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Pipiet wulandari

MAJOR ANATOMICAL AND FUNCTIONAL DIVISIONS


Central nervous system (CNS) The brain and spinal cord, which contain control centers responsible for processing and integrating sensory information, planning and coordinating responses to stimuli, and providing short-term control over the activities of other systems.

Peripheral Neural tissue outside the CNS that links the nervous CNS with sense organs and other system (PNS) systems. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) Components of the CNS and PNS that control visceral functions at the subconscious level.

Receptors are broadly categorized as follows:

1.

2.
3.

Exteroceptors (extero-, outside) provide information about the external environment in the form of touch, temperature, and pressure sensations and the more complex senses of sight, smell, hearing, and taste. Proprioceptors monitor the position and movement of skeletal muscles and joints. Interoceptors (intero-, inside) monitor the digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems and provide sensations of taste, deep pressure, and pain.

somatic nervous system (SNS)


controls skeletal muscle contractions. The contractions may be voluntary or involuntary. You are conscious when you are awake and alert. Voluntary contractions are under conscious control; you exert voluntary control over your arm as you raise a full glass of water to your lips. Involuntary contractions may be simple, automatic responses or complex movements directed at the subconscious level. If you accidentally place your hand on a hot stove, you will withdraw it immediately, usually before you even notice the pain. This type of automatic involuntary response is a reflex.

autonomic nervous system (ANS)


or visceral motor system, provides automatic, involuntary regulation of smooth

muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity or secretions. The ANS includes a sympathetic division and a parasympathetic division. These ANS divisions commonly have antagonistic effects. For example, activity of the sympathetic division accelerates the heart rate, whereas parasympathetic activity slows the heart rate.

SISTEM SARAF TEPI SECARA ANATOMI


12 PASANG SARAF KRANIAL
31 PASANG SARAF SPINAL

Jaringan Saraf
Neuron:
Badan sel Akson hantaran keluar dari badan sel

Dendrit hantaran menuju badan sel

Neuroglia :
Mikroglia fagosit

Ependima produksi CSF


Astroglia nutrisi esensial Oligodendroglia menghasilkan mielin

Cell Type

Functions

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Astrocytes Maintain blood-brain barrier; provide structural support; regulate ion, nutrient, and dissolved gas concentrations; absorb and recycle neurotransmitters; assist in tissue repair after injury

Oligodendrocytes Microglia Ependymal cells

Myelinate CNS axons; provide structural framework Remove cell debris, wastes, and pathogens by phagocytosis Line ventricles (brain) and central canal (spinal cavity); assist in production, circulation, and monitoring of cerebrospinal fluid

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Satellite cells Schwann cells Surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia Cover all axons in PNS; responsible for myelination of some peripheral axons; participate in repair process after injury

Otak manusia
98 % jaringan saraf tubuh
Beratnya 1.4 kg dan volumenya 1200 cc Laki 10 % lebih besar dari wanita Tidak ada korelasi antara ukuran otak dan

intelligensia Di dominasi cerebrum Paling banyak memakai energi Metabolisme tidak pernah berhenti

THE CEREBRUM

Region/Nucleus
Frontal lobe Primary motor cortex

Function
Voluntary control of skeletal muscles

Parietal lobe
Conscious perception of touch, pressure, vibration, Primary sensory cortex pain, temperature, and taste Occipital lobe Visual cortex Temporal lobe Conscious perception of visual stimuli

Auditory cortex and olfactory cortex


All lobes

Conscious perception of auditory and olfactory stimuli Integration and processing of sensory data; processing and initiation of motor activities

Association areas

Diencephalon.
Left and right thalamus. Each thalamus contains relay and processing centers

for sensory information. A narrow stalk, the infundibulum, connects the hypothalamus (hypo-, below), or floor of the diencephalon, to the pituitary gland, a component of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus contains centers involved with emotions, autonomic function, and hormone production Subtalamus belum diketahui jelas fungsinya epitalamus berkaitan dengan sistem limbik

SISTEM LIMBIK
Suatu struktur cincin kortikal dan subkortikal pembatas yang mengelilingi korpus kalosum
Struktur kortikal : girus singuli, hipokampus

Struktur subkortikal : amigdala, traktus dan bulbus olfaktorius, dan septum. Beberapa ahli menyertakan talamus dan hipotalamus Fungsi : pengalaman dan ekspresi alam perasaan : takut, marah, emosi, ingatan.

CEREBELLUM

Subdivision Gray matter

Region/Nucleus Function Cerebellar cortex Involuntary coordination and control of ongoing movements of body parts

Cerebellar nuclei
White matter Arbor vitae Cerebellar peduncles Superior Middle Inferior Transverse fibers

Same as for cerebellar cortex


Connects cerebellar cortex and nuclei with cerebellar peduncles

Link the cerebellum with mesencephalon, diencephalon, and cerebrum Contain transverse fibers and carry communications between the cerebellum and pons

Link the cerebellum with the medulla oblongata and spinal cord
Interconnect pontine nuclei with the cerebellar hemispheres on the opposite side

2 fungsi cerebellum:
Menjaga postur tubuh
Meprogram dan mengontrol gerakan halus

Brain stem

brain stem
mesencephalon,
pons, medulla oblongata.

Mesencephalon.
Otak tengah
Refleks penglihatan dan koordinasi gerakan penglihatan

Refleks pendengaran misal : menggerakkan kepala ke arah datangnya suara

MESENCEPHALON

Pons
The term pons is Latin for "bridge";
Menghubungkan kedua hemisfer serebelum

serta menghubungkan mesensefalon di bagian atas dan medula oblongata di bagian bawah In addition to tracts and relay centers, the pons also contains nuclei involved with somatic and visceral motor control.

PONS

Medulla oblongata.
The spinal cord connects to the brain at the medulla

oblongata. The medulla oblongata relays sensory information to the thalamus and to centers in other portions of the brain stem. The medulla oblongata also contains major centers concerned with the regulation of autonomic function, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion

MEDULLA OBLONGATA

SISTEM SARAF TEPI

Olfactory (I) Optic (II) Oculomotor (III) Trochlear (IV)

Special sensory Special sensory Motor Motor

Cribriform plate of ethmoid Optic canal Superior orbital fissure Superior orbital fissure

Trigeminal (V)

Semilunar
Ophthalmic Maxillary Mandibular

Mixed Sensory
Superior orbital fissure Sensory Mixed Motor Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Superior orbital fissure Internal acoustic canal to facial canal; exits at stylomastoid foramen Internal acoustic canal

Abducens (VI) Facial (VII) Vestibulocochlear (Acoustic) (VIII) Cochlear Vestibular Glossopharyngeal (IX) Vagus (X) Accessory (XI) Superior (jugular) and inferior (petrosal) Jugular and nodose Medullary Spinal Hypoglossal (XII) Geniculate

Mixed Special sensory

Mixed Mixed Motor Motor Motor

Jugular foramen Jugular foramen Jugular foramen Jugular foramen Hypoglossal canal

Saraf Spinal
Sepasang saraf spinal keluar dari kanalis vertebralis melalui foramen intervertebralis
Tiap saraf spinal tersebar ke segmen tubuh

tertentu Terdiri dari :


8 pasang saraf servikal

12 pasang saraf torakal


5 pasang saraf lumbalis 5 pasang saraf sakralis

1 pasang saraf koksigeal

Lengkung Refleks
Unit fungsional sistem saraf
Terdiri dari satu neuron sensorik, satu neuron

motorik dan interneuron Memungkinkan respon tidak tergantung pada pusat yang lebih tinggi dan cukup untuk melaksanakan kegiatan sederhana. Misal : refleks menarik diri dari nyeri