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Human Resource

The sum of knowledge , skills , attitudes , commitment, values and the like of the people of an organisation.

It represents the activities that prepare an employee for future challenges and responsibilities.

A planned way of developing employees, groups and the total organisation to achieve organisational goals in an atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence. A set of interrelated activities ,by which human potentialities are assessed ,selectively upgraded and appropriately deployed for achievement of goals, which foster human dignity.

Origin of concept of H R D
The commodity concept. The factor of production concept. Goodwill concept. Paternalistic concept. Humanitarian concept. Human resource concept. The emerging concept-H R D.

Labour is regarded as a commodity to be bought and sold. Workers are like machine tools. Welfare measures will have a positive impact on workers productivity. Management satisfy the needs of employees,ie protective attitude towards employees. To improve productivity needs of workers must be met. Employees are the most valuable assets of the organisation. Employees should be accepted as partners in the progress of the company.employees should have a feeling that organisation is their own.managers offer better QWL and provide oppurtunity to people to exploit their potential fully.


System. Planned process. Involves development of competencies at four levels. Interdisciplinary concept. Improves quality of life.

The capabilities of each employee as an individual. The capabilities of each individual in relation to present role. The capabilities of each individual in relation to expected future role. The dyadic relationship between each employee and employer. Team spirit and functioning in every organisational unit Collaboration among different units of the organisation. Enable the capabilities of individuals, teams and entire organisation.

Develop competencies of people. Improves team work. Increases organisational effectiveness. Full utilisation of individual potential. Provides higher Q W L. A signal to the employees that management believes that they are important. Foster commitment of human resources. Provides two-way communication. Focuses on need satisfaction. Provides job enrichment.




Development functions.
Training ,learning & development. Career planning & development. Performance & potential appraisal. Employee empowerment.

Maintenance functions
Employee counselling,coaching and mentoring. QWL

Control functions
HRD audit Governance of ethics


Top management philosophy & understanding of HRD. Competent HRD staff. Attitude of line managers. Support of union and employees. Use of appropriate HRD system. Periodical review exercises.

Training & development. Performance & potential appraisal. Career planning & development. Empowerment.

Competencies of HRD manager

Business skills. Leadership skills. Consulting skills. Technical skills. Interpersonal skills. Global mindset.

Role and responsibilities of HRD manager

HRD strategic advisor. HRD system designer and developer. Organisation change consultant. Organisation design consultant. Learning programme specialist. Instructor/facilitator. Individual development and career consultant. Performance consultant. Researcher.

The HRD manager has to function under various constraints-internal & external. In this role the issues concerning an orgns external & internal people are brought to attention of strategic decision makers. HRD SYSTEM DESIGNER & DEVELOPER Designing and preparing Hrsystems for implementation so that HRD systems are mutually reinforcing and maxi impact on orgnl performance & OD. ORGANISATION CHANGE CONSULTANT Facilitating the devpt & implementation of strategies for transforming orgns. ORGANISATION DESIGN CONSULTANT Identify the work required to fulfill orgnl strategies.It involves organising the work that makes efficient & effective use of resources. LEARNING PGM SPECIALIST Learning needs r identified to design and develop structured learning programs and materials. INSTRUTOR/FACILITATOR Information is presented and lead structured learning experience &GD r facilitated. INDI DEVP & CAREER CONSULTANT Help people to assess their competencies, values and goals so that they can plan &implement devpt action. PERFORMANCE CONSULTANT Assisting indi to add value in the work place.HRD people have a coaching & consulting role. RESEARCHER Assessing HRDpractices and programs and their impact empirically. Communicate the result so that orgn &its people accelerate their change and devpt.

The strategic HR framework approach. The integrative frame work. Human capital appraisal approach. HRD scorecard approach. PCMM approach

The strategic HR frame work approach

It offer specific tools and path to identify how an organisation can leverage its HRDpractices.Three important elements are business strategy , organisational capabilities and HRD practices.

The integrative framework approach

Three path through which HRD practices contribute to business performance.1)by building organisational capabilities.2)by improving employee satisfaction3)by shaping customer satisfaction. Argued that HRD should be business driven ,impact driven , forward looking and innovative and focusing on entire HRD system(taking into a/c the synergies exist among HRD practices)

Human capital appraisal approach (knowledge&exp+personal pdty+personal creativity+E I To create value with in an orgn

5 stages in the management of human capital: *Clarification stage ,assessment stage , design stage implementation stage and monitoring stage 5 areas of human capital management *Recruitment, retention & retirement ; rewards &performance mgmt; career development and training ; organisational structures ; human capital enablers.
These are used to evaluate and manage the human capital .

HRD score card approach It measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the HR function in producing those employees behaviour that are important for a firm in achieving its strategic objectives A right business impact in terms of HRD systems ,competencies and culture which can be assessed through a well formulated HRD audit. PCMM approach . The People Capability Maturity Model The basic premise is that practice cannot be improved , if it cannot be repeated .The PCMM includes practices like communication ,managing performance , training ,compensation , competency development, career development and team building.

Helps to procure right people at right time and make them effectively utilised. Improve the communication system in the organisation. Improve the capabilities of people. Improve employee commitment to the organisation. Provide an opportunity for continuous and all round growth of employees through career planning. Improve collaboration and team work. Improve problem solving and adaptation skill of employees. Generate a lot of useful data which facilitate H R planning and control.


Institutional level. MACRO LEVEL National level.

HRD SYSTEMS The purpose of HRD system is to build the competencies and commitment of individuals, teams and the entire organisation as a whole through a variety of instruments . The instruments helps to ensure maximum achievement of goals of HRD . HRD system consists of following components-career system -work planning system -development system -self renewal system -culture subsystem

The system approach to HRDhelps to facilitates its contribution towards the mission and objectives of the organisation The instruments available for an organisation are put into subsystem and become HRD system or subsystem. Training ,performance appraisal, potential appraisal&development,employee counseling&coaching,career planning & development,mentoring,role analysis,OD, team building activities etc.are instruments of the subsystem.

Career sys-employees r devped thru proper appln of performance & pot appl,career planning & devpt activities.this activities r linked to business str of the orgn. Work planning sys- understanding orgn mission&obj helps employees to plan their works &o/p to achieve obj and can be reviewed for making appropriate improvements. Devpt sys-employees skills need to be conti ly developed through training , learning , coaching etc so that future organisational challenges and reqts can be adequately met. Self renewal sys-orgn being interactive social sys must ensure adaptability to their envt thru feedback and research related activities .this require activities for employees like team building Culture sub sys-a climate that set norms, values and culture and ensure high level of motivation for employees


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Role analysis Data bank Appraisal Counseling Self development Training Manpower forecast Corporate planning Succession planning Career planning Job rotation and transfer

Role analysis-a tech for maxing human contri bution to the must be periodically conducted to keep the role profile relevant to the needs of the employees and the is the process of collecting,analysing and recording information about the reqts of roles to provide basis for a role profile. Data bank-the process of maintaining systematic information about the individual employees .it becomes the foundation on which various subset of HRD are developed to enhance organisational improvements and effectiveness strategies. Appraisal-is the process by which organisations evaluate the performance of employees w r t their suitability in their present job and accessing potential for future impacts manpower forecasting ,training development and career planning and development. Counseling-it is the process of dealing with emotional problems of employees with the general objective of decreasing the tension of the employee.It may be many types. Self development-it comprises the development of the refers education or training,counseling and coaching of personal transformation and inner pathways to solve social and psychological issues. (Contd)

Training-refers to the systematic process of developing the job related competencies of employees for present and future roles and responsibilities in the organisation . Designed to increase employees knowledge , skills and abilities to foster job performance improvement. Manpower forecast-it is the process of determining the number of employees needed at some future time and estimating the number of current employees who will be available to fill various jobs at some future is vital to the survival of an organisation. Corporate planning-it is the process of formulation of methods by which organisations goals and objectives are to be achieved. Succession planning-it is the process of getting the right number of people with the right skills, experiences and competencies in the right job at the right time.It is designed to ensure the continued effective performance of an organisation. Career planning-process of systematically matching career goals and individual capabilities with opportunities for their fulfillment. It involves -disseminating career information to all employees. -planning career path for individuals and group of employees. -planning developmental strategies for employees with low potential. Job rotation & transfer-systematically moving employees from one job to another with a specific objective.

The acquisition and development of employees skills and competencies through sophisticated and systematic selection ,induction training and appraisal has a positive impact on quality and productivity. It leads to better motivation within the organisation. To maintain the effectiveness of various subsystems of HRD, periodic HRD audit must be conducted to identify gaps, obsolescence etc from time to time in order to maintain a responsive HRD system.