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Advanced Level

1C - Pronouns

Meryem zyel

Generic Pronouns
1. We often use you to mean people in general.

Ex: You can learn a language faster if you go to live in a country where it is spoken.
2. We can also use one (3rd person singular) [more formal]

Ex: One should never criticize without being sure of the facts.
3. We can also be used to mean people in general, and it also includes the reader/listener.

Ex: When we talk about an accent, we must not confuse this with pronunciation.

Generic Pronouns
4. We also use they to talk about other people in general, or people in authority. [informal English]

Ex: They always say that its never too late to learn a new language. (They = People in general) They should make it compulsory for people to learn a new language. (They = The government)
5. We often use they, them, and their to refer to one person (male or female)

Ex: If someone goes to live in a foreign country, they will have to get used to a different way of life. Could the person who left their bag in the library please come and see me?

Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns

1. We often use reflexive pronouns when the subject and object of a verb are the same person.

Ex: You need to look after yourself with that cold.

Dont use reflexive pronouns with wash, shave, feel, relax,concentrate Ex: Relax yourself.

2. Use reflexive pronouns after most prepositions when the complement is the same as the subject.

Ex: I managed to complete the crossword! I was pleased with myself. *After prepositions of place, use object pronouns (not reflexive pronouns) Ex: She put her bag next to HER.

Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns

3. We can also use reflexive pronouns to emphasize the subject.

Ex: Theres no way Im going to do it for you. Do it yourself! We decorated the house ourselves. (We did it, not professional decorators)

4. By + reflexive pronouns = alone, on your own

Ex: I dont feel very comfortable going to cinema by myself.

Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns

5. Reciprocal Pronouns We use each other or one another for reciprocal actions. A => B B => A

Ex: My ex-husband and I dont talk to each other any more. *They bought themselves some new shoes. (A=>A , B=>B) *They bought each other some new shoes. (A=>B , B=>A)

It and There
1. We use it + be to talk about: - time -temperature -distance. Ex: Its five miles to London. Its 10 oclock.
2. We use it + be as a preparatory subject before adjectives. Ex: It was great to hear from you (is more natural than to hear from you was great.

It and There
3. We use there + be + noun to say if people and things are present or exist (or not). You cannot use it here. Ex: There used to be a cinema in that street. It used to be a cinema in that street.