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# Hydrodynamic Drives

T.SENTHIL MUTHU KUMAR, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING KALASALINGAM UNIVERSITY

KALASALINGAM UNIVERSITY

## Three Phase Inverter Motor FLUID COUPLING

At the end of this training session you will have Transfers power smoothly learned; from the engine to the transmission Mounted on the flywheel and always rotates with it.

flywheel

Consists Turbine

of

Pump

and

## When engine starts , the pump starts rotating

Vanes inside the pump draws the oil inside at the centre and throws out Fluid emerges from vanes of pump to the turbine exerting thrust The turbine starts rotating and picks up speed

## TORQUE CONVERTERS - PURPOSE

Allow the vehicle to come to a complete stop without stalling the engine Provide torque multiplication to allow smooth acceleration from a stop House a torque converter clutch which will eliminate torque converter slippage at highway speeds

## PARTS OF A TORQUE CONVERTER

A torque converter is a type of fluid coupling There is no direct mechanical link between the input (engine flywheel) and the output (transmission input shaft) The impeller (pump of the torque converter) forces fluid through the turbine, which forces the turbine to turn
The

## PROBLEMS FLUID COUPLING

When there is a large difference in RPM between the impeller and the turbine in a fluid coupling, the fluid coming off the turbine strikes the impeller opposite the direction of rotation, thus slowing the impeller down (robbing power)

SOLUTIONS

By incorporating a stator into a fluid coupling we can overcome the problem of turbine discharge oil slowing down the impeller

## SOLUTIONS FLUID COUPLING

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PHASES OF OPERATION

Torque multiplication
Relatively

low impeller (engine) RPMs Stator is locked into place by its one-way clutch Vortex fluid flow within the converter

Coupling phase
Occurs

at approx. 35-40 MPH under normal driving conditions No torque multiplication Stator is freewheeling Turbine is spinning at approx 90% of impeller speed Rotary flow within the converter
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TORQUE MULTIPLICATION

Because the turbine discharge oil is redirected so that it hits the impeller in the direction of impeller rotation, it helps the engine turn the impeller.
This

## is what causes torque multiplication

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TORQUE MULTIPLICATION

## Torque converters can multiply torque at a 2:1 to 3:1 ratio

Exact amount depends on the design of the impeller, stator, and turbine and impeller RPM The point at which maximum torque multiplication occurs is near the stall speed of the converter

During the torque multiplication phase, turbine speed is significantly lower than impeller speed A torque converter attached to an engine producing 200 ft/lbs of torque would deliver 500 ft/lbs of torque to the input shaft of the transmission (with a 2.5:1 torque multiplication ratio) Fluid flow is vortex

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VORTEX FLOW

During vortex flow the fluid is circulating from the impeller to the stator to the turbine and then back to the impeller
Cross-Section of Torque Converter

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VORTEX FLOW

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TORQUE MULTIPLICATION
600 3

500

2.5

400

300

1.5

200

100

0.5

0 1000

1250

1500

1750

2000

2250

2500

2750

3000

3250

3500

3750

0 4000

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## Torque Multiplication Ratio

Ft/Lbs Torque

STATOR OPERATION

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STATOR OPERATION

As turbine (vehicle) speed increases and approaches the speed of the impeller the turbine discharge oil is accelerated to the point that it no longer strikes the front side of the stator blades, instead it strikes the backside of the stator blade causing the stator one-way clutch to unlock and the stator to freewheel
Since

the stator is unlocked, fluid is not redirected and no torque multiplication occurs Fluid flow is rotary

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ROTARY FLOW

As the speed of the turbine approaches the speed of the impeller fluid flow switches from vortex to rotary After the fluid is discharged from the turbine it is not redirected by the stator, instead it rotates with torque converter Front-View of
Torque Converter

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ROTARY FLOW

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STATOR OPERATION

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FLOW DIRECTIONS

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STALL SPEED

Stall speed is the engine RPM at which the torque converter has coupled enough that with the wheels locked the engine is not able to increase RPM any further

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## TYPES OF STALL SPEEDS

Types of stall Speeds True stall This is the maximum rpm the engine can attain with the driveline completely locked Generally can only be attained with a trans-brake Brake stall This is the maximum rpm the engine can attain with the brakes applied The brakes generally will not have enough holding power to allow the engine to reach true stall speed Flash stall This is the rpm at which, when you accelerate at full throttle from a dead stop the engine RPM flashes to TCIs recommended method of testing stall speed
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STALL TESTS

CAUTION Do not brake stall a converter for more than 10 seconds at a time. During a brake stall 100% of the power developed by the engine is converted in heat in the torque converter. Wait at least 2 minutes between brake stall tests

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## FACRTORS AFFECTING STALL SPEEDS

Vehicle Weight Vane/Fin Angle Horsepower Impeller to Turbine Clearance Camshaft Stator Design Torque Rate Converter Diameter Gear Ratio

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VANE DESIGN

Depending on the design and pitch of the blades, the impeller will scoop the most oil at a specific RPM, thus altering the stall speed

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