphical information
system. Ray tracing. Deterministic model.
Data base for buildings, trees, etc.
SitePlanner

ECE6331 Spring 2009
Questions?