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# Symmetry

What Is Symmetry?
Fundamental organizing principle in nature and art Preserves distances, angles, sizes and shapes

## Symmetry of the Alphabet

Sort the letters of the alphabet into groups according to their symmetries Divide letters into two categories:
symmetrical not symmetrical

## Symmetry of the Alphabet

Symmetrical: A, B, C, D, E, H, I, K, M, N, O, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z Not Symmetrical: F, G, J, L, P, Q, R

## Four Types of Symmetry in a Plane

Rotation Translation Reflection Glide Reflection

Rotation
To rotate an object means to turn it around Every rotation must have a center and an angle

Translation
Move it without rotating or reflecting it Every translation has a direction and a distance

Reflection
Produce an objects mirror image A reflection must have a mirror line

Glide Reflection
Involves more than one step Combination of a reflection and a translation along the direction of the mirror line

Group Activity
Choose a letter (other than R) with no symmetries On a piece of paper perform the following tasks on the chosen letter:
rotation translation reflection glide reflection

Questions
What happens if you do the same transformation twice? How many combinations of two transformations are there? What happens if you combine more than two transformations?

## Symmetry In The Real World

Plants and animals exhibit many forms of symmetry

M.C. Escher
Dutch graphic artist No formal training in math or science Used intricate repeating patterns in his artwork

Butterflies

## Fish and Boats

Lizards

What is a matrix?
A. B. A movie starring Keanu Reeves A complicated maze

C.
D.

## The new Nike sneaker

A rectangular array of numbers

Multiplying Matrices
How?
Each matrix is composed of rows (horizontal numbers) and columns (vertical rows). The two matrices must have dimensions mxn and nxp, where the number of rows in matrix A must be equal to the number of columns in matrix B. Thus the resulting matrix is of the dimensions mxp

Practice Problems
1. What are the dimensions of the resulting matrix when a 2 by 2 matrix is multiplied by a 2 by 3 matrix? Answer : 2 by 3 (2 Rs, 3 Cs)
Can a matrix having dimensions 3 by 2 have resulted from the multiplication of two matrices having dimensions 2 by 2 and 2 by 3? Answer: NO!!! It does not follow the mxn and nxp formula.

2.

Matrix Magic
1 0 Matrix A= 0 1
Matrix C=

1 0 Matrix B= 0 1 1 2 4 1 4 2

## 2. On graph paper, plot [C] and [A]x[C]

3. Repeat using [B] and [C]

## The Geometers Sketchpad

www.keypress.com Plot the points (1,1); (4,2); (2,3)
(a) Reflect the figure across the line from (5,-5) to (-5, 5) (b) Rotate the figure 90o about the origin

Find the matrices that give you the two resulting figures in (a) and (b)

90o rotation

Results

reflection

1 4 2 0 1 1 2 3 1 0 1 2 3 1 4 2

1 4 2 0 1 1 2 3 1 0
=

1 2 3 1 4 2

FIELD TRIP!

The Curriculum
Draw, describe, and apply translations, reflections, and rotations, and their combinations, and identify and use the properties associated with these transformations