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What Is Symmetry?
Fundamental organizing principle in nature and art Preserves distances, angles, sizes and shapes

Symmetry of the Alphabet

Sort the letters of the alphabet into groups according to their symmetries Divide letters into two categories:
symmetrical not symmetrical

Symmetry of the Alphabet

Symmetrical: A, B, C, D, E, H, I, K, M, N, O, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z Not Symmetrical: F, G, J, L, P, Q, R

Four Types of Symmetry in a Plane

Rotation Translation Reflection Glide Reflection

To rotate an object means to turn it around Every rotation must have a center and an angle

Move it without rotating or reflecting it Every translation has a direction and a distance

Produce an objects mirror image A reflection must have a mirror line

Glide Reflection
Involves more than one step Combination of a reflection and a translation along the direction of the mirror line

Group Activity
Choose a letter (other than R) with no symmetries On a piece of paper perform the following tasks on the chosen letter:
rotation translation reflection glide reflection

What happens if you do the same transformation twice? How many combinations of two transformations are there? What happens if you combine more than two transformations?

Symmetry In The Real World

Plants and animals exhibit many forms of symmetry

M.C. Escher
Dutch graphic artist No formal training in math or science Used intricate repeating patterns in his artwork


Fish and Boats


What is a matrix?
A. B. A movie starring Keanu Reeves A complicated maze


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A rectangular array of numbers

Multiplying Matrices
Each matrix is composed of rows (horizontal numbers) and columns (vertical rows). The two matrices must have dimensions mxn and nxp, where the number of rows in matrix A must be equal to the number of columns in matrix B. Thus the resulting matrix is of the dimensions mxp

Practice Problems
1. What are the dimensions of the resulting matrix when a 2 by 2 matrix is multiplied by a 2 by 3 matrix? Answer : 2 by 3 (2 Rs, 3 Cs)
Can a matrix having dimensions 3 by 2 have resulted from the multiplication of two matrices having dimensions 2 by 2 and 2 by 3? Answer: NO!!! It does not follow the mxn and nxp formula.


Matrix Magic
1 0 Matrix A= 0 1
Matrix C=

1 0 Matrix B= 0 1 1 2 4 1 4 2

1. Multiply [A] by [C]

2. On graph paper, plot [C] and [A]x[C]

3. Repeat using [B] and [C]

The Geometers Sketchpad

www.keypress.com Plot the points (1,1); (4,2); (2,3)
(a) Reflect the figure across the line from (5,-5) to (-5, 5) (b) Rotate the figure 90o about the origin

Find the matrices that give you the two resulting figures in (a) and (b)

90o rotation



1 4 2 0 1 1 2 3 1 0 1 2 3 1 4 2

1 4 2 0 1 1 2 3 1 0

1 2 3 1 4 2


The Curriculum
Grade 7
Draw, describe, and apply translations, reflections, and rotations, and their combinations, and identify and use the properties associated with these transformations

Grade 9
represent problem situations using matrices model, solve, and create problems involving the matrix operations of addition, subtraction, and scalar multiplication use mapping notation to represent translations, reflections, rotations, and dilatations of geometric figures and interpret such notations

The Curriculum (continued)

Grade 10
analyse graphs or charts of given situations to derive specific information derive, analyse, and apply procedures for matrix multiplication solve problems using various analysis capabilities (graphic calculators/ software) explore the patterns, make and test conjectures about the properties of, and symmetry in, 2- and 3dimensional figures investigate and use line, point, and plane symmetry apply transformations when solving problems

The Curriculum (continued again)

Grade 12
derive, analyse, and apply algebraic procedures, including those involving algebraic expressions, and matrices, in problem solving solve problems involving relationships using graphing technology as well as appropriate paperand-pencil techniques