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Presented By A.Bhanu Swetha 09/455.

Satellite: A celestial body that orbits a planet

Why satellite communication?


Microwave band of frequency is used High frequency waves travel in straight line Earth is curved Solution: satellite An earth station transmits the signal up to the

satellite-called the up-link and is transmitted on one frequency. The satellite receives the signal and retransmits it on the down link which is on another frequency.

Overview
What is satellite comm. Types of Satellite comm. Advantages Disadvantages Applications

Satellite Communication
Communication is the transfer of message or

signals from transmitter at one point to another point i.e. receiver. If the above comm. is done with the help of satellite, it is said to be satellite comm. From the transmitter the signal which is basically a modulated microwaves is sent to the satellite. Then the satellite amplifies the signals and sent it back to the receivers antenna on the earth.

Block Diagram Of Satellite Communication

satellite transponders

Earth Transmitte r

Earth Receiver

Types of Satellite orbits


Satellite Orbits GEO LEO MEO Molniya Orbit

Geostationary Earth Orbit(GEO)


These satellites are in

orbit 35,863 km above the earths surface along the equator. Objects in Geostationary orbit revolve around the earth at the same speed as the earth rotates.

GEO (contd.)
Advantages
A

GEO satellites distance from earth gives it a large coverage area, almost a fourth of the earths surface. GEO satellites have a 24 hour view of a particular area. These factors make it ideal for satellite broadcast and other multipoint applications.

GEO (contd...)
Disadvantages
A

GEO satellites distance also cause it to have a weak and time delay in the signal. GEO satellites, centered above the equator, cannot broadcast signals to polar regions

Low Earth Orbit (LEO)


LEO satellites are much closer to the earth than

GEO satellites, ranging from 500 to 1,500 km above the surface. LEO satellites dont stay in fixed position relative to the surface, and are only visible for 15 to 20 minutes each pass. A network of LEO satellites is necessary for LEO satellites to be useful

LEO (contd)
Advantages
A

LEO satellites compared to GEO gives a better signal strength and less time delay. A LEO satellites smaller area of coverage is less of a waste of bandwidth.

Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)


A MEO satellite is in

orbit somewhere between 8,000 km and 18,000 km above the earths surface. MEO satellites are similar to LEO satellites in functionality.

MEO (Contd)
MEO

satellites are visible for much longer period than LEO satellites usually 2 to 8 hours. MEO satellites have a larger coverage area than LEO satellites.

Other Orbits
Molniya Orbit Satellite
Molniya

Orbit is an elliptical orbit. The satellite remains in a nearly fixed position relative to earth for eight hours. Useful in near polar regions.

Advantages of Satellite Communication


The advantages of satellite communication

over terrestrial communication are:

The coverage area of a satellite greatly exceeds

that of a terrestrial system. Transmission cost of a satellite is independent of the distance from the center of the coverage area. Satellite to Satellite communication is very precise. Higher Bandwidths are available for use.

Disadvantages of Satellite Communication


The disadvantages of satellite communication: Launching satellites into orbit is costly. Satellite bandwidth is gradually becoming used up. There is a larger propagation delay in satellite communication than in terrestrial communication.

Applications
Service Types Point to Point Communication Satellite Television/Radio Mobile service - Satellite Phones Video Conference National Defense Direct PC