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Teradata Architecture

Teradata corporation
Teradata corporation is a vendor specializing in data warehousing and analytic applications . Its products are commonly used by companies to manage data warehouses for analytical and business intelligence purpose . Teradata was formerly a division of NCR Corporation

Features
Teradata is Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) Used for Data warehousing Executes on Unix ,Windows NT or Windows 2000 operating systems
Win NT Win 98

Teradata DATABASE
IBM Mainframe

UNIX

Compliant with ANSI standards


Capable of running in single node or in multiple nodes Unlimited, Proven Scalability - amount of data and number of users; allows for an enterprise wide model of the data. Unlimited Parallelism - Parallel access, sorts, and aggregations. Mature Optimizer - Handles complex queries, up to 64 joins per query, ad-hoc processing.

Models the Business - 3NF, robust view processing, & provides star schema capabilities Low TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) - ease of setup, maintenance, & administration; no re-orgs, lowest disk to data ratio, and robust expansion utility (recon fig). High Availability - no single point of failure. Parallel Load utilities - robust, parallel, and scalable load utilities such as Fast Load, MultiLoad, and TPump.

Teradata Components & Architecture


Client Req. Network attached system CLI MTDP MOSI Channel attached system Client Req CLI TDP Channel Adapter Bus Adapter
Ethernet Adapter

Gateway S/W
Parser Engine Parser Engine

Message Passing Layer AMP Vdisk AMP Vdisk AMP Vdisk AMP Vdisk

Teradata RDBMS Components


By 2 ways we can connect to Teradata RDBMS 1) Network attached system - through windows, Linux, UNIX 2) Channel attached system- through Mainframe

Network attached system


Components a) CLI- call level interface (lowest level interface) > It creates sessions, allocates requests and response and also fetches responses b) MTDP Micro Teradata Director Program > Controls the session related issues

d) MOSI Micro Operating s/m interface -> It provides OS independent interface For connecting to Teradata RDBMS network attached system needs Ethernet adapter

Channel attached system


CLI is having the same function as in n/w attached s/m TDP Teradata Director Program Manages session traffic b/n CLI n Teradata database, session initiation and termination, logging, verification, session balancing etc For connecting to Teradata RDBMS channel attached system needs host channel adapter and bus adapter in Teradata RDBMS

Teradata RDBMS components


4 main components 1) PE Parser engine 2) MPL Message passing layer 3) AMP Access module processor 4) PDE Parallel database extension

The Parsing Engine


SQL Request Answer Set Response Parser Parsing Engine

The Parsing Engine is responsible for: Managing individual sessions (up to 120) Dispatching the optimized plan to the AMPs Input conversion (EBCDIC / ASCII) - if necessary Sending the answer set response back to the requesting client

Optimizer

Dispatcher

Message Passing Layer

AMP

AMP

AMP

AMP

3 main components for PE


a)Parser and Resolver

Checks for syntax errors Checks the access permission for requested db object Check the existence of requested object and also returns error message if appropriate access is not there.
b)Optimizer It prepares access plan and Explain plan which shows how my query is solved efficiently means it restructure the query in such a way that it will run more efficiently c)Generator Takes the explain plan created by optimizer and converts it into db understandable language called AMP steps

2) MPL Message passing layer -> Handles the internal communication of Teradata dbms -> AMP steps are distributed to corresponding AMP based on the Hashing algorithm over the Message Passing Layer (BYNET)

3) AMP Access module processor -> Virtual processors running under a multitasking environment -> BYNET interface -> Manage database -> Interface to disk subsystem

The Access Module Processor (AMP)


SQL Request Answer Set Response

Parsing Engine

Message Passing Layer (PDE and BYNET)

AMP

AMP

AMP

AMP

AMPs store and retrieve rows to and from disk

The AMPs are responsible for: - Finding the rows requested - Lock management - Sorting rows - Aggregating columns - Join processing - Output conversion and formatting - Creating answer set for client - Disk space management - Accounting - Special utility protocols - Recovery processing

` 4) PDE Parallel database extension


This component is an interface layer on the top of operating system. Its functions include executing vprocs (virtual processors), providing a parallel environment, scheduling sessions, debugging, etc.

Teradata Storage Architecture


Records From Client (in random sequence) 2 32 67 12 90 6 54 75 18 25 80 41

Teradata

Parsing Engine(s)

Message Passing Layer

AMP 1

AMP 2

AMP 3

AMP 4

2 18

54
41

12 90 75

80

25

32

67 6

The Parsing Engine dispatches request to insert a row. The Message Passing Layer insures that a row gets to the appropriate AMP (Access Module Processor). The AMP stores the row on its associated (logical) disk. An AMP manages a logical disk which is mapped to multiple physical disks in a disk array.

Teradata Retrieval Architecture


Rows retrieved from table 2 32 67 12 90 6 54 75 18 25 80 41

Teradata Parsing Engine(s)

Message Passing Layer

AMP 1

AMP 2

AMP 3

AMP 4

2 18

54 41

12

80

25 32

90

75

67
6

The Parsing Engine dispatches a request to retrieve one or more rows. The Message Passing Layer insures that the appropriate AMP(s) are activated. The AMP(s) locate and retrieve desired row(s) in parallel access. Message Passing Layer returns to retrieved rows to PE. The PE returns row's to requesting client application.

Teradata Parallelism
Each PE can handle up to 120 sessions in parallel. Each Session can handle multiple REQUESTS. The Message Passing Layer can handle all message activity in parallel. Each AMP can perform up to 80 tasks in parallel. All AMPs can work together in parallel to service any request. Each AMP can work on several requests in parallel.

Multiple Tables on Multiple AMPs


EMPLOYEE Table DEPARTMENT Table JOB Table

Some rows from each table may be found on each AMP.


Parsing Engine

Message Passing Layer

Each AMP may have rows from all tables.


AMP 4

AMP 1

AMP 2

AMP 3

Ideally, each AMP will hold roughly the same amount of data.

EMPLOYEE ROWS EMPLOYEE ROWS EMPLOYEE ROWS EMPLOYEE ROWS DEPARTMENT ROWS DEPARTMENT ROWS DEPARTMENT ROWS DEPARTMENT ROWS JOB ROWS JOB ROWS JOB ROWS JOB ROWS

Multi-Node MPP System


BYNET

SMP

SMP

SMP

SMP

DAC

DAC

DAC

DAC

DAC

DAC

DAC

DAC

Multiple nodes may be configured to provide a Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) system. A physical message passing layer called the BYNET is needed to interconnect multiple nodes. Teradata is a linearly expandable RDBMS - as your database grows, additional nodes may be added.

BYNET (for MPP)

BYNET Features: Enables multiple SMP nodes to communicate. Automatic load balancing of message traffic. Automatic reconfiguration after fault detection. Fully operational dual BYNETs provide fault tolerance. Scalable bandwidth as nodes are added. Even though there are two physical BYNETs to provide redundancy and bandwidth, Teradata and TCP/IP software only see a single network.

BYNET 0

BYNET 1

SMP

SMP

SMP

SMP

SMP

SMP

SMP

SMP

The BYNET is a dual redundant, bi-directional interconnect network.


All SMPs are connected to both BYNETs.

Teradata file system Is a layer between Teradata RDBMS and PDE Also provides set of service calls that allows Teradata RDBMS to store and retrieve data efficiently

Disk Arrays

A disk array contains drive groups Drive groups contain set of drivers LUN (Logical units) contains a portion of every drive pdisk is a slice of LUN Group of pdisks assigned to an AMP is called vdisk

According to the primary index selected, the rows get distributed randomly among all the AMP's.

Data Distribution

More the unique the primary index, the more even the distribution will be.

THANKS