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9.

The Air Main

Trace leaks
soap connections locate source of noise leakage spray ultra-sound device

Example: hole diameter: 3 mm air loss: 0.5 m3/min (6 bar gauge) 0.5 m3/min x 60 min/h = 30 m3/h 30 m3/h x 8000 h/year = 240,000 m3/year 240,000 m3/year x 0.02 /m3 =

4,800 /year

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9. The Air Main

Leakage losses
Hole diameter

Air consumption at 6 bar (g) m3/min

Loss kW *)
This small hole (4.5 mm dia.) costs you about 500 every month

1 mm 2 mm 4 mm 6 mm

0.065 0.240 0.980 2.120

0.3 1.7 6.5 12.0

240.1360.5200.9600.-

* Electricity costs: 0.10 /kWh Service hours: 8000 h/year

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9. The Air Main

Measurement of leakage losses


by exhausting the air receiver
VR x ( pI - pF )
t Leakage volume Receiver volume Initial receiver pressure Final receiver pressure Measuring period
Feed pipe shut off Leakage volume (tools not in use!)

VL =

VL = VR = pI =

pF =
t =

Example: VR = 500 l pI = 9 bar (g) pF = 7 bar (g) t = 3 min

Leakage losses in the compressed air system: 333 l/min

VL =
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500 l x ( 9 - 7 ) D06 - 9.1D = 333 l/min 3 min


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9. The Air Main

Measurement of leakage losses


by measuring cut-in time of the compressor with consumers shut off
8 Pressure gauge 7 reading 6 (bar(g)) 5 4 T

VL = VC = t = T =

Leakage volume in m3/min Compressor volumetric flow rate in m3/min Time units during which the compressor ran on load Total time of the measurement procedure

Example:
Volumetric compressor flow rate Compressor time on load Total measurement time V= 3 m3/min t =t1+t2+t3+t4+t5 = 120 sec T= 600 sec

3
2 1

3 x 120
600

= 0.6 m3/min = 20%

Time

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9. The Air Main

Leakage measurement of the consumers


In factories where innumerable air tools, machines and equipment are used, hose connectors and valves often cause considerable leakage losses.
Using the two methods described previously, two measurements are carried out:

A
Tools, machines and equipment are connected for normal operation (total leakage)

B
The shut-off valves upstream of the connectors of the consumers are closed (air main leakage)

The difference between A and B represents the losses in the pneumatic tools, etc. and their fittings.

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9. The Air Main

Pressure drop ...


... is caused by:
high flow velocities turbulence internal friction (molecules) friction on the pipework walls Pressure drop lowers the performance of the consumers, increases the cost of compressed air generation and thus production too!
Working press. bar (g)

Performance % kW

6.0

100

3.0

5.5
5.0 4.5 4.0

86
74 62 52

2.6
2.2 1.9 1.6

Performance loss caused by pressure drop

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9. The Air Main

Pressure drop
The normal working pressure of a pnuematic tool is 6 bar (g). An increase of the pressure in the installation costs money.
Example: V = 30 m3/min demanded at 7 bar (g) 160 kW At 8 bar (g) approximately 6% more power is required, i.e. around 9.4 kW more

Costs: 9.4 kW x 0.05 /kWh x 4000 h/year = 1880 /year !


Air main: On a well designed air mains a pressure drop of 0.1 bar is normally expected! However, at low working pressures , for example 3 bar (g), a pressure drop of 0.1 bar means a relatively higher power loss than in a 7 bar (g) air main. This means: The max. pressure drop in the air main should be 1.5 % of the working pressure

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9. The Air Main

The right fittings


C E

A B

A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

Valve (we recommend ball valves) Filter (separation of water and rust) Regulator (constant working pressure) Lubricator (mostly oil mist lubricators) Quick release couplings (flexibility at the workplace) Hose (length: 3-5 m) Tool balancer (reduction of work effort)

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9. The Air Main

Pressure drop 1. Main pipework


2. Ring main (distribution) 3. Connecting lines 4. Refrigeration dryer 5. FRL unit and hose

0.03 bar 0.03 bar 0.04 bar 0.2 bar 0.5 bar 0.8 bar
3

max.

Overall pressure drop 0.8 bar

5 1

Max. pressure at compressor Pressure at consumer Difference

7.0 bar (g) 6.0 bar (g) 1.0 bar

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9. The Air Main

Ring Main
dimensioned for half flow rate and half nominal length smaller pipe diameter

Note:
make provision for section isolation add cross lines if p too high

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9. The Air Main

Spur main
Less material requirement

Note:
greater pipe diameter than in ring main extend to ring main if p too high

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9. The Air Main

Points to be observed when sizing and choosing air main pipework:


Cross-section of the pipe Air consumption Length of the piping Working pressure Pressure drop Flow resistance Pipe laying Ring/spur main Connecting lines Dead-end lines Pipe connections Fittings Fittings and connections Types of outlets Shut-off valves Stopcocks Condensate separators Lubricators Dust filters Oil filters Regulators Hoses Couplings

Choice of materials Environmental conditions (humidity, temperature chemical pollution of the air) Quality of the air (moisture content, oil content, temperature) Costs Expected working life
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9. The Air Main

Flow resistance of fittings


expressed in equivalent pipe lengths equivalent pipe length in m fitting example

25
6 3 0,3

pipe inside diameter in mm 40 50 80 100 10 5 0,5 15 7 0,6 25 10 1 30 15 1,3

125
50 20 1,6

150
60 25 1,9

Total pipe length: or roughly:


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Loverall = Lstraight + Lequivalent Loverall = 1,6 x Lstraight


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9. The Air Main Minimum diameters of pipes


FAD m3/min up to 50 m up to 12.5 up to 15,0 up to 17.5 up to 20.0 up to 25.0 up to 30.0 up to 40.0 2 1/2" 2 1/2" 2 1/2" 3" 3" 3" working pressure 7.5 bar (g) length of pipeline up to 100 m up to 200 m 2 1/2" 2 1/2" 3" 3" DN100 DN100 DN100 3" 3" DN100 DN100 DN100 DN100 DN 125
see straightline graph

over 200 m

DN100

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9. The Air Main Minimum diameters of pipes


FAD m3/min to 50 m to 0,5 to 1,0 to 1,5 to 2,0 3/4" 1" 1" 1 1/4" 1 1/4" 1 1/2" 2" 2" Working pressure 7,5 bar (g) Length of piping to 100 m 1" 1" 1 1/4" 1 1/2" 1 1/2" 2" 2" 2 1/2" to 200 m 1 1/4" 1 1/4" 1 1/2" 2"
see straight-line graph for piping

over 200 m

to 3,0
to 5,0 to 7,5 to 10,0

2"
2" 2" 2 1/2"

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9. The Air Main


Pipe length in m

Straight-line graph
for determining inside pipe diameter (steps 1 to 8)
1 2 7 3
Free air delivery m/h - m/min

Inside pipe dia. (mm)

Pressure losses bar

Systempressure bar (g)

4 8 6 5

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9. The Air Main

Air main without an air dryer

Condensate drain

FRL combination: Filter, Regulator, Lubricator

Filter, regulator

Condensate drain

Compressor package

Air receiver

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9. The Air Main

Air main with dryer


no pipeline fall vertical outlets possible

Condensate drain

Regulator Regulator, lubricator

Compressor package

Air receiver

Dryer (including condensate drain)


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9. The Air Main

Outdoor air lines


On short outdoor air lines winter operation at pressure dewpoints of + 3o C (refrigeration dryers) is also possible with: larger inside pipe diameters (no freezing) subsequent warming of the air and preventive installation of a condensate separator/filter where the pipe line re-enters a heated shop venting of the piping during periods of shutdown heating of the relevant pipe section

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9. The Air Main

Example of a frost-free outdoor condensate separator installation


drain tap protective cover inspection pit

condensate line

condensate separator

compressed air line

duct made of concrete


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9. The Air Main

Materials for pipework


Influence of temperature on the maximum permissible pressure
Rated pressure bar(g) Seamless steel pipe DIN 2448 Highest permissible working pressure for compressed for compressed air up to 120 oC air up to 200 oC

2.5 6 10 16 25

St 35 St 35 St 35 St 35 St 35

2.5 6 10 16 25

2 5 8 13 20

40
64 100

St 35.8
St 35.8 St 35.8

40
64 100

36
50 80

If the temperature increases, the yield point of all materials reduces. DIN sheet 2401 gives information on the relationship between nominal pressure and maximum permissible working pressure for various materials.
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Example: An air main designed for 6 bar (g) and subject to a test pressure of 6 bar (g) may only be operated at 5 bar (g) at temperatures above 120 0C.
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9. The Air Main

Metal pipes
Seamless steel pipe Type Material: Size: Pressures: Ends: Pipe connections: Advantages: To be noted:
Black or galvanized to DIN 2448

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Threaded pipe
Medium weight to DIN 2440 Heavy to DIN 2441 Black or galvanized Seamless St 00 DIN 1629 Welded St 33 DIN 17100 1/8" - 6" 10 - 80 bar (g) Tapered, smooth or threaded Thread, welding Numerous moulded fittings (for screw fittings) Corrosion (partly on galvanized piping too) High flow and friction resistance Leakages after long operating period Time consuming installation because of thread-cutting or welding Installation by experienced fitters

e.g. St 35 to DIN 1629


10.2 -558.8 mm 12.5 - 25 bar (g) Smooth Welding Airtight pipe connections Corrosion (on black pipe) Installation by experienced fitters

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9. The Air Main

Metal pipes
stainless steel Type: Material: Dimensions: Gauge pressure: Pipe ends: Connections: Advantages: To be noted:
Kaeser Kompressoren 2000 seamless to DIN 2462 welded to DIN 2463 e.g. material no 1.4301, 1.4541, 1.4571 6 - 273 mm

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copper
soft, in coils, to DIN 1786 hard in straight lengths to DIN 1754/1786 copper 6 - 22 mm soft 6 - 131 mm hard

aluminium
in straight lengths (6m) similar to DIN 1795 alloys seamless, die pressed up to 32 mm up to 15 bar smooth compression fittings smooth interior wall simple assembly no corrosion Oxidation possible if pipe not treated
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according to type up to 80 bar and even higher 16 - 140 bar smooth welded (inert gas) sealed connections no corrosion Laying only by experienced pipe fitter Limited fitting shapes smooth screwed, brazed (Fittings), welded no corrosion smooth interior wall
Laying needs special knowledge Copper sulphate buildup possible

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9. The Air Main


GIRAIR Polyamide
2 - 40 mm (DIN 16982) up to 100 bar plain screwed fittings

Polyethylene
10 - 160 mm (DIN 8074) 10 bar plain welding

Reinforced Polyeth.
10 - 160 mm (DIN 16893) up to 20 bar plain screwed / compression fittings

Dimensions:
Working pressure(g) at 20oC: Pipe ends: Pipe joints: Advantages:

16 16--110 110mm mm (DIN (DIN8061/62) 8061/62) 12.5 bar 12.5 bar plain adhesion

No leaks. Fittings and pipes of the same material. Not easily flammable

Withstands high pressure. Chemical resistant

No leaks. Fittings and pipes of the same material. Not easily flammable

Withstands high pressure. Chemical resistant

Simple to lay, light weight, resistant to corrosion

Disadvantages:
Limited size range available at present Higher coefficient of expansion Only normal falmmability available at present Subject to static charging at present Only legal obligation available as warranty at present Some fittings of metal

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9. The Air Main

Coding of air lines


Signs: Inscribed with wording or numbering

Compressed air 8 bar

3.1

8 bar
Sub-group number

Group number

Numerical code for compressed air

Grey = colour of group 3 "Air" RAL 7001


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