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Original Title: thermodynamics

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The First Law of Thermodynamics (W&H 3.3)

What kinds of energy barriers might Polly Parcel encounter that will prevent her from rising and helping to form a thunderstorm?

?

dw 1 p g C z Fz dt z

Todays lecture topics:

The First Law of Thermodynamics (W&H 3.3)

Forms of energy Work of expansion Joules law Specific heats Enthalpy Types of processes

Energy

Many Different Forms

Kinetic Internal Potential

Mechanical

Chemical

Electrical

(courtesy F. Remer)

Energy

Internal

Internal energy = kinetic + potential energy of the molecules or atoms of a body (e.g. parcel) Kinetic energy = translation, rotation, vibration of the molecules or atoms

(courtesy F. Remer)

Energy is Conserved

E = constant

(EKinetic + EPotential + EInternal + EChemical +

our main concern in synoptic meteorology

(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion

Work is a Form of Mechanical Energy Work = Force x Distance

d W = F Dx

Force Distance x

(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion

Work is Performed When Air Expands

F

(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion

Work Performed by a System on Its Environment Is Positive

dW > 0

F

(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion

Work Performed on a System by Its Environment Is Negative

dW < 0

(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion

Similar to a Piston

Volume Increases

F

(courtesy F. Remer)

Work of Expansion

Change in Volume Causes Work!

dW FDx

F

Dx Piston Moved Distance Dx

(courtesy F. Remer)

p-V diagram

dW p dV

V2

V1

p dV

The pressure-volume (p-V) diagram is an example of a thermodynamic diagram in which the physical state of a substance is represented by two thermodynamic variables. We will see these again in this course.

Internal Energy

Joules Law

Air

Thermally Insulated

(courtesy F. Remer)

Internal Energy

Joules Law

Air

Thermally Insulated

(courtesy F. Remer)

Internal Energy

Joules Law

Air expands to fill container

Change in volume

Air Valve Open Air

Expands into vacuum

Thermally isolated container

(courtesy F. Remer)

Internal Energy

Joules Law

First Law of Thermodynamics

Air Valve Open Air

dq du pda

Which means

du 0

(courtesy F. Remer)

Internal Energy

Joules Law

Air

Air

Valve Open

(courtesy F. Remer)

p-V diagram

thermodynamic diagram

Tells us how Polly Parcels thermodynamic properties (temperature, pressure, volume, mass) will change as she rises or sinks in her environment.

Types of Processes

Isochoric (or Isosteric) Isobaric Isothermal Adiabatic (later lecture)

(courtesy F. Remer)

Isochoric Process

Changes in

Heat Added or Removed Temperature Pressure

p

273K 373K

V

(courtesy F. Remer)

Isobaric Process

Changes in

Heat Added or Removed Temperature Volume

p

273K 373K

V

(courtesy F. Remer)

Isothermal Process

Changes in

Heat Added or Removed Pressure Volume

p

273K 373K

V

(courtesy F. Remer)

p-V diagram

What happens to Polly for an isothermal process? How much work does she do in going from V1 to V2?

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