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ATMS 305 Atmospheric Thermodynamics and Statics

Todays lecture objectives:


The First Law of Thermodynamics (W&H 3.3)
What kinds of energy barriers might Polly Parcel encounter that will prevent her from rising and helping to form a thunderstorm?

?
dw 1 p g C z Fz dt z

ATMS 305 The First Law of Thermodynamics


Todays lecture topics:
The First Law of Thermodynamics (W&H 3.3)
Forms of energy Work of expansion Joules law Specific heats Enthalpy Types of processes

Energy
Many Different Forms
Kinetic Internal Potential

Mechanical

Chemical

Electrical

(courtesy F. Remer)

Energy
Internal

Internal energy = kinetic + potential energy of the molecules or atoms of a body (e.g. parcel) Kinetic energy = translation, rotation, vibration of the molecules or atoms
(courtesy F. Remer)

First Law of Thermodynamics


Energy is Conserved

E = constant
(EKinetic + EPotential + EInternal + EChemical +

EMechanical + EElectrical ) = constant


our main concern in synoptic meteorology
(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion
Work is a Form of Mechanical Energy Work = Force x Distance

d W = F Dx
Force Distance x
(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion
Work is Performed When Air Expands
F

(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion
Work Performed by a System on Its Environment Is Positive
dW > 0
F

(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion
Work Performed on a System by Its Environment Is Negative
dW < 0

(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion
Similar to a Piston
Volume Increases
F

(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion
Change in Volume Causes Work!
dW FDx
F
Dx Piston Moved Distance Dx

Cross Sectional Area (A)


(courtesy F. Remer)

ATMS 305 The First Law of Thermodynamics


p-V diagram

dW p dV

V2

V1

p dV

W = (area under curve)


The pressure-volume (p-V) diagram is an example of a thermodynamic diagram in which the physical state of a substance is represented by two thermodynamic variables. We will see these again in this course.

Internal Energy
Joules Law

Vacuum Valve Closed

Air

Thermally Insulated
(courtesy F. Remer)

Internal Energy
Joules Law

Air Valve Open

Air

Thermally Insulated
(courtesy F. Remer)

Internal Energy
Joules Law
Air expands to fill container
Change in volume
Air Valve Open Air

No work done (pda=0)


Expands into vacuum

No heat added (dq=0)


Thermally isolated container

(courtesy F. Remer)

Internal Energy
Joules Law
First Law of Thermodynamics
Air Valve Open Air

dq du pda
Which means

du 0
(courtesy F. Remer)

Internal Energy
Joules Law

Air

Air

Valve Open

The experiment showed NO CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE!!!!!!!!


(courtesy F. Remer)

ATMS 305 The First Law of Thermodynamics


p-V diagram
thermodynamic diagram

Tells us how Polly Parcels thermodynamic properties (temperature, pressure, volume, mass) will change as she rises or sinks in her environment.

First Law of Thermodynamics


Types of Processes
Isochoric (or Isosteric) Isobaric Isothermal Adiabatic (later lecture)

(courtesy F. Remer)

Isochoric Process
Changes in
Heat Added or Removed Temperature Pressure
p
273K 373K

V
(courtesy F. Remer)

Isobaric Process
Changes in
Heat Added or Removed Temperature Volume
p
273K 373K

V
(courtesy F. Remer)

Isothermal Process
Changes in
Heat Added or Removed Pressure Volume
p
273K 373K

V
(courtesy F. Remer)

ATMS 305 The First Law of Thermodynamics


p-V diagram

What happens to Polly for an isothermal process? How much work does she do in going from V1 to V2?