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# Core Ag Engineering

Principles Session 1
Bernoullis Equation
Pump Applications
Bernoullis Equation
Hydrodynamics (the fluid is moving)

Incompressible fluid (liquids and
gases at low pressures)
Therefore changes in fluid density are not
considered
Conservation of Mass
If the rate of flow is constant at any point
and there is no accumulation or depletion
of fluid within the system, the principle of
conservation of mass (where mass flow
rate is in kg/s) requires:
- - -
= = =
i 2 1
m ... m m

For incompressible fluids density
remains constant and the equation
becomes:
Q ... V A V A
2 2 1 1
= = =
Q is volumetric flow rate in m
3
/s
A is cross-sectional area of pipe (m
2
) and
V is the velocity of the fluid in m/s
Example
Water is flowing in a 15 cm ID pipe at
a velocity of 0.3 m/s. The pipe
enlarges to an inside diameter of 30
cm. What is the velocity in the larger
section, the volumetric flow rate, and
the mass flow rate?
Example
D
1
= 0.15 m D
2
= 0.3 m
V
1
= 0.3 m/s V
2
= ?

How do we find V
2
?
Example

D
1
= 15 cm ID D
2
= 30 cm ID
V
1
= 0.3 m/s V
2
= ?

We know A
1
V
1
= A
2
V
2

V
2
= 0.075 m/s
4
(0.3m)
(0.3m/s)
4
(0.15m)
A
V A
V
2
2
2
1 1
2

= =
What is the volumetric flow
rate?
Volumetric flow rate = Q

s
m
0.0053
)
s
m
(0.3
4
(0.15m)
V A V A Q
3
2
2 2 1 1
=
=
= =

## What is the mass flow rate in the

larger section of pipe?

Mass flow rate =
-
m
s
kg
5.3
)
m
kg
(1000
s
m
0.0053
Q m
3
3
=
=
=
-

Bernoullis Theorem
Since energy is neither created nor
destroyed within the fluid system, the
total energy of the fluid at one point in
the system must equal the total
energy at any other point plus any
transfers of energy into or out of the
system.
Bernoullis Theorem

h = elevation of point 1 (m or ft)
P
1
= pressure (Pa or psi)
= specific weight of fluid
v = velocity of fluid
2g
v

P
h F W
2g
v

P
h
2
2 2
2
2
1 1
1
+ + = + + +
Bernoullis Theorem Special
Cases
When system is open to the
atmosphere, then P=0 if reference
pressure is atmospheric (can be one P
or both Ps)
When one V refers to a storage tank
and the other V refers to a pipe, then
V of tank <<<< V pipe and assumed
zero
If no pump or fan is between the two
points chosen, W=0

Example
Find the total energy (ft) at B; assume flow
is frictionless
A
B
C
125
75
25
Example
Why is total energy in units of ft?

What are the typical units of energy?

How do we start the problem?
Example
Total Energy
A
= Total Energy
B
2g
v

P
h F W
2g
v

P
h
2
B B
B
2
A A
A
+ + = + + +
Total Energy
B
h
A
= 125 = Total Energy
B
Example
Find the velocity at point C.
s
ft
80.2 v
)
s
ft
2(32.2
v
25' 125'

P
2g
v
h 125'
2
2
2
C
C
2
C
C
=
+ =
+ + =
0
Try it yourself:
pump
9
1
x
1
Water is pumped at the rate
of 3 cfs through piping
system shown. If the pump
has a discharge pressure of
150 psig, to what elevation
can the tank be raised?
Assume the head loss due to
friction is 10 feet.
Determining F for Pipes and
Grain
Step 1
Determine
Reynolds number
Dynamic viscosity
units
Diameter of pipe
Velocity
Density of fluid

V D
Re=
Reynolds numbers:
< 2130 Laminar
> 4000 Turbulent

Affects what?
Reynolds numbers:
< 2130 Laminar
> 4000 Turbulent

Affects what?
The f in Darcys equation for friction loss in
pipe
Laminar: f = 64 / Re
Turbulent: Colebrook equation or Moody
diagram
Total F
F = F
pipe
+ F
expansion
+ F
contraction
+ F
fittings

Darcys Formula
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2g
v
D
L
f F
2
pipe
Where do you use relative
roughness?
Relative roughness is a function of
the pipe material; for turbulent flow
it is a value needed to use the
Moody diagram (/D) along with the
Reynolds number
Example
Find f if the relative roughness is
0.046 mm, pipe diameter is 5
cm, and the Reynolds number is
17312
Example
Find f if the relative roughness is
0.046 mm, pipe diameter is 5
cm, and the Reynolds number is
17312
Solution
/ D = 0.000046 m / 0.05 m = 0.00092
Re = 1.7 x 10
4

Re > 4000; turbulent flow use Moody
diagram

Find /D , move to left until hit dark
black line slide up line until intersect
with Re #

f = 0.0285
Energy Loss due to Fittings and
Sudden Contractions
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2g
v
K F
2
Energy Loss due to Sudden
Enlargement
2g
) V (V
F
2
2 1

=
Example
Milk at 20.2C is to be lifted 3.6 m
through 10 m of sanitary pipe (2 cm
ID pipe) that contains two Type A
elbows. Milk in the lower reservoir
enters the pipe through a type A
entrance at the rate of 0.3 m
3
/min.
Calculate F.
Step 1:
Step 1: Calculate Re number

V D
Re =
Calculate v = ?

Calculate v
2
/ 2g, because well need this a
lot
12.9m
)
s
m
2(9.81
)
s
m
(15.9
2g
v
s
m
15.9
4
(0.02m)
60s
1min
min
m
0.3
A
Q
v
2
2
2
2
3
= =
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
What is viscosity? What is density?
Viscosity = 2.13 x 10
-3
Pa s
= 1030 kg/m
3
So Re = 154,000
2
2
3
3
s
kgm
N
m
Ns
10 2.13
)
m
kg
)(1030
s
m
0.02m(15.9
Re
=

f = ?

F
pipe
=
0.026 f
: s Moody'
10 1.5 Re
0.0023
0.02m
0.000046m
0.02m
0.046mm
D

5
=
=
= = =
( )
167.5m
12.9m
0.02m
10m
0.026
2g
v
D
L
f F
2
pipe
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
F
fittings
=

F
expansion
=

F
contraction
=
6.45m
2g
v
0.5 F
12.9m
2g
v
2g
) v (v
F
12.9m
2g
v
0.5) (0.5 F
2
contr
2
1
2
2 1
exp
2
fittings
= =
= =

=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
F
total
= 199.7 m
Try it yourself
Find F for milk at 20.2 C flowing at
0.075 m
3
/min in sanitary tubing with a
4 cm ID through 20 m of pipe, with
one type A elbow and one type A
entrance. The milk flows from one
reservoir into another.
Pump Applications
Power
The power output of
a pump is
calculated by:

W = work from pump (ft or m)
Q = volumetric flow rate (ft
3
/s or m
3
/s)
= density
g = gravity
System Characteristic
Curves
A system characteristic curve is
calculated by solving Bernoullis
theorem for many different Qs and
solving for Ws

This curve tells us the input head
required to move the fluid at that Q
through that system
Example system
characteristic curve
Pump Performance Curves
Given by the manufacturer plots
discharge rate

Note: these curves are good for ONLY
one speed, and one impeller diameter
to change speeds or diameters we
need to use pump laws
Efficiency
Power
Pump Operating Point
Pump operating point is found by the
intersection of pump performance curve
and system characteristic curve

What volumetric flow rate will
this pump discharge on this
system?
Performance of centrifugal pumps
while pumping water is used as
standard for comparing pumps
To compare pumps at any other speed
than that at which tests were
conducted or to compare performance
curves for geometrically similar pumps
use affinity laws

Pump Affinity Laws
Power out equations
A pump is to be selected that is geometrically
similar to the pump given in the performance
curve below, and the same system. What D
and N would give 0.005 m
3
of 19.8 m?
900W 9m
1400W
W
0.01 m
3
/s
D = 17.8 cm
N = 1760 rpm
What is the operating point of
first pump?
N
1
= 1760
D
1
= 17.8 cm
Q
1
= 0.01 m
3
/s Q
2
= 0.005 m
3
/s
W
1
= 9m W
2
= 19.8 m
Now we need to map to
new pump on same system
curve.
Substitute into Solve for D
2
N
2
= ?
Try it yourself
If the system used in the previous
example was changed by removing a
length of pipe and an elbow what
changes would that require you to
make?
Would N
1
change? D
1
? Q
1
? W
1
? P
1
?
Which direction (greater or smaller)
would they move if they change?
Bernoullis Theorem for Fans
PE Review Session VIB section 1
Fan and Bin

P
h

P
h
2g
v

P
h F W
2g
v

P
h
3
3
1
1
2
3 3
3
2
1 1
1
+ = +
+ + = + + +
1
2
3
F

P
2g
v

P
W
F W
0 v v
T
2
2 2
3 1
= = + =
=
= =
static
pressure
velocity
total
pressure
Power
s
s
T
T
e
Q P
P
or
e
Q P
P
=
=
F
total
=F
pipe
+F
expansion
+F
floor
+F
grain

F
pipe
=f (L/D) (V
2
/2g) for values in
pipe
F
expansion
= (V
1
2
V
2
2
) / 2g
V
1
is velocity in pipe
V
2
is velocity in bin
V
1
>> V
2
so equation reduces to
V
1
2
/2g
F
floor

Equation 2.38 p. 29 (4
th
edition) for no
grain on floor
Equation 2.39 p. 30 (4
th
edition) for
grain on floor
O
f
=percent floor opening expressed as
decimal

p
=voidage fraction of material expressed
as decimal (use 0.4 for grains if no better
info)
ASAE Standards graph for
F
floor

F
grain

Equation 2.36 p. 29 (C
f
= 1.5)
A and b from standards or Table 2.5 p. 30
Or use Shedds curves (Standards)
X axis is pressure drop/depth of grain
Y axis is superficial velocity (m
3
/(m
2
s)
Multiply pressure drop by 1.5 for
correction factor
Multiply by specific weight of air to get F in
m or f
Shedds Curve (english)
Shedds curves (metric)
Example
Air is to be forced through a grain drying
bin similar to that shown before. The air
flows through 5 m of 0.5 m diameter
galvanized iron conduit, exhausts into a
plenum below the grain, passes through a
perforated metal floor (10% openings) and
is finally forced through a 1 m depth of
wheat having a void fraction of 0.4. The
area of the bin floor is 20 m^2. Find the
static and total pressure when Q=4 m^3/s
F=F(pipe)+F(exp)+F(floor)+F(gra
in)
F(pipe)=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
g 2
v
D
L
f F
2
pipe
( )
s
m
20.4
4
0.5
s
m
4
A
Q
V
2
3
pipe
pipe
=

=
=
f

Dv
Re
Re and
D
=
( )
5
5
3
10 6.7 Re
s Pa 10 1.82
m
kg
1.202
s
m
20.4 0.5m
Re
=

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

( )
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

f(moody)
10 3
0.5m
1000mm
1m
0.15mm
D

4
( )
3.2m
s
m
9.81 2
s
m
20.4
0.5m
5m
0.015 F
0.015 f
2
2
pipe
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
F
exp

( )
g 2
v v
F
2
2
2
1
exp

=
21.2m
s
m
9.81 2
0
s
m
20.4
F
2
2
exp
=
|
.
|

\
|

~
|
.
|

\
|
=
F
floor
Equ. 2.39
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
g
o
v
m
s Pa
1.071
2
p f
2
2

V = V
bin
=
s
m
0.2
20m
s
m
4
A
Q
2
3
bin
= =
O
f
=0.1

0.4
p
=
2.3m
s
m
9.81
m
kg
1.202
0.4 0.1
0.2
m
s Pa
1.071
F
2 2
2
2
floor
=

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
F
grain

( )
( ) ( )( )
1599Pa
s
m
0.2 8.77 1 ln
1m 1.5
s
m
0.2 10 2.7
P
bV 1 ln
c V a
L
P
F
2
4
f
2
wheat
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|

=
+

= =
1599 Pa = _________ m?

135m
s
m
9.81
m
kg
1.202
m
N
1599
g
m
N
1599
2 3
2 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

## Using Shedds Curves

V=0.2 m/s
Wheat

( )( ) 127m 1500Pa c m 1
m
Pa
1000
L
P
f
= = =
F
total
= 3.2 + 21.2 + 2.3 + 130

= 157 m
Problem 2.4 (page 45)
Air (21C) at the rate of 0.1 m^3/(m^2
s) is to be moved vertically through a
crib of shelled corn 1.6 m deep. The
area of the floor is 12 m^2 with an
opening percentage of 10% and the
connecting galvanized iron pipe is 0.3
m in diameter and 12 m long. What is
the power requirement, assuming the
fan efficiency to be 70%?