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Polity and Society

Aristotle: Man is by nature a political animal and he who by nature and not by mere accident is without a state is either above humanity or below it. In other words he says, He who is unable to live in a society or who has no need because he sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a God.

The term Politics was first used by Aristotle as master science". It is derived from the Greek word polis", meaning city. To the Greeks the city was the State and the subject that dealt with the City State and its problems was designated Politics. Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions

Political Science ( definitions )

Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political system and political behavior. Political systems are developed simply because human beings are social and as they cannot live without entering into the relationships of influence, consequently, whenever these relationships become stable and repetitive, political systems exist.

Robert Dahl thus defines a political system," as any persistent pattern of human relationship that involves, to a significant extent, power, rule or authority
Political behavior concentrates on the study of the behavior of the individuals and groups within political institutions.

Political Science
Paul Janet, Political science is the part of social science which treats the foundations of the State and the principles of the Government. Garris , famous German author is of the opinion that Political Science deals with the origin, development, purpose, and all political problems of the state. Lord Acon, Political science is concerned with the State and with conditions essential for its development.

Aims and scope

Study of State and Government Political science is the science which is concerned with the State, endeavors to understand and comprehend the State and the Government. We come to know that despite the differences found between the State and the Government, the scope of one another cannot be separated from the other. It is to be noted that the State is an agency under which the Government functions

b. The study of associations and institutions in the organized way the fundamental problems of Political science include, first, an investigation of the origin and the nature of the State, second, an inquiry into nature, history and forms of political institutions and third, deduction there from so far as possible, of laws of political growth and development. There are many types of institutions (religious, social, cultural, economic, educational, political) in a country or in a society and, the State, an institution that stands supreme controls all of them.

c. Study of National and International Problems and the Political Study of Man Though the term Political science is related to the English word Politics which itself has been derived from the Greek word Polis". It stands for city State. However the study of political science is not limited to city States only but it also deals with the national and international problems. It will be not wrong to say that the scope of Political science also includes the study of man, otherwise the study of Political science would remain incomplete.

d. Study of the Past, Present and the Future Development of State Gettell writes : In its historical aspects, Political Science deals with the origin of the State and the development of political theories in the pastIn dealing with the present, it attempts to describe and classify existing political institutions and ideas. It also looks to the future, to improving politics, organizations and activities in the light of the changing conditions and ethical standards.

Politics and legitimate power

Legitimate power comes from the authority and position in the chain of command. It comes from the ability to influence because of position. People at higher position have power over the people below. Legitimate power increases with added responsibilities and it can be decreased if one fails to meet all the responsibilities.

According to Robert Dahl, legitimacy is considered a basic condition for rule: without at least a minimal amount of legitimacy, a government will lead to frequent deadlocks or collapse in the long run.

Charismatic authority : Legitimacy based on the charisma of the leader, often partly based on the perception that this leader has certain extra or supernatural attributes. Example: a religious leader. Traditional authority : Legitimacy based on tradition; e.g., people accept the government for the simple fact that it has been around for so long and is based on popular customs and usages. Example: monarchy.

Rational/legal authority : Legitimacy based on the perception that a government's powers are derived from set procedures, principles, and laws which are often complex and are written down as part of the constitution. Example: democracy