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Pembangunan Putrajaya Dan Cyberjaya Dalam Kontex Jihad

ABDUL SHUKOR KHAIRUL AIMAN AIZAD MUHAMMAD ANUAR MOHD HAFIZ B071110341 B071110290 B071110333 B071110407 B071110067

PENGENALAN
ASAL USUL PUTRAJAYA & CYBERJAYA

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JIHAD

Biometrics

Engineering Definition and Approaches Definition, Criteria for Selection Survey of Current Biometrics and Relative Properties Introduction to socio-legal implications and issues

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Recap Identification in the 21st Century

Dispersion of people from their Natural ID Centers Social units have grown to tens of thousands or millions/billions. Need to assure associations of identity with end-to-end transactions without physical presence Project your presence (ID) instantly, accurately, and securely across any distance
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Identification Methods

We need to achieve this recognition automatically in order to authenticate our identity. Identity is not a passive thing, but associated with an act or intent involving the person with that identity Seek a manageable engineering definition.
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Biometric Identification

Pervasive use of biometric ID is enabled by automated systems


Enabled by inexpensive embedded computing and sensing. Computer controlled acquisition, processing, storage, and matching using biometrics.

Biometric systems are one solution to increasing demand for strong authentication of actions in a global environment.

Biometrics tightly binds an event to an individual

A biometric can not be lost or forgotten, however a biometric must be enrolled.


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What is an Automated Biometric System?

An automated biometric system uses biological, physiological or behavioral characteristics to automatically authenticate the identity of an individual based on a previous enrollment event. For the purposes of this course, human identity authentication is the focus. But in general, this need not necessarily be the case.

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Characteristics of a Useful Biometric

If a biological, physiological, or behavioral characteristic has the following properties

Universality Uniqueness Permanence Collectability

.then it can potentially serve as a biometric for a given application.


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Useful Biometrics

1. Universality

Universality: Every person should possess


this characteristic In practice, this may not be the case Otherwise, population of nonuniversality must be small < 1%

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Useful Biometrics

2. Uniqueness

Uniqueness: No two individuals possess the same


characteristic. Genotypical Genetically linked (e.g. identical twins will have same biometric) Phenotypical Non-genetically linked, different perhaps even on same individual Establishing uniqueness is difficult to prove analytically May be unique, but uniqueness must be distinguishable
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Useful Biometrics

3. Permanence

Permanence: The characteristic does not change


in time, that is, it is time invariant

At best this is an approximation Degree of permanence has a major impact on the system design and long term operation of biometrics. (e.g. enrollment, adaptive matching design, etc.) Long vs. short-term stability

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Useful Biometrics

4. Collectability

Collectability: The characteristic can be


quantitatively measured.

In practice, the biometric collection must be:


Non-intrusive Reliable and robust Cost effective for a given application

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Current/Potential Biometrics

Voice Infrared facial thermography Fingerprints Face Iris Ear EKG, EEG Odor

Gait Keystroke dynamics DNA Signature Retinal scan Hand & finger geometry Subcutaneous blood vessel imaging

What is consensus evaluation of current biometrics based on these four criteria?


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System-Level Criteria

Our four criteria were for evaluation of the viability of a chosen characteristic for use as a biometric Once incorporated within a system the following criteria are key to assessment of a given biometric for a specific application:

Performance User Acceptance Resistance to Circumvention


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Central Privacy, Sociological, and Legal Issues/Concerns

System Design and Implementation must adequately address these issues to the satisfaction of the user, the law, and society.

Is the biometric data like personal information (e.g. such as medical information) ? Can medical information be derived from the biometric data? Does the biometric system store information enabling a persons identity to be reconstructed or stolen? Is permission received for any third party use of biometric information?
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Central Privacy, Sociological, and Legal Issues/Concerns (2)

Continued:

What happens to the biometric data after the intended use is over? Is the security of the biometric data assured during transmission and storage?

Contrast process of password loss or theft with that of a biometric. How is a theft detected and new biometric recognized?

Notice of Biometric Use. Is the public aware a biometric system is being employed?
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Biometric System Design

Target Design/Selection of Systems for:

Acceptable overall performance for a given application Acceptable impact from a socio-legal perspective

Examine the architecture of a biometric system, its subsystems, and their interaction Develop an understanding of design choices and tradeoffs in existing systems Build a framework to understand and quantify performance
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Automated Biometric Identification: A Comprehensive View


Biometric Signature Selection Biometric Signature Acquisition Data Reduction Template Storage Classification Database Search Processing Match, Retrieval

Identity
Camera(s), Iris, Hand, Face,

Arrhythmia, SIDS,

Si CMOS System-ona- chip

Minutia extraction

Databases, Time series data Data Mining Statistical Modeling

Voice, Electrophysiological Lab on a chip, Implantable med. device


0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

M A T C H ?

Biological Agents, Microbial Musculo-skeletal, pathogens... Molecular, DNA

Filtering, FFT, wavelets, Fractals

Microbial

Logical/Phys. Access (IA, medical, bio)


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Action

Biometric Systems Segment Organization


Introduction System Architecture

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System Architecture

Application Authentication Vs. Identification Enrollment, Verification Modules Architecture Subsystems


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Biometric Applications
Four general classes: Access (Cooperative, known subject) Logical Access (Access to computer networks, systems, or
files)

Physical Access (access to physical places or resources) Transaction Logging

Surveillance
Forensics

(Non-cooperative, known subject)

(Non-cooperative or unknown subject)


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Biometric Applications (2)


Transactions via e-commerce Search of digital libraries Computer logins Access to internet and local networks Document encryption Credit cards and ATM cards Access to office buildings and homes Protecting personal property Tracking and storing time and attendance Law enforcement and prison management Automated medical diagnostics Access to medical and official records.
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System Architecture

Architecture Dependent on Application:

Identification: Who are you?


One to Many (millions) match (1:Many) One to few (less than 500) (1:Few) Cooperative and Non-cooperative subjects One to One Match (1:1) Typically assume cooperative subject

Authentication: Are you who you say you are?


Enrollment and Verification Stages common to both.


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System Architecture (2)


Enrollment : Capture and processing of user biometric
data for use by system in subsequent authentication operations.
Acquire and Digitize Biometric Data Extract High Quality Biometric Features/Representation

Formulate Biometric Feature/Rep Template

Database Template Repository

Authentication/Verification : Capture and processing of

user biometric data in order to render an authentication decision based on the outcome of a matching process of the stored to current template.
Acquire and Digitize Biometric Data Extract High Quality Biometric Features/Representation Formulate Biometric Feature/Rep Template Template Matcher Decision Output
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System Architecture (3)

Authentication Application:

Enrollment Mode/Stage Architecture


Additional image preprocessing, adaptive extraction or representation

Require new acquisition of biometric

No

Biometric Data Collection

Transmission

Signal Processing, Feature Extraction, Representation

Quality Sufficient? Yes

Approx 512 bytes of data per template

Database

Generate Template
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System Architecture (4)

Authentication Application:

Verification/Authentication Mode/Stage Architecture


Additional image preprocessing, adaptive extraction/representation

Require new acquisition of biometric

No

Biometric Data Collection

Transmission

Signal Processing, Feature Extraction, Representation

Quality Sufficient?
Yes Generate Template

Approx 512 bytes of data per template

Database

Template Match

Yes

Decision Confidence?

No
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Architecture Subsystems

Data Collection Transmission Signal Processing/Pattern Matching Database/Storage Decision

What comprises these subsystems and how do they interact with other elements (what are their interface and performance specifications?)
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Architecture Subsystems (2)

Data Collection Module

Biometric choice, presentation of biometric, biometric data collection by sensor and its digitization.
Recollect

Biometric Data Collection


Biometric Presentation Sensor

Transmission

Signal Processing Feature Extraction Representation

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Architecture Subsystems (3)

Transmission Module

Compress and encrypt sensor digital data, reverse process.


Recollect

Biometric Data Collection Compression


Biometric Presentation Sensor

Transmission Transmission Decompress Decryption

Encryption

Signal Processing, Feature Extraction, Representation

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Architecture Subsystems (4)

Signal Processing/Matching Module

Be aware of potential transmission prior to match


Reprocess

Recollect

No

Transmission

Compression

Transmission

Decompress

Decryption

Encryption

Signal Processing Feature Extraction, Representation

Quality Control Yes Generate Template

Database
Yes

Template Match
Decision Confidence?

No
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Architecture Subsystems

Database module

In what form is biometric stored? Template or raw data?


Reprocess

Recollect

No

Transmission Transmission

Compression

Decryption

Encryption

Expansion

Signal Processing Feature Extraction, Representation

Quality Control Yes Generate Template

Database
Biometric Template: A file holding a mathematical representation of the identifying features extracted from the raw biometric data. Templates Images

Template Match
Decision Confidence?

Yes

No
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Architecture Subsystems

Decision module

Is there enough similarity to the stored information to declare a match with a certain confidence ?
Reprocess

Recollect

No

Transmission Transmission

Compression

Decompress

Decryption

Encryption

Signal Processing Feature Extraction, Representation

Quality Control Yes Generate Template Template Match


Decision Decision Confidence? Confidence?

Database
Templates Images

Yes

No
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