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THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

An induction or asynchronous motor is a type of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction.

CONSTRUCTION
Two major parts: 1. Stator 2. Rotor An induction motor differs from a dc machine in : 1. Having a shorter air gap between stator and rotor. 2. Absence of commutator 3. Having laminated stator 4. Having speed limitation.

Stator
Stationary part Eddy current and hysteresis losses occur because of changing flux. Laminated by dynamo grade sheet steel , with varnish or oxide insulations between layers Circular laminations for small motors and segmented ones for large motors. 3-phase windings are connected in star/delta in the slots on the inner periphery of laminations. Radial ventilating ducts along the length of stator core improves cooling. Minimum thickness of laminations prevent eddy current loss.

ROTOR
Rotating part Made of dynamo grade sheet steel laminations of greater thickness. Frequency of flux change is less, so iron loss minimized No. of slots in rotor laminations = no. of slots in stator laminations. Rotor slots skewed at an angle with the shaft to :
Reduce magnetic noise Prevent magnetic locking of rotor and stator. Produce uniform torque

TYPES OF ROTOR
SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR WOUND OR SLIP RING ROTOR

SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR


Has copper bars placed on the

rotor slots
Rotor bars short-circuited at ends by brass, aluminium rings.

Limitation : low starting torque


Torque can be increased by double cage rotor or deep bar rotor.

Suited for medium starting torque requirements.

WOUND ROTOR
3-phase windings provided on

rotor slots.
Windings connected in star. Ends of windings connected to slip rings on shaft. Rotor slots < stator slots. External resistances reduce starting current and thus increase starting torque.

SLIP
The slip is defined as the speed of rotor relative to the rotating magnetic field produced in the stator. S = Ns Nr Ns speed of rotating magnetic field

condition standstill

Percentage slip

1
1 to 1.5
4-5 in medium size 2-2.5 in large size

No load
Full load

Nr - speed of the rotor

WORKING
3-phase ac-supply applied magnetic field of constant

magnitude and rotating at synchronous speed is produced


lines of force cut across rotor produced alternating emf

current circulates as it is a short-circuited winding

flux density on right strengths


weakens and rotates it . flux in air distorts

flux density on left


torque acts on motor

Working contd.
At first , frequency of induced emf = frequency of ac supply With increase in rotor speed, relative motion between rotor and magnetic field becomes less , and frequency falls. Rotor induced emf Rotor current Torque

depend on relative motion

No load : rotor speed > synchronous speed, so as to produce torque Loaded : speed falls, relative motion increases, torque increases.

TORQUE-SLIP CHARACTERISTICS
For small values of slip up to 0.05, expression of torque becomes

T = KT x s/
Torque is directly proportional to slip. The graph is a straight line. In low speed region, slip is high and eqn. becomes:

T = KT/s
Torque is inversely proportional to slip, rectangular hyperbola Torque is maximum when s = = R2/X2

R2 rotor winding resistance per phase


X2 Rotor winding leakage reactance per phase at standstill

STATOR INDUCED EMF


Induced emf per phase ES = 4.44f T1 Kw air gap flux per pole T1 no. of turns per phase Kw winding factor f -- frequency of ac supply Kw = Kc x Kd
Kc coil span factor : it reduces the resultant emf due to short-pitching of stator coils Kd distribution factor : ratio of resultant emf to sum of separate emfs

ROTOR INDUCED EMF


Er = 4.44 Fr T2 Kwr
CONDITION CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMULA FREQUENCY Fr = f Es x T 2 / T 1

standstill

At the instant of starting

High frequency

Large magnitude

loaded

Small, Fr = s x f

Slip x Es T2 / T1

APPLICATIONS
They are mainly used for heavy industrial applications and for machine tools.

They are now finding use in automotive applications for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Induction motors are seen as more rugged for these applications than permanent magnet motors which are vulnerable to possible degradation or demagnetization of the magnets due to overtemperature or accidental over-current at power levels over about 5kW.

SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR


Works on single phase ac supply Does not have inherent self-starting torque Reduced efficiency, reduced power factor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
Parts : 1. single phase distributed winding on stator.

2.Squirrel cage short circuited winding on rotor

CROSS-FIELD THEORY

DOUBLE REVOLVING FIELD THEORY

DOUBLE REVOLVING FIELD THEORY


Ferraris principle: The alternating magnetic field produced by stator

can be split into two rotating magnetic fields each having half the
magnitude and rotating at synchronous speed in opposite directions. s, flux in stator is resolved as f rotating in clockwise direction and

b rotating in anti-clockwise direction.


Emf induced by f is taken +ve and that by b is taken ve Starting torque developed by both fields is same but directed

opposite, so net torque is zero at standstill.

THEORY CONTD.
While rotating, the slip due to two rotating fields are different, so emfs induced in rotor is also different. Torque developed by forward field > torque developed by backward field.

Resultant torque acts in forward direction Once rotation is initiated, the motor continues to rotate in that direction as long as, max. net torque > load torque

STARTING THE INDUCTION MOTOR


Simplest method:

1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

An auxiliary winding is provided on stator


Axes of 2 windings are displaced by 90 Currents flowing in the 2 windings are phase shifted The motor resembles an unbalanced 2-phase motor now. Stator field rotates and torque is produced When the motor attains 75% of the synchronous speed, auxiliary winding is removed

CLASSIFICATION
Based on starting arrangement provided:

single phase induction motor

Split phase motor

Capacitor start motor

Capacitor start-and-run motor

shaded pole motor

SPLIT-PHASE MOTOR
Auxiliary winding is present in addition to main winding. It is

connected in parallel to single phase ac supply.


Main winding has high reactance, auxiliary winding has high resistance. The currents drawn from the windings have a phase difference. they produce revolving flux and the motor self-starts. Im lags the voltage by a greater angle than Ia The centrifugal switch disconnects the auxiliary winding from supply used in fridges, grinders, washing machines.

Torque-speed characteristics

CAPACITOR START INDUCTION RUN MOTOR


Capacitor included in series with auxiliary winding Phase angle between the two currents is increased For maximum starting torque, phase angle should be 90 degrees. Electrolytic ac capacitor is used Centrifugal switch removes added arrangements Starting torque is high

CAPACITOR-START-AND-RUN MOTORS
Auxiliary winding and capacitor connected in circuit at all times

Generally two capacitors are used


The start capacitor is of electrolytic ac type Run capacitor is of paper oil type

Advantages of having a permanent capacitor:


1. improved overload capacity 2. high power factor and efficiency 3. no noise

Used in stokers, blowers

SHADED-POLE MOTOR
Has salient poles on stator and rotor Slots are cut across laminations in each pole Short-circuited Cu coils are in smaller part of pole [shaded pole] Supply voltage alternating flux in pole flux links with shading coil voltage induced flux in shaded portion lags flux in unshaded portion magnetic axis of pole shifts [ equivalent to motion of pole ] torque produced Less efficient

APPLICATIONS
TYPE
Split phase

APPLICATION
Fans, blowers, centrifugal pumps, office equipments Compressors, fridge and AC

Capacitor - start

Capacitor-start - and -run

Direct connected fans, loads requiring low starting torque


Toys, hair-drier, deskfans

Shaded pole