
 =
1.5
s
p M
v
y
z
For F
y
> 0.6 * P
y
(high shear)
9
Beams
Step 2: Moment Capacity
2
v
v
1
P
F
2
(


.

\

=
z = Elastic Section Modulus
= Reduction Factor
S
v
= Plastic Modulus of the shear area A
v
10
Beams (Lateral Torsional Buckling)
Step 3: Find value of
y
E
L
=
L
E
= Effective length for torsional buckling
= 1.2 L
LT
L
LT
= Spacing of adjacent lateral restraints
r
y
= Radius of gyration about minor axis
11
Beams (Lateral Torsional Buckling)
12
Beams (Lateral Torsional Buckling)
Step 4: Equivalent Slenderness ratio
LT
0.25
2
x
0.05 1
1
(
(

.

\

+
u = Buckling parameter
w LT
uv =
x = Torsional index = D/T
w
= 1.0 for class 1 and class 2 sections
= Z
x
/S
x
for class 3 sections
v = Slenderness
factor
13
14
Beams (Lateral Torsional Buckling)
Step 5: Calculate the bending strength
( )
5 . 0
y E
2
y E
b
p p
p p
p
+
=
LT LT
 
2
LT
2
E
E
p =
( )
2
1 p
y E LT
LT
p + +
=
q

( ) 1000
Lo LT LT LT
= a
5 . 0
y
2
LO
p
E
4 . 0


.

\

=
Perry factor
0 . 7
LT
= a
15
16
17
Beams (Lateral Torsional Buckling)
Step 6: Check the section for adequacy
x b b
z p M  =
If cal
M >
b
M
Section is safe
Else
revise the section
18
Beams (Shear Buckling)
Step 7: Calculate the bending strength
70
t
d
>
w w b
q t d v v = =
I
f
Shear buckling resistance of web
5 . 0
275
(
(
=
y
p
c
d = Depth of the web
t = Thickness of the web
q
w
= Shear buckling strength of the web
End
19
Beams (Shear Buckling)
Step 7: Calculate the bending strength
2
1000
(
=
t d
q
e
5 . 0
(
=
e
v
w
q
p
v w
p q =
Shear buckling strength of the web
w
v
w
p
q
9 . 0
=
yw v
p p 6 . 0 =
for
9 . 0 s
w
9 . 0 >
w
for
Where
20
21
22
23
24
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Beams
3. Tension members
4. Compression members
5. Base Plate Design
6. Questions
25
Tension Members
Step 1: Calculate P
t
26
Tension Members
Step 2: Tension with bending
27
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Beams
3. Tension members
4. Compression members
5. Base Plate Design
6. Questions
28
Compression Members
Step 1: Calculate
E
L
=
L
E
= Effective length of the member
= 1.0 L where bracings are provided (nonsway mode)
= 1.5 L where bracings are not provided
r = Radius of gyration about relevant axis
29
Compression Members
Step 1: Calculate
Limiting values of
= 180 for primary members
= 200 for secondary members
= 250 for members acting as restraining to the main
compression member
30
Compression Members
Step 1: Calculate
31
Compression Members
Step 2: Calculate Compression resistance
P
c
= Compression Design Capacity
A
g
= Gross area
p
c
= Compression strength (Table 24)
c g c
p A P  =
p
c
is depending on
slenderness
design strength
column/strut diagram
32
Compression Members
Step 2: Calculate Compression resistance
( )
5 . 0
y E
2
y E
c
p p
p p
p
+
=
 
2
2
E
E
p =
( )
2
1 p
y E
p + +
=
q

( ) 0.001 a
o
=
5 . 0
y
2
o
p
E
2 . 0


.

\

=
Perry factor
Euler strength
0
Limiting Slenderness
33
Compression Members
Step 2: Calculate Compression resistance
5 . 5 = a
Robertson constant
34
35
36
37
38
39
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Beams
3. Tension members
4. Compression members
5. Base Plate Design
6. Questions
40
Base Plate Design
Base Plate should have sufficient
Size
Stiffness
Strength
to transmit the axial force, bending moments and shear
forces in columns to their foundations or other supports
without exceeding the load carrying capacity of these
supports.
Holdingdown bolts should be provided where necessary.
41
Base Plate Design
Methods of design
1. Effective area method
2. Rational methods
42
Base Plate Design
Step 1: Area of the base plate
W
F
A
c
b
=
F
c
= Axial Load on the Base Plate
w = Bearing pressure 0.6 f
ck
43
Base Plate Design
Step 2: Find the value of c
) 2 2 )( 2 ( )] 2 )( 2 ( 2 [ A
b
C T D T C C B T C + + + + =
A
b
= Area of the Base Plate
44
Base Plate Design
Step 2: Find the value of c (Contd)
45
Base Plate Design
Step 3: Thickness of the Base Plate
0.5
yp
p
p
W 3
c t
(
(
=
W = Pressure under the Base Plate (assumed as
uniform pressure)
p
yp
= Design strength of the Base Plate
46
Base Plate Design
Step 3: Thickness of the Base Plate (Contd)
p
8 . 1 C t s
Check 1:
Check 2:
T t
p
>
Check 3:
40mm t
p
s
for S275
p
2 . 2 C t s
for S355
47
Base Plate Design
Step 4: Area of Bearing
o
H
A
w
=
H = Horizontal reaction
= Bearing stress on concrete 0.6 f
ck
48
Base Plate Design
Step 5: Select the section
] 4 2 [
web flange w
* t * t L A + =
2 * ] 4 [
web flange w
t * t L A + =
L 150 to 350 mm
49
Base Plate Design
Step 7: Anchor bolts design
Anchor bolts to be anchored in the foundation
with an anchor plate.
The whole tensile force has to be transferred by
the anchor plate only.
50
Base Plate Design
Step 7: Anchor bolts design
t t t
p A 0.8 P   =
A
t
= tensile stress area
p
t
= Tensile strength of the bolt
Design tension capacity
51
Base Plate Design
Step 7: Anchor bolts design (Contd...)
52
Questions ?
53
Thank You !