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Chapter 10 Team Development

Interventions

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

Chapter 10 Slide 1

Learning Objectives

Identify how team development techniques fit


into OD program. Recognize team problems and why teams may not be operating at optimum capacity. Understand and experience process of team

development.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 10 Slide 2

North Dallas Forty


North Dallas Forty is book and movie.
Based on life of a Dallas Cowboys professional football player. Illustrates behind-the-scenes look at team effort involved in running football play.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition

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Organizing Around Teams


A team is a group of individuals:

with complementary skills who depend upon one another to accomplish common purpose for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 10 Slide 4

Teamwork
Teamwork is work done when members
subordinate personal prominence for team. Many management theorists see team-based organization as wave of future.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition

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The Team Approach


Many organizations increase productivity by
implementing team-based programs. Interdependence refers to situations where one persons performance contingent upon how someone else performs.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition

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Organizations Use Sport Teams As a Model


Baseball - pooled interdependence where team
member contributions somewhat independent of one another. Football - involves sequential interdependence. Basketball - exhibits highest degree of

interdependence.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 10 Slide 7

Major OD Technique Is Team Building


Team building and team development used
interchangeably. Team building is where members of work group examine goals and culture to improve ability to work together.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition

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Reasons for Using Team Development


Work group is basic unit of organization and
provides supportive change factor. Operating problems of work groups often sources of inefficiency.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition

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OD in Practice Cup of Joe at Starbucks (part 1 of 2)


CEO Schultz has strong vision for Starbucks.
Starbucks mission statement includes Provide a great work environment and treat each other with respect and dignity. Starbucks philosophy is Leave no one behind.

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OD in Practice (part 2 of 2)
Employee surveys rank Starbucks ahead of
other companies. Two reasons why people work for Starbucks: The opportunity to work with an enthusiastic team.

To work in a place where I feel I have


value.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 10 Slide 11

Need for Team Development


Teams are primary unit in organization.
Two types of teams:

Natural work team. Temporary task team.

Need for team development varies with situation.


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Three Categories Requiring Teams

Simple.
Complex. Problem.

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Figure 10.1 Situation Determines Teamwork

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Simple Situations
People working alone and no need to involve
others. Little team development necessary.

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Complex Situations
Information must be shared to complete task
but interaction not on deeply personal level. Some team development necessary.

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Problem Situations
Unusual and unprecedented situations having
impact outside individuals scope of influence. Requires team development approach.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition

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Operating Problems of Teams


(part 1 of 2)

Goals - groups lose purpose and direction.


Member needs - interpersonal differences. Norms - lack of norms and acceptable behavior. Homogeneous members - tend to produce homogeneous ideas.

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Chapter 10 Slide 18

Operating Problems of Teams


(part 2 of 2)

Decision making - authoritative decision


making. Leadership - degree of power and control of members inappropriate. Size - number of members too small or too

large for effective interaction.


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Figure 10.2 Sources of Team Problems

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition

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Cohesiveness and Groupthink


(part 1 of 2)

Cohesiveness refers to unity that members of


group have for one another. A high degree of cohesiveness can result in groupthink.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition

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Cohesiveness and Groupthink


(part 2 of 2)

Groupthink is deterioration of reality testing that


results from group pressures. Likely to happen when agreement becomes dominant force. Groupthink tends to outweigh consideration of

alternatives.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 10 Slide 22

Eight Characteristics of Groupthink


1.

Illusion of
invulnerability. Rationalization. Illusion of morality. Shared stereotypes.

5.
6. 7.

Direct pressure.
Self-censorship. Illusion of unanimity. Mind guards.

2. 3. 4.

8.

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Purpose of Team Development


To integrate goals of individual and group with
goals of organization. Team development one of most widely used OD activities.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition

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Team Development Involves:


(part 1 of 2)

Identify objectives, set priorities.


Examine team performance. Analyze group process. Improve communications.

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Team Development Involves:


(part 2 of 2)

Improve problem-solving ability.


Increase cooperation. Work more effectively with other teams. Increase respect of other team members.

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Two Types of Activities

Family group diagnostic meetings.


Aimed at identifying group problems.

Family group team-building meetings. Aimed at improving teams functioning.

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Team Development Meeting Has Two Objectives


1.
2.

Task or work agenda of group.


Processes by which members work on the task.

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General Procedure of Training


Step 1: Initiate team development meeting. Step 2: Set objectives. Step 3: Collect data. Step 4: Plan the meeting. Step 5: Conduct the meeting.

Step 6: Evaluate team development process.


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Our Changing World: Electronic Team Development (part 1 of 2)


Computers and Internet bring change to way
work is done. Internet presents unique opportunities for companies connected by computers. IBM brings groups of more than 7,000 together

on the Internet.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 10 Slide 30

Our Changing World (part 2 of 2)


The GE approach:
Worldwide program of suppliers and customers. Goal is to improve information sharing.

The P&G approach:


Researchers worldwide meet on company Web.

Schedules meetings devoted to specific subject.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition

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Outdoor Experiential Laboratory Training


Takes people who work together and places in
outdoor setting with experiential exercises. Seems to hasten discussions surrounding leadership styles and team work. After exercise team discusses what they

learned and how it applies to work.


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The Outdoor Lab Process


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Assessment of team made prior to training. Orientation meeting held with participants. Exercises selected to fit abilities of team. The team participates in exercises. Team reflects on process.

6.

Team follows with goal setting and plans.


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Cautions When Using Outdoor Labs


Safety is major concern.
Participation is voluntary. Participants should have fun and labs not become too serious.

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Role Negotiation As Team Development


Directed at work relationships among team
members. Members discuss what they want from one another and why.

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Role Negotiations Includes:


1.
2. 3. 4.

Contract setting.
Issue diagnosis. Role negotiation. Written role negotiation agreement.

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Role Analysis As Team Development


Designed to clarify roles of team members.
Role ambiguity - team member not fully knowing what others expect. Role conflict - difference between expectations of team member and actual behavior.

Role analysis used to clarify role discrepancies.


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Steps in Role Analysis


1. 2. 3. 4.

Role analysis. Role incumbent expectations of others. Others expectations of role incumbent. Role profile.

Above steps are followed until each member

completes role profile.


Role profiles are periodically reviewed.
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KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS

Group cohesiveness - attractiveness group


has for its members. Groupthink - describes the problems of group cohesiveness. Interdependence - persons performance

contingent upon how someone else performs.


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Natural work team - people coming together because of the related jobs. Outdoor experiential laboratory training people who work together placed in outdoor

setting and allowed to experiment with


leadership styles and teamwork.

Role ambiguity - role incumbent unaware of expectations by others.

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Role analysis technique - team development method for clarifying role expectations. Role conflict - discrepancy between role conception and others expectations.

Role negotiation - team building technique


involved at negotiations between participants.

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Team - group of individuals who depend on one another to accomplish objective. Team building - work group examines goals, structure, procedures, culture, and norms to

improve ability to work together.

Team development also called team building.

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Teamwork - work done by members subordinating personal prominence for good of team.

Temporary task team - groups meeting for

limited time to work on problem.

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Preparations for Next Chapter

Read Chapter 11.


Prepare for OD Skills Simulation 11.1. Read and analyze Case: The Exley Chemical Company.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition

Chapter 10 Slide 44