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Gerunds

and

Infinitives

Functions
Gerunds and infinitives can function as NOUNS (subjects, objects, and complements) As subjects, they take a singular verb. Only gerunds can be an object of the preposition.

To form gerunds, use the base form + ing


(dont forget the rules for spelling of ing form of verbs)

I enjoy learning English.


To form negative gerunds, use not + gerund
Not speaking English well is my biggest problem in this country.

Gerunds used as subject of the sentence.


Dancing is fun.

Gerunds used as objects


He enjoys working with children.

Verbs that take only Gerunds


Appreciate Avoid Delay Deny Discuss Dislike Enjoy Excuse Finish understand Keep Mention Mind Miss Postpone Quit Recall Recommend Resent suggest

Gerunds used as object of the preposition


I am thinking about taking the children to Mexico.

Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds


Be excited about, complain about, talk about, think about, worry about Apologize for, blame for, famous for

Believe in, interested in, succeed in


Take care of, instead of, be accused of Insist on, count on, concentrate on Keep from, prevent from, profit from In addition to, look forward to, be used to

By + gerund
You get good grades by studying hard.

go + gerund

Recreational activities: camping, dancing, sightseeing, swimming, skiing, fishing, jogging,

I will go fishing with you tomorrow.

Some expressions are used with gerunds


Be busy, cant help, have fun, its no use, its not worth

To form infinitives use to + base form of the verb I want to dance To form negative infinitives use Not + infinitive He decided not to go to the party.

Infinitives in the subject position


To live in the United States is my dream It is my dream to live in the United States.

Verbs that take infinitives


Verb + infinitives agree, appear, decide hope, intend, learn, offer, plan, seem, tend, wait, can afford Verb + Noun phrase + infinitive cause, convince, force, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, trust, warn, advise, encourage Verbs that come directly after the infinitive or have a noun phrase ask, beg, choose, expect, need, want, would like, promise

Adjectives followed by infinitives


Afraid, amazed, anxious, ashamed, careful, delighted, eager, fortunate, glad, happy, lucky, pleased, ready, sad, sorry,

Infinitive of purpose

In order to I came here in order to learn.

Infinitive with too and enough too + adjective or adverb + infinitive She is too young to vote.
Adjective or adverb + enough + infinitive They are old enough to vote.

Gerunds often follow verbs that indicate that an action is happening or has happened.
The action expressed by the verb comes at the same time or after the action expressed by the gerund. We enjoy going to concerts.
(you can only enjoy things you are doing or have done not things you havent done yet.)

Infinitives often follow verbs that indicate that an action will or could happen.
The action expressed by the verb comes before the action expressed by the infinitive. We hope to go to the concert.
(You can hope for things that could happen not things that have already happened)

Verbs that are followed by a noun phrase + infinitive can also be followed by a gerund. The gerund makes it general and the infinitive make specific the person indicated. They allow smoking in this building. They allowed me to smoke in the house.

These verbs are:


advise allow encourage permit require urge

Some verbs can be followed by both gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning.

Begin, hate, like, start, love, prefer, continue

I like cooking. I like to cook.

She started losing weight She started to lose weight.

Some verbs although they can be used after both gerunds and infinitives have a difference in meaning.
remember forget regret stop try get

She stopped smoking. She stopped to smoke. They forgot buying bread. They forgot to buy bread.

Used to Be used to Get used to Used to + base form Be used to + gerund Get used to + gerund

Verbs of perception: infinitives: from start to finish Gerunds: in progress

I heard the children cry.


I saw your friends walking in the park.

Infinitive forms are not used after the following verbs of perception: feel see hear smell

When a specific performer of the gerund action needs to be indicated, a possessive noun or a possessive determiner is used. I really appreciate Karens/her writing that letter for me.
Peters/his coming late really annoys me.

Your neglecting your teeth will cause an earlier return to the dentist.
Their denying the allegation was understandable. I didnt like the dogs barking all night.

I dont mind his leaving early. (formal) I dont mind him leaving early. (informal)

When an infinitive functions as a subject or a subject complement, any stated subject of the infinitive should be preceded by for. If a pronoun follows for, it must be in object form. When the subject of a gerund is stated, it takes the possessive form.

For people to see is a wonderful gift. Her desire was for them to take a trip around the world
They hoped for her to be able to attend the concert.

Infinitives can occur in the progressive but gerunds cannot. To be doing It is used to indicate an activity in progress or ongoing She had hoped to be working

Both gerunds and infinitives can occur in the perfect form having done to have done It is used to indicate that the activity is in the past We appreciate having heard her sing. Were fortunate to have heard her sing

A gerund can be used in the passive form


I dislike being told a lie.

Have make let are causative verbs. They cause someone to do something. They are always followed by a noun phrase + base form of verb. Do not use an infinitive after these verbs. She made me fall.

She made her daughter go to the party. She let him take the camera. She had me prepare breakfast yesterday.

After causative verbs: get convince persuade use the infinitive She got me to work. She convinced me to work.

Sense-perception verbs: hear, listen to feel, smell, see watch, observe, notice
are followed by either a noun phrase + base or ing form with only a slight difference in meaning.

We saw people living in poverty.


We saw them perform

Help can take an infinitive or base form. It can occur with or without a noun phrase. I helped them carry the boxes. I helped them to clean up after the party.

perfect infinitive: to have moved progressive infinitive: to be working perfect progressive infinitive: to have been playing

passive: to be seen perfect passive: to have been chosen

Perfect gerund: having moved

passive gerund: being done perfect passive gerund: having been selected

The End!