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High Performance Leadership

Chapter 1 Leadership

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Defining Leadership

Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement .

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Some Working Definitions Of Leadership


Leadership is the process of persuasion or example by which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to pursue objectives held by the leadership or shared by the leader and his or her followers. Leadership is what gives an organization its vision and its ability to translate that vision into reality. While management works in the system, Leadership works on the system.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Comprehensive Definition of Leadership


Leadership is influencing process of leaders and followers to achieve organizational objectives through change.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Leadership Definition Key Elements

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Leadership Definition Key Elements


Leader-Follower :
The influencing process is between leaders and followers, not just a leader influencing followers; its a two way process.

Influence :
Influencing is the process of a leader communicating ideas, gaining acceptance of them, and motivating followers to support and implement the ideas through change.

Organizational Objectives :
High performance leaders influence followers to think not only of their own interests, but the interest of the organization. Leadership occurs when followers are influenced to do what is ethical and beneficial for the organization and themselves.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Leadership Definition Key Elements


Change :
Influencing and setting objectives is about change. Organizations need to continually change, in adapting to the rapidly changing global environment.

People :
Although the term people is not specifically mentioned in the above definition of Leadership, after reading about the other elements, one can realize that leadership is about leading people.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Effective Leadership
Leaders with the power and personal traits to be effective in a leadership situation can lead by taking four sets of actions:

Providing a vision. Thinking like a leader.


Using the right leadership style. Using organizational behavior leadership skills.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Leader Vs Manager
Personality Dimension Attitudes toward goals Manager
Impersonal, passive, functional; goals arise out of necessity, reality Combines people, ideas, things; seeks moderate risk

Leader
Personal, active, goals arise from desire, imagination

Conceptions of work
Relationships with others Sense of self

Looks for fresh approaches to old problems; seeks high risk Comfortable in solitary work; encourages close relationships, not averse to conflict Questions life; struggles for sense of order

Prefers to work with others; avoids close relationships and conflicts

Accepts life as it is; unquestioning

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Leadership Managerial Roles


Interpersonal Roles Figurehead Informational Roles Monitor Decisional Roles Entrepreneur

Leader

Disseminator

Disturbance handler Resource allocator

Liaison

Spoke-person

Negotiator
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

High Performance Leadership


Chapter 2 Leadership Theories and Styles

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Different approaches used to study leadership


(A) Trait Theories (B) Group and Exchange Theory

(C) Behavioral Theory (D) Contingency Theory (E) Some other theories

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

(A)

Trait Theories

The great person theory of leadership said that individuals are born either with or without the necessary traits for leadership but eventually this theory gave way to a more realistic trait approach to leadership.

Some important Traits of Leaders: Drive Desire to Lead Integrity Self-Confidence Intelligence Job-relevant Knowledge

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

2. McCall and Lombardos Trait Theory of Successes and Failures of Leaders


McCall and Lombardo identified four primary traits, by which leader could succeed or fail. These traits are : Emotional stability and composure Calm, confident and predictable, particularly during stressful situation.

Admitting Errors Owning mistakes, rather than covering them up.


Good interpersonal skills Ability to communicate and persuade others with restoring negative or coercive tactics. Intellectual breadth Ability to understand wide range of areas (open-minded), rather than having a narrow area of expertise (narrow-minded).
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

3. Bennis and Thomass Trait Theory of Effective Leaders


Bennis and Thomas, suggested the following four characteristics of effective leaders :
Adaptive capacity Hardiness, keen observance, proactive seizing of opportunities and creativity. Engaging others by creating shared meaning encouraging dissent, empathy, and obsessive communication. Voice Purpose, self-awareness, self-confident, and emotional intelligence. Integrity ambition, competence, and moral compass.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

( B )Group and Exchange Theory


Group and exchange Theories of Leadership is an exchange process between leader and followers. Some research shows that followers/subordinates may actually affect leaders as much as leaders affect followers/subordinates. Relevant to the exchange view of leadership is the vertical dyad linkage (VDL) approach more recently called leader-member exchange ( LMX ) .The VDL or LMX theory says that leaders treat individual subordinates differently. Leaders and subordinates develop two person relationships which affect the behavior of both leaders and subordinates
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

( C) Behavioural Theories
1. Three Dimensional Theory Kurt Lewin and colleagues. identified the following three different styles of leadership, in particular, regarding decision making : Autocratic : Autocratic leaders take decisions on their own, without consulting others. Democratic : Democratic leaders involve their people in decision making.

Lassez-faire : Lassez-faire leaders have minimum involvement in decision making. They allow people to make their own decisions.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

2. Michigan Studies
At the University of Michigan, Rensis Likert identified four main styles of leadership, in particular, around decision making and the degree to which people are involved in the process. i. Exploitive Authoritative - Low concern for people-use threats and other coercive ways for compliance of decisions -communication is usually top-down. Benevolent Authoritative - Authoritarian, but pay attention to peoples concerns - use rewards to encourage appropriate performance - some delegations of decisions, almost all major decisions are still made by the leader.
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ii.

2. Michigan Studies

iii. Consultative - make genuine efforts to listen to their peoples ideas - make major decision, which remains centralized .
iv. Participative - involve people at all levels in the decision making process -people are psychologically closer together and work well together at all levels.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Managerial Grid
Blake and Mouton proposed the famous managerial grid with the two independent dimensions, (i) task orientation ( concern for production) and (ii) people orientation ( concern for people). Each of these two dimensions ranging from low (1) to high (9). This section describes the five styles of the managerial grid, or the leadership grid as it came to be known later.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Managerial Grid
The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton)

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Managerial Grid
i.

Impoverished Management ( Style 1,1)


Low task and low people orientation Minimum effort is exercised toward getting the work done. It refers to lazy approach.

ii.

Authority-Compliance ( Style 9,1)


High task and low people orientation Strong focus on task and efficiency. Little concern for people, including the elimination of people wherever possible.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Managerial Grid
iii. Country-club Management ( Style 1,9)

Low task and high people orientation A comfortable and friendly environment and collegial style. A low focus on task may lead to questionable result.

iv. Middle of the road Management ( Style 5,5)


Medium task and medium people orientation Lack of focus on both people and the work. The leader concentrates only on getting the work done and does not push the boundaries of achievements.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Managerial Grid
v. Team Management ( Style 9,9)
High task and high people orientation Highly motivated subordinates are committed to the task. The leader is committed to his/her people and the task.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

( D ) Contingency Theories
Contingency theories are based on the assumption that the leaders ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors such as the leaders preferred style, the capabilities and behaviours of followers, etc.

1. Fiedlers Theory
According to Fiedler, relationships, power, and task structure are the three key factors that drive effective leadership styles. He identified the least preferred coworker (LPC) scoring for leaders. High LPC leaders tend to have close and positive relationships, and act in a supportive way. Low LPC leaders put the task first and turn to relationships only when they are satisfied with the progress of the work.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

1. Fiedlers Theory
1. The following three aspects determine the effectiveness of the two leadership styles (high or low LPC): Leader-member relations : The extent to which the leader has the support and loyalties of followers. The relations with them are friendly and cooperative.

2. Task structure : The extent to which standardized, documented, and controlled.


3.

tasks

are

Leader's position power : The extent to which the leader has authority to assess follower performance and give reward or punishment.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

2. Blanchards Hersey and situational Leadership theory


Another Contingency approach the situational leadership ( or life cycle) model developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard , suggest that the most important factor affecting the selection of leaders style is the development ( maturity level ) of the subordinates. Development level is the task specific combination of an employees task competence and motivation to perform.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

(E) Some other Theories


Path Goal Leadership theory According to path goal theory , leaders roles are to help employees understand what needs to be done ( the goal ) and how to do it ( the path ).It identifies four major , types or styles of leadership , which are mentioned below : Directive Leadership the leader focuses on clear task assignments, standards of successful performance, and work schedules. Supportive leadership the leader demonstrate concern for employees well being and needs while trying to create a pleasant work environment. Leader is friendly and approachable and shows a genuine concern for subordinates. Participative leadership The leader asks for uses suggestions from subordinates but still makes decision. Invites employees to provide input to decision and tries to use there suggestions while making final decision. Achievement oriented leadership the leader sets high expectations for employees, communicate confidence in there ability to achieve challenging goals and enthusiastically models the desired behavior.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Some other theories



1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Vrooms Decision Making Model Emerging Approaches to Leadership


Charismatic Leadership Theories Transformational Leadership Theory Social learning Approach Self leadership and super leadership Coaching

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

High Performance Leadership

Chapter 3 Leadership Skills

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Leadership Skills
Getting and Giving Information Group Needs and Characteristics Controlling the Group Knowing and Understanding Group Resources Counseling Setting Example

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

High Performance Leadership

Chapter 5 Team Work and Team Building

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

What is Team?
A Team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Difference between Work Group & Team


Work Groups
Strong , Clearly focused leader
Individual Accountability Purpose is same as organization Individual work products Efficient meetings

Team
Shared leadership roles
Individual and Mutual Accountability Specific purpose Collective work products Encourages open-ended, active problem solving meetings Measures performance directly Discusses , decides and does work together

Measures effectiveness indirectly Discusses , decides and delegates

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Challenges in team work


Dilution of responsibility (accountability), dependence on others, taking on too much, overlap Lack of focus Conflicting personalities and styles/Egos Distribution of credit
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Skills Needed for Team Work


Aside from any required technical proficiency, wide varieties of social skills are desirable for successful teamwork, including: Listening it is important to listen to other peoples ideas.

Questioning it is important to ask questions, interact, and discuss the objectives of the team.
Persuading individuals are encouraged to exchange, defend, and then to ultimately rethink their ideas. Respecting it is important to treat others with respect and to support their ideas.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Skills Needed for Team Work


Helping it is crucial to help ones co-workers, which is the general theme of teamwork.

Sharing it is important to share with the team to creat an environment of team work.
Participating all members of the team are encouraged to participate in the team. Communication for team to work effectively it is essential team members acquire communication skills and use effective communication channel between one another.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Life cycle of a Team


FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING

ADJOURNING

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TEAM BUILDING
Identification of a Problem Collection of relevant data Data feedback and confrontation Problem solving experience
On the job application and follow up
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Skills useful in team building


Consultation skills Diagnosing, contracting, designing change. Interpersonal Skills Trust building, Coaching, and listening. Research Skills Planning and conducting a study and evaluating results. Presentational Skills Public speaking and report presentation. Two additional skills stand out as critical to success process consultation and feedback.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

A comparison between contrasting supervisory roles


Traditional Structure Self Managing Team Structure

Authority Figure Expert Teacher Problem Solver Coordinator

Coach and counselor Resource Champion and cheerleaders Allocator Liaison and foundry manager Facilitator
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

High Performance Leadership

Chapter 6
Interpersonal Skills Conversation, Feed Back and Feed Forward

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability to operate within business organizations through social communication and interactions. Interpersonal skills are how people relate to one another . There are different types if interpersonal skills like Verbal, Non verbal.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Important Skills
EMPATHY

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

BUILDING TRUST

SKILLS
ASSERTI-VENESS ACTIVE LISTENING

MANAGING DIFFICULT PEOPLE

COMMUN -ICATION STYLES

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Interpersonal communication can be defined in a variety of ways. One way is to define it by the number of people communicating and their relationship to each other. This we call the dyadic or relational definition. Another way is to define it as a developmental process. Where communication begins as impersonal and becomes more and more personal as the interactions increase in frequency and intimacy. This we call the developmental definition.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Conversation
A conversation is communication by two or more people, or sometimes with ones self, often on a particular topic.

Conversation is the ideal form of communication in some respects, since they allow people with different views of a topic to learn from each other.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Communication
Communication means usually to speak or to write or to send a message to another person. Communication involves ensuring that messages reach the person to whom they are sent, that the receiver understand and respond as we want them to; and that we ourselves are able to understand, interpret, and respond to messages that are sent to us.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Objectives of Communication
Information : Enquiring, supplying or receiving the information. Advice : Personal opinion about what to do, how to do or when to do. Suggestion : Proposals by the subordinates to the higher authorities indicating change required in existing procedural and operational matters. Order : Directive issued by management to subordinates in authoritative manner. Motivation : Motivation channelizes the inner urge of the man to work and to excel towards the organizational goals.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Objectives of Communication
Persuasion : Act of influencing the other persons to voluntarily change their attitudes, beliefs feelings or thoughts. Warning : It is informing about the unpleasant and unfavorable consequences if certain course of action is not changed/ amended.

Negotiation : Discussion by two or more parties concerned with specific problem to find mutually acceptable agreement. It may be through bargaining orientation, lose-lose orientation, win-win orientation and compromise orientation.
Education : It is important from the view of teaching and training the employees and executives.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Communication Process

Creates Message

Encode Message

Receiver Encodes Message

Decode Message

Decode Feedback

Receiver Feedback

Encode Feedback

Create Feedback

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Types of Communication
Communication

Formal Communication

Informal Communication

Upward Communication

Downward Communication
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Horizontal Communication

Medial of Communication or Interpersonal Communication


Interpersonal Communication

Oral Communication

Written Communication

Verbal Communication

Non-Verbal Communication
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Barriers to Effective Communication


Filtering : Sender manipulates information in such a manner that it shall be seen more favourably by the receiver.
Selective perception: People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes. Information overload: When a situation arises where the information inflow exceeds an individual's processing capacity, communication barrier creeps in.

Emotions: How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted.
Communication apprehension: Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication or both affects effective communication.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Seven Cs of Business Communication According to Francis J. Bergin, there are '7 Cs' of Communication : Candid : Message should be straight forward and frank. Clear : Clarity of expression and thought is must. Complete : Message necessarily should be complete as incomplete message breeds misunderstanding and misinterpretation.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Seven Cs of Business Communication


4. Concise : Conciseness is necessary to retain the attention as well as to save the time of the receiver. 5. Concrete : Message should not be vague but specific. Concrete expression create specific visual image in the mind of receiver. 6. Correct : Message should be correct in grammar, spellings, contents, statistical information etc. 7. Courteous : Courtesy and manners plays dominating role in effective communication.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Principles of Communications
Creation of synergetic environment

Two-way communication
Strengthen flow of communication Proper media Encourage open communication Use of appropriate language

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Principles of Communications
Effective listening Self-development Intellectual dimensions Emotional dimensions Spiritual dimensions

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Transactional Analysis - A Tool to Understand Peoples Communication Behaviour


There are many ways we can look at communication styles and that the most comprehensive research is the Transactional Analysis (TA). TA is practical yet impact technique to understand people's communication behaviours based on their personal values, thoughts and feelings. Each person operates in three egos Parent, Adult and Child. Each of these egos is distinct and therefore easy to identify and differentiate. More importantly, these egos affect different communication behaviours and eventually communication styles.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Transactional Analysis - A Tool to Understand Peoples Communication Behaviour

Ego States
Parent-Ego State
Behaviours, thoughts and feelings copied from parents or parent figure.

Adult Ego State Behaviours, thoughts and feelings which are direct responses to the here and now.
Child Ego State Behaviours, thoughts and feelings replayed from childhood.
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

High Performance Leadership

Chapter 7
Interpersonal Skills Delegation, Humor, Trust, Expectations, Values, Status, Compatibility
By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Interpersonal Skills
Building Trust
Empathy

Conflict management

Skills

Assertiveness

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied during Active social communications and Listening interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is Communi used often in business cation contexts to refer to the Style measure of a person's ability to operate within Dealing business organizations with through social Difficult communication and people interactions. Interpersonal skills are how people relate to one another

There are different types if interpersonal skills like Verbal, Non verbal. In verbal skills conversations play a major role. To know the process of conversation better we need to learn How the Process of Conversation Works How You Can Become More Effective

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

The Conversation Process

Opening

Five Stages of Conversation


Feedforward

Business

Feedback

Closing

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FEEDBACK & FEEDFORWARD


Feedback Positive / Negative: Person focused / Message focused: Immediate / Delayed: Low Monitoring / High Monitoring: Supportive / Critical:

Feedforward - Feedforward is information that is provided before sending in primary message.

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Luthans and Martinkos Characteristics of Effective and Ineffective Feedback


Effective Feedback
Intended to help the employees
Specific Descriptive Useful Timely Clear Valid

Ineffective Feedback
Intended to belittle the employees
General Evaluating Inappropriate Untimely Not understandable Inaccurate

Considers employee readiness for feedback Makes the employee defensive

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Besides feedback and feed forward, other variables, such as trust, expectations, values, status and compatibility, delegation , humors , greatly influence the interpersonal aspects of communication .

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Conflict is when two or more values, perspectives and opinions are contradictory in nature and haven't been aligned or agreed about yet, including: Within yourself when youre not living according to your values. When your values and perspectives are threatened; or Discomfort from fear of the unknown or from lack of fulfillment.

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar

Conflict is often needed. It:

Helps to raise and address problems.


Energizes work to be on the most appropriate issues. Helps people "be real", for example, it motivates them to participate. Helps people learn how to recognize and benefit from their differences.

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Interpersonal
Skills

Types of Conflicts

Intrapersonal Conflicts

Intergroup

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High Performance Leadership

Chapter 4 POSITIVE THINKING

By Prof. Vivekanand Pawar