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Contents

Definition of instrumentation &


Process Control
P&IDs & Instrument symbols
Process Measurement
n Transducer (Temperature-Pressure-
Flow-Level)
n Transmitting and Switching Elements
Definition of Instrumentation & Process
Control System

Instrumentation:
n A collection of instruments for the purpose
of observation, measurement, protection or
control.
Process Control
n Regulation or manipulation of variable
influencing the process to achieve desire
quantity/quality in an efficient manner
Block Diagram of Process Control
Loop

Measuremen
t

Process Set Point Controller

Final Control
Element
P&ID and Instrument
Symbols
P&ID stands for Piping & Instrumentation
Diagram
n Definition:diagram where it will show the

process piping and instrumentation


connections with Process tanks and vessels,
reactors, exchangers, …etc. in order to
produce particular product or perform
specific task.
n The P&IDs contains detail connections for

the instrumentations where defined by


graphical symbols and identification letters.
Instrumentation
Identification
Example of instrument Identification
n FIC4003 (Flow indication and Control)
n FI4002 (Flow Indication)
n FT4003 (Flow Transmitter)
n FV4003 (Flow Control Valve)
n PIC4002 (Pressure Indication and Control)
n PV4002 (Pressure Control Valve)
n PDSL1234 (Pressure Differential Switch Low)
Control Loops
PV FIC
SV
1
MV
Vent FY IA
1

i
FT-1 FSL
1

FE-1 AFC

FV-1
Process Measurement
In this lecture we will cover the
measurement instruments:
n Temperature Elements
n Pressure Elements
n Flow Elements
n Level Elements
I. Temperature
Definition:
n It is the Degree of Coldness or
hotness or in other word related to
the kinetic energy of molecules.
n Temperature generated by heat
energy.
n Heat energy has unit of BTU
(Brithish Thermal Unit) or Calorie
Temperature (Cont.)
Units:
n Fahrenheit (ºF), Centigrade (Celsius)
ºC, Kelvin ºK, Ranklin ºR
F= 5/9 x C + 32
C= 9/5 (F-32)
K= 273.15 + C
R= 459.7 +F
Temperature (Cont.)

212 100 373.15 671.7 Water


Boiling

32 0 273.15 459.7 Water


Freezing

-459.7 -273.15 0 0 Absolute


ºF ºC ºK ºR zero
Temperature
(Measurement)
n Thermocouple: Consists of two
dissimilar metals joined at one end
and other end connected to meter.
When joined end (Hot junction)
heated, voltage will be produced at
the other end (Cold Junction).
Temperature
(Measurement)
Temperature
(Measurement)
Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)
n Heat Sensitive element prepared with
carefully made electric resistance.
n Used material: Platinum, Nickel, Iron, Salver
w In our plant most of RTDs used are Pt100
platinum resistance= 100 ohm at 0 degree C
n As temperature rises, resistance increases.
Temperature
(Measurement)
Thermostor:
n Very small Solid thermo-electric
devise made of solid semiconductor
of various metal oxides.
n The electric resistance of thermostor
decrease with an increase in
temperature.
II. Pressure
Definition:
n Defined as the normal force per unit
area acting on surface of an object.
n P=F/A
Units:
n Pa, psi, inches of mercury, inches of
water, BAR, atm, Kg/cm2
Pressure (Cont.)
Scale of measurement:
n Gauge Pressure Scale
n Absolute Pressure Scale
n Vacuum Pressure Scale

Pg= Pa - Atmospheric Pressure


Pressure (Cont.)

Gage pre.Range

Zero gauge
Abs. Barometric
Atm.Range
Pressure
vacuum
Zero (Absolute)
Pressure (Measurement)
Manometers:
n Used for the direct measurement of
pressure and vacuum.
n U-Tube Manometer
w A glass of U- tube shape, partially filled
with liquid.
w The zero is connected to the scale when
both ends of the U-glass opened to
atmosphere.
P1 P2

U-Tube Manometer
Pressure (Measurement)
n U-Tube Manometer (Cont.)
w When applied pressure at one end of the
tube, difference in level will occur:
w P2-P1=




n Well Manometer (Single Leg):
w Used for low pressure application with
higher accuracy from the U-Manometer.
w P2-P1= 
P2
A1

A2 P1
h
zero line
Pressure (Measurement)
n 
w 
w 

P2
A1
A2 P1
h L
zero line
Pressure (Measurement)
Pressure Element
n Mechanical devices changed its shape
when pressure is applied
n The pressure elements sometimes
called elastic deformation pressure
element
n Each type has its range of operation
pressure.
Pressure (Measurement)
Pressure (Measurement)
Pressure Transducers
n Elastic deformation element joined to
electrical device.
n Changes in resistance, inductance, or
capacitance
Pressure (Measurement)
Strain Gauge:
n Fine wire in form of grid.
n When the grid distorted, resistance of
the wire will change according to:
R=K. L/A
K : Resistively of the metal
L : Length of wire
A : Cross sectional Area
Pressure (Measurement)

Grid Wire
Lead
wires

Ceramic or
paper backing

Strain Gage
Pressure (Measurement)
Strain Gage (Cont.)
n As Strain Gage is distorted by the
elastic deformation length will
increase and area will reduced.
n Resistance will increase accordingly.
Pressure (Measurement)
Inductance Type
n Consists of Coil, Movable Magnet
core, and elastic deformation
element.
n AC current pass through coil.
n As the pressure varies the elastic
deformation, the magnet core will
move through the coil.
n This will change the inductance.
Pressure (Measurement)

Coil
Non Conductive Tube

Movable Iron Core


Pressure (Measurement)

Capacitance Type
n Consists of two conductive plates,
dielectric, and diaphragm.
n As the pressure increases diaphragm
will move the plate changing the
capacitance.
Pressure (Measurement)
Flow (Measurement)

Flow rate and flow quantity of


materials is made primarily for
determining the proportions of
materials introduced to the
process.
Method of measurements:
n Head Elements
n Area Elements
n Quantity Velocity Elements
Flow (Measurement)
The following properties are
important for the flow
measurement:
n Pressure: Force applied on Area
n Density : Weight divided by volume
n Viscosity : Resistance to flow
n Velocity : Speed of the fluid. It
determine the behavior of the fluid.
Flow (Measurement)
Flow Types:
n When the average velocity is slow,
the flow is called laminar, i.e fastest
layers at the center and the slowest
at the edges
n When the average velocity increases,
the flow is called turbulent.
n The measurement of laminar,
turbulent flow is as per Reynolds
Flow (Measurement)

Laminar
Flow

Turbulent
Flow
Flow (Measurement)
Most Flow are design to work in
turbulent flow
Units of Flow:
n lb/Hr, Kg/Hr, T/Hr: mass flow
n cfm, M3/H, KNM3/Hr: Volumetric Flow
Flow Measurement
Head Flow Elements
n When the liquid flows through a
restriction, the energy converted
kinetic energy.
n The pressure will drop and velocity
increases.

C: constant

Flow Measurement
Head Flow Elements
n Orifice Plate: the loss in the pressure is
more that other type of flow measurement.
w The selection of orifice plate based on ratio of
bore diameter to (d) to inside pipe diameter (D). 

w 
w 
n 
n 
n 
Flow Measurement
n Venturi tube: expensive and the most
accurate type 
w 

Upstream Tap Downstream Tap


Flow Measurement
n 
w 
w 
w 

Upstream Tap Downstream Tap


Flow Measurement
Variable Area Flow Meter
n Rotameter: consists of tapered, vertical
glass consists of float.
n Flow will carry the float from bottom to top
through variable area glass.

A: cross sectional area of the glass


g: gravitational acceleration
constant
h: the height of the float.
Variable Area Flow Meter
Out

Float

In
Flow Measurement
Quantity Flow Measurement
n Positive displacement
w Measure the total quantity of the flow
w separate the liquid into discrete volumes
w Total of these volumes in time period will
give the total flow amount
n Mass Flow meter:
w measurement of the weight per unit time.
w Continuous measurement of density
Level
There is two ways of measuring
level
n Direct level measurement
w by varying liquid will get the level
n Indirect level measurement
w by using a variables which changes with
the liquid level changes.
Level Measurement
Float
n special material designed to follow
the level or the interface level of a
tank
n The specialty is the density of the
float shall be always touching the
desired measurement level.
n As the level increases/decreases, float
will follow and causing a connecting
tape to change its length.
Level Measurement
Displacer
n Archimede’s Principle: a body wholly or
partially immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by
a force equal to the weight of the fluid
displaced.
n The level is measured by detecting the
buoyancy force of an immersed displacer
n The major difference between float and
displacer is that displacer is partially or
totally immersed, while float is always
floating in the surface of the level.
Flexible
Cable

Displacer Float
Level Measurement

Differential pressure
n P/
n P/(g.
n 


L
T
Instrument Signal Types

All measurement elements are


sent to DCS/ESD/PLC Either for
alarming, interlocking or
controlling.
Measurement Instrumentation
consists of two parts
n Measurement elements (Transducer)-
Covered in the previous sections
n Transmitting elements
n Switching elements
Instrument Signal Types
Transmitting Elements
n Transmitting element will convert the
Transducer signals into either electronic or
pneumatic signals
n Transmitting elements are commonly used
for indication and control
n Electronic transmitter will send 4 ~ 20 mA
w 4mA : min. range
w 20mA: max. range
n Pneumatic transmitter will convert the
transducer signal into 3~15 psi
w 3 psi = min. range
Instrument Signal Types
Switching Elements
n Switching elements will convert the
transducer signal into a switching
contact
n The contacts are used commonly in
alarming and interlocking processes
Conclusion
Definition of instrumentation &
Process Control
P&IDs & Instrument symbols
Process Measurement
n Transducer (Temperature-Pressure-
Flow-Level)
n Transmitting and Switching Elements
??QUESTIONS??
THANK YOU

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