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GABRIEL,RM,RN,MAN ( Professor )

Ramon Magsaysay Technological University

General System Theory

is a general science of "wholeness.. It describes how to break whole things into parts &

then to learn how the parts work together in systems. These concepts may be applied to different kinds of systems,e.g. Molecules in chemistry, cultures in sociology, and organsim Anatomy & Health in Nursing.

System - is made up of separate components. The parts rely on one another, are interrelated, share a common purpose, and together form a whole. Input is the information that enters the system.

Output - is the end product of a system

Feedback - is the process through which the output is returned to the system

Ludwig Von Bertalanffy Assumptions: a) All systems must be goal directed. b) A system is more than the sum of its parts. c) A system is ever changing and any change in one part affects the whole. d) Boundaries are implicit and human system are open and dynamic. Nursing Models based on System Theory Imogene Kings System Interaction Model Betty Neumans Health Care Systems Model Dorothy Johnsons Behavioral System


It is a phenomenon that occurs continuously in all living

systems, it means alteration in the status Quo .

Lewins theories in identifying seven phases of planned change: 1. The patient must feel a need for change. Unfreezing occurs. 2. A helping relationship begins between the change agent and his or her patients. Movement begins. 3. The problem is identified and clarified. Data are collected. 4. Alternatives for change are examined. Resources are assessed. 5. Active modification or change occurs. Movement is complete. 6. Refreezing occurs as the change is stabilized. 7. The helping relationship ends, or a different type of continuing relationship is formed.

Lewin identified 3 states of change

Unfreezing Is the recognition of the need for change and the dissolution of previously held patterns of behavior. 2) Movement Is the shift of behavior toward a new and more healthful pattern. 3) Refreezing Is the long-term solidification of the new pattern of behavior.

III. Developmental Theory

It outlines the process of growth & development of

humans as orderly & predictable, beginning with conception & ending with death. The progress & behaviors of an individual within each stage are unique. The growth & development of an individual are influenced by heredity, temperament, emotional,& physical environment, life experiences & health status.


POLITICAL Involves ones leadership how/she rules, manages and other people in decision making. 1. Safety the condition of being free from harm, injury or loss of authority or power 2. Oppression unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power 3. Political will determination to pursue something which is for the interest of the majority. 4. Empowerment the ability of a person to do something creating the circumstances where people can use their faculties and abilities at the maximum level in the pursuit of common goals

B. CULTURAL relating to the representation of non-physical traits, such as values, beliefs, attitudes and customs shared by a group of people and passed from the generation to the next. 1.Practices a customary action usually done to maintain or promote health like use of anting-anting and lucky charms. 2.Beliefs a state or habit of mind wherein a group of people place into something or a person.

C. HEREDITY the genetic transmission of traits from parents to offspring; genetically determined. D. ENVIRONMENT The sum of all the conditions and elements that makeup the surroundings and influence the development of the individuals.

E. SOCIO-ECONOMIC refers to the production activities, distribution of and consumption of goods of an individual.