You are on page 1of 18



Rural areas are facing major challenges today which arise mainly from globalization, demographic change and the rural migration of young, welltrained people. Rural areas - are those which are not classified as urban areas. They are outside the jurisdiction of municipal corporations and committees and notified town area committees (Singh, 1986). DEVELOPMENT - Development is a process of continues rise in the capability of the people to control their present and future well being (Cuyno, et al., 1982).

The definition embraces three basic concepts: It is a process suggesting change in peoples outlook, capabilities and way of life; Mans capability to accomplish work by him or with minimum assistance; Control of oneself. Therefore, development as a process involves both economic growth and social development. From the economist point of view, development is usually associated with the material well being of a given society.

To the layman, development means having adequate food, i.e. the opportunity to eat three times a day; adequate education or being able to send the children to school, even just high school, trade school; enough income to meet the basic needs like clothing, housing, food and free from sickness. RURAL DEVELOPMENT As a concept, it connotes overall development in the rural areas with a view to improve the quality of life of the rural people. As a phenomenon, it is the result of interactions between various physical, technological, economic, socio-cultural, institutional factors.

As a strategy, it is designed to improve the economic and social well-being of a specific group of people the rural poor.

THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT 1. Theory of Modernisation

According to this theory; modern societies are more productive, children are better educated, and the needy receive more welfare. Modernisation is a progressive process which in the long run is not only inevitable but desirable.

It assumes that Third World countries are traditional and that Western countries are modern. ( Modernisation sees rich countries as helpers of poor countries. )

2. Theory of dependency
this states that Underdevelopment is not a condition: it is an active process of impoverishment linked to development. That is, some parts of the world are underdeveloped because others are developed. They are not separate processes but two aspects of the same process. poverty in the Third World is not traditional or accidental. It is a necessary companion to the richness of the developed world. The expansion of the industrial world deformed the rest of the world. ( Dependency sees them as the main obstacle to the well-being of the poorer countries. )

3. Theory of Globalization This theory has 3 main assumptions: a. cultural factors are the determinant aspect in every society. b. it is not important, under current world conditions to use the nation-state as the unit of analysis, since global communications and international ties are making this category less useful. c. with more standardization in technological advances, more and more social sectors will be able to connect themselves with other groups around the world. This situation will involve the dominant and nondominant groups from each nation.

The rural development strategy for the Philippines identifies the following:
1. Deepen and implement key structural reforms to help ensure a sustained, higher, and broad-based growth of agriculture, by removing policy and institutional distortions and making the sector more efficient and internationally more competitive; 2. Facilitate increased and prioritized strategic public and private investments; 3. Improve natural resource management; and (iv) Strengthen institutional framework, capacity and performance

The possible outcomes for the strategies stated: 1. increased rural incomes and employment; 2. more equitable access to productive resources; 3. sustainable development of natural resources/enhanced ecological integrity 4. empowerment of rural communities/human capital development.

Rural Development Approach

Within the traditional sector, agriculture is more a way of life than a sector of the economy but Men and not farms are the centre of interest and the object of rural development. In order to reach its goal, rural development tries to improve the situation in rural areas from all possible angles. It includes measures to modernize agricultural techniques, but also the creation of supply and marketing institutions and credit facilities. In order to make the best possible use of these facilities, it includes training and extension service.

Transportation plays a role as stimulus of economic activity. Communication, health, community development and rural industries are important aspects. Last .but not least, a proper local administration to plan, coordinate, implement and supervise all measures is one of the most important aspects Rural development has to be planned according to given natural, economic and sociological conditions. These tend to vary from area to area, and, therefore, detailed planning for rural development cannot be done at a national level.

Rural poverty approaches, policies and strategies in the Philippines

Over the past two decades, the Government of the Philippines has singled out poverty reduction as one of its highest priorities. The current Medium-Term Development Plan 20042010 (MTDP) defines policies and programmes designed to fight poverty by building prosperity for the greatest number of Filipino people. The MTDP focuses on: macroeconomic stability, with equitable growth based on free enterprise

modernization of agriculture and fisheries, with a focus on social equity comprehensive development that includes protection for vulnerable groups, such as women, children and the elderly good governance and the rule of law Since agriculture plays a major role in generating incomes and employment in rural areas, development of the sector is an essential part of any programme to reduce poverty. The MTDP notes that the agricultural sector alone cannot substantially alleviate poverty in rural areas. The plan adopts more a holistic approach to reducing rural poverty through the promotion of agribusiness.

Development of rural microenterprises is a key element in the government's strategy The plan gives priority to: supporting rural enterprises and cooperatives constructing more roads connecting farmers to markets providing farmers and indigenous peoples with greater access to land, credit and technology lessening exploitation of farmers and fishers providing more strategic, effective and timely interventions and safety nets improving the quality of life of poor rural people

The government's overall strategy focuses on creating 6 to 10 million jobs, providing education for all, and reducing the incidence of poverty from 34 per cent to 17 per cent. The core poverty eradication programme is known as KALAHI, meaning "linking arms against poverty". It promotes more rapid asset reform, including agrarian reform and reforms involving ancestral domain issues. The programme works to make essential services, including clean water and health care, more accessible and more affordable. It supports income-generating activities through credit and capacity-building, and participation of poor people in decision-making. A programme goal is to provide protection and security for vulnerable poor people, including children, young people with special needs, women in difficult circumstances, people with disabilities and the elderly.