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What is a Pump ? A pump is a device that moves fluids or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.

. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid.

Gravity pumps Gravity pumps include the syphon and Heron's fountain and there also important qanat or foggara systems that simply use downhill flow to take water from far-underground aquifers in high areas to consumers at lower elevations. The hydraulic ram is also sometimes called a gravity pump.

Pumps Centrifugal- Single Stage Multistage Axial Mixed Flow Positive DisplacementGear Type Screw Type Reciprocating Type. Jet Pump

A pump transfers liquids from a region of LOW pressure to a region of HIGH pressure. A pump is a device that moves fluids , or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, an engine of some type, or wind power.

Positive displacement pump A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount, and forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. Some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume is constant through each cycle of operation.

Positive displacement pump behaviour and safety

Positive displacement pumps, can produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter what the discharge pressure. Thus, positive displacement pumps are constant flow machines. A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the discharge side. A positive displacement pump operating against a closed discharge valve continues to produce flow and the raise the pressure in the discharge line increases until the line bursts. A safety valve on the discharge side of the positive displacement pump is therefore necessary. The internal valve is usually only used as a safety precaution. An external relief valve in the discharge line, with a return line back to the suction line or supply tank provides increased safety.

Positive displacement types

A positive displacement pump can be further classified according to the mechanism used to move the fluid: Rotary-type positive displacement: internal gear, screw, flexible vane or sliding vane, helical twisted roots or liquid ring vacuum pumps Reciprocating-type positive displacement: piston or diaphragm pumps

Rotary positive displacement pumps

Rotary pumps move fluid using a rotating mechanism that creates a vacuum that captures and draws in the liquid. Advantages: Rotary pumps are very efficient because they naturally remove air from the lines, eliminating the need to bleed the air from the lines manually. Drawbacks: The pump demands very close clearances between the rotating pump and the outer edge, making it rotate at a slow, steady speed. If rotary pumps are operated at high speeds, the fluids cause erosion, which eventually causes enlarged clearances that liquid can pass through, which reduces efficiency.

Piston and Plunger Pump

Positive Displacement Lobe Pump


Scroll Pump
The red casing is stationary. The black spiral revolves in the casing to draw fluid and compress it.

Twin Screw Pump

Gear Pump

Sliding Vanes Eccentric Rotation


Centrifugal Pump with backward vanes.(The vanes can be Radial or Forward also)

Velocity Diagrams
Radial, Backward & Forward curved vanes FORWARD BLADES GIVE HIGHEST VELOCITY







Closed impellar

Open Impeller - Non Clogging (For slurry)

Centrifugal Pump Note the expanding Volute


Axial Pump (Generally they are mixed flow)

In pure axial pump the Motor has to be in the pipe.

Axial Flow Pump Twisted blades


Jet Pump
Works on Bernoullis Principle. As velocity increases, the pressure falls. Total energy remains constant.

Boiler Feed Pump

Centrifugal Pump
Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or electric motor. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing), from where it exits. The reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential energy of water pressure into mechanical rotational energy. 25

Multistage centrifugal pumps

A centrifugal pump containing two or more impellers is called a multistage centrifugal pump. The impellers may be mounted on the same shaft or on different shafts. For higher pressures at the outlet, impellers can be connected in series. For higher flow output impellers can be connected in parallel. A common application of the multistage centrifugal pump is the boiler feed water pump. All energy transferred to the fluid is derived from the mechanical energy driving the impeller. This can be measured at isentropic compression, resulting in a slight temperature increase (in addition to the pressure increase).


Power Input to a PUMP

Pi = Q H/ where: (SI Units ) Pi is the input power required (W) is the fluid density (kg/m3) is the standard acceleration of gravity (9.8 m/s2) H is the Head added to the flow (m) Q is the flow rate (m3/s) is the efficiency of the pump plant as a decimal.


If we consider water as the fluid, = 1000 Kg/M3; g = 9.81 M/Sec 2; Q = 1 M3 / Second ; H = 10 Meters. = 0.85 (Motor + Pump) Then Power required in watts =1000 x 9.81 x 1 x 10 / 0.85 = 115411.76 Watts or = 115.41 KW


BFP - 210 MW (200 KHI) p 1000 Kg/M3 g 9.81 Q 430 m3/Hr Q 0.119 m3/sec H 1836 Meters n-Motor 0.75 n-Pump 0.75 n-Composit 0.5625 Watts 3824592 KW 3825 Actual Motor Rating = 4000 KW

The head added by the pump (H) is a sum of the static lift, the head loss due to friction and any losses due to valves or pipe bends all expressed in metres of fluid. The value for the pump efficiency, , may be stated for the pump itself or as a combined efficiency of the pump and motor system.


Difficulties faced in centrifugal pumps: Cavitationthe net positive suction head (NPSH) of the system is too low for the selected pump Wear of the Impellercan be worsened by suspended solids Corrosion inside the pump caused by the fluid properties Overheating due to low flow.(Churning) Leakage along rotating shaft Lack of primecentrifugal pumps must be filled (with the fluid to be pumped) in order to operate

Note how neck rings prevent recirculation


Centrifugal pumps contain rotating impellers within stationary pump casings. To allow the impeller to rotate freely within the pump casing, a small clearance is designed to be maintained between the impeller and the pump casing. To maximize the efficiency of a centrifugal pump, it is necessary to minimize the amount of liquid leaking through this clearance from the high pressure or discharge side of the pump back to the low pressure or suction side.

Some wear or erosion will occur at the point, where the impeller and the pump casing nearly come into contact. This wear is due to the erosion caused by liquid leaking through this tight clearance and other causes. As wear occurs, the clearances become larger and the rate of leakage increases.

To minimize the cost of pump maintenance, centrifugal pumps are designed with wearing rings. Wearing rings are replaceable rings that are attached to the impeller and/or the pump casing to allow a small running clearance between the impeller and the pump casing without causing wear of the actual impeller or pump casing material. These wearing rings are designed to be replaced periodically during the life of a pump and prevent the more costly replacement of the impeller or the casing.


Axial-flow pump
An axial-flow pump, is a pump that essentially consists of a propeller (an axial impeller) in a pipe. The propeller can be driven directly by a sealed motor in the pipe or by electric motor or petrol/diesel engines mounted to the pipe from the outside or by a rightangle drive shaft that pierces the pipe. Fluid particles, in course of their flow through the pump, do not change their radial locations since the change in Diameter at the entry (called 'suction') and the exit (called 'discharge') of the pump is very small. Hence the name "axial" pump. There is no radial movement of the fluid. 37

Pump specific speed

Low-specific speed radial flow impellers develop hydraulic head through centrifugal force. Pumps of higher specific speeds develop head partly by centrifugal force and partly by axial force. An axial flow or propeller pump with a specific speed of 10,000 or greater generates its head exclusively through axial forces. Radial impellers are generally low flow/high head designs whereas axial flow impellers are high flow/low head designs.

Centrifugal pump impellers have specific speed values ranging from 500 to 10,000 (English units), Radial flow pumps at 500-4000, Mixed flow at 2000-8000 and Axial flow pumps at 7000-20,000. Values of specific speed less than 500 are associated with positive displacement pumps. As the specific speed increases, the ratio of the impeller outlet diameter to the inlet or eye diameter decreases. This ratio becomes 1.0 for a true axial flow impeller.

Specific Speed-Metric System Ns = n (Q)1/2 / (g H)3/4 where: Ns- is specific speed (unitless) N - is pump rotational speed (radians per second) Q - is flow rate (m/s) at the point of best efficiency. H - is total head (meters) per stage at the point of best efficiency g - is acceleration due to gravity (m/s)

Selecting between Centrifugal or Positive Displacement Pumps

Flow Rate and Pressure Head The Centrifugal Pump has varying flow depending on the system pressure or head The Positive Displacement Pump has a constant flow regardless of the system pressure or head.. Capacity and Viscosity In the Centrifugal Pump the flow is reduced when the viscosity is increased In the Positive Displacement Pump the flow is increased when viscosity is increased Liquids with high viscosity fill the clearances of a Positive Displacement Pump causing a higher volumetric efficiency and a Positive Displacement Pump is better for high viscosity applications. A Centrifugal Pump becomes very inefficient at even modest viscosity. 41

Mechanical Efficiency Changing the system pressure or head has little or no effect on the flow rate in the Positive Displacement Pump Changing the system pressure or head has a dramatic effect on the flow rate in the Centrifugal Pump Net Positive Suction Head - NPSH In a Centrifugal Pump, NPSH varies as a function of flow determined by pressure In a Positive Displacement Pump, NPSH varies as a function of flow determined by speed. Reducing the speed of the Positive Displacement Pump, reduces the NPSH 42

Losses in Pumps & Efficiency

Internal losses hydraulic losses - disk friction in the impeller, loss due to rapid change in direction an velocities through the pump volumetric losses - internal recirculation at wear rings and bushes External losses mechanical losses - friction in seals and bearings . The efficiency of the pump at the designed point is normally maximum and is called the Best Efficiency Point - BEP It is possible to operate the pump at other points than BEP, but the efficiency of the pump will always be lower than BEP. 43

Best Efficiency Point


Centrifugal Pump Parts


Multi-Stage B.F.P.


Basic Mechanical Seal




High Pressure BFP Sulzer make


Condensate Extraction Pump


Sealing for CEP

The CEP has negative suction. Hence any opening will result in air ingress from the atmosphere. So, the glands of the pump and suction side valves are provided with sealing water tapped from the pump discharge. Even the glands of condenser level indicator isolating valves must be made leak proof. If there is air ingress in level indicator, correct level indication is not possible.

Parts of CEP




Balancing Scheme


Balancing Disc


Gland packing Stuffing Box


Mechanical Seal



Boiler feed pump is the major power consumer among all power consuming equipment in the power plant. BFP may constitute about 25% of the total auxiliary power consumption. (4% of Power Generated) BFP Main Parameters for 210 MW unit
Motor Speed Disch. head Capacity Power kW mWC TPH RPM 200 KHI 1834.6 430 4000 4320 FK 6D 30 Model







B.F.P.- Protections NPSH (Minimum pressure at suction to avoid flashing) Minimum Flow Valve (Churning) Balancing Leak-off T between Inlet & Outlet Feed Water Temperature. Lubricating oil Pressure Bearing Temperature & Vibrations.


Condensate Cycle


Feed water cycle



System head curve

Pump Head Flow curve

Pump Operating Point


Flow wise , this is the largest pump in a TPS. The Cooling Water Flow is approximately 100 times the steam flow condensing in the condenser. The make up water rate is equal to the rate of steam flow to the condenser + Drift loss + Blow down loss. C.W. Pumps may be located close to the condenser or Located in a separate pump house between the main plant and the cooling towers. These are generally vertical mixed flow pumps. But horizontal, centrifugal pumps are also used.

Louvres & Drift Eliminators



Avoiding over sizing of pump
Pump Curve at Const. Speed 70 m 50 m 42 m Head Meters Static Head 300 500

Pump Efficiency 77%

Oversize Pump

B Partially closed valve


Full open valve

System Curves

Required Pump

Operating Points

Flow (m3/hr)




Avoiding Over sizing of Pump by impeller trimming
28.6 kW

14.8 kW


ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES Provision of variable speed drive


Energy Conservation Possibilities- Summary

Improvement of systems and drives.
Use of energy efficient pumps Replacement of inefficient pumps Trimming of impellers Correcting inaccuracies of the Pump sizing Use of high efficiency motors Integration of variable speed drives into pumps: The integration of adjustable speed drives (ASD) into compressors could lead to energy efficiency improvements, depending on load characteristics. High Performance Lubricants: The low temperature fluidity and high temperature stability of high performance lubricants can increase energy efficiency by reducing frictional losses. Booster pump application Centralisation/ decentralisation Categorising according to the pressure requirement

ESP duct modification

original arrangement . LHS half only is shown in the plan

1.8 METER FROM APH 2-inlets


4 OUTLETS to E.S.P. 2 x 2.5 mtr.

ESP path#1

ESP path# 2 2.5 mtr x 4 mtr BUS DUCT

1.8 mtr x 6 mtr duct from APH

Suggest modification

4 OUTLETS to E.S.P. 2 x 2.5 mtr.

.8 METER FROM APH 2-inlets


ESP path#1


ESP path# 2