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Group 2:Venkatesh Durga Manish Nilesh Kanishka Apoorv Raj kishor

Vedic civilization is the earliest civilization in Indian

history later to indus valley civilization. the Vedic Civilization was established in India by the Aryans. The Aryan civilization roughly extended from about 1500 B.C to 500 B.C. This civilization includes two periods VEDIC period(1500-1000.BC) EPIC period(1000-500.BC)

ARYANS INVASION GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITION RELIGION AND CULTURE ART AND LITERATURE

OCCUPATION AND TRADE


SOCIAL CONDITION POLITICAL SYSTEM

TECHNOLOGY
ARCHITECTURE TOWN PLANNING

Aryans were strictly nomadic people

These were the group of people some where from


north west European countries They migrate from place to place They migrated in search of favorable places and finally settled in India It is believed that they have a powerful military and Great warriors, so that is how they conquered the civilization of sindhu valley easily This Aryan settlement is also known as Vedic age or Vedic civilization

The Aryans entered India through the narrow Khyber

pass around 1750.BC


Only land route between middle

east Europe and India

Finally settled in the great gangetic plains in northern part of India

The topography was plain Wildlife was abundant due to forests Marshy lands Green cover all due to rich alluvial soil Temperature used to be moderate Adequate rainfall region These plains were on the foot of Himalayas

and Vindhya mountains Supply of water in plenty throughout the year due to Ganga and Yamuna

Aryans believed in one supreme god,

lesser gods & goddesses Mostly worshipped the nature gods No temples existed These Aryans led to found the Hinduism
This religion is polytheistic

They believed in reincarnation (karma

siddathan) and re-birth Religious life was influenced by priests,saints and sages Philosophic thinking started Astronomy and counting system started Religious beliefs were preserved in Vedas

the Vedas are the collection of religious

rituals & hymns Sanskrit written language developed by the Aryans Initially they didnt had any sort of written language Later they were written in Sanskrit, their religious language The word Veda means knowledge or wisdom in Sanskrit There were 4 Vedas proposed by Aryans.1)Rigveda.2)Yajur veda 3)Sama veda.4)Atharava Veda In epic age there were two epics namely 1)Ramayana.2)Mahabharata They mix history, mythology, adventure, and religion Later many literature forms came such as vedangas,upanishads,puransetc

They adopted the settled agricultural


lifestyle Land could not be sold to outsiders and could be passed on only to male heirs They raised barley as their main crop Cattle were a prized possession. They were used as money. A sign of wealth was lots of cattle They were solid hunters Small self-sufficient agricultural communities were established they declared that the cattle should not be used as food and then later they domesticated them They began growing spices such as pepper, ginger Barter system started as there was no money system during Aryans

Several physical and social differences

existed between the Aryans This social custom developed in India from Aryans This system put every person in society into a certain class from which they could never advance Effective but too strict and rigid The social classes were grouped into four classes called varnas. Brahmans priests(mouth) Kshatriyas warriors, rulers(arms) Vaisyas common people(legs) Sudras unskilled laborers, servants(feet)

Later came an other varna known as

panchama(untouchables) They were outcaste from the rest of society Brahmins leading up the society Marriages should be held with in the caste Only males could inherit property, go to school, and become priests Satisahagamana started from this civilization(wife cremating along with husbands dead body) Women lost her right to speak and barred from religious rituals Female child has been considered as unlucky to the family

Kshtriya ruling up the society The Aryans soon began to dominate the

Indo-Gangetic Plain A rajah, or prince, ruled each city as an independent kingdom Ruling has been done in divide and rule policy The rajah acted simultaneously as a military leader, lawmaker & judge Political power carries through male heir Brought Horses and advanced weapons to India duty of the king was the protection of his subjects, property, defense and maintenance of peace Then started the culture of conquering other kingdoms This culture later spread through out the India

Transport system Use of iron tools which

led to iron age Astronomy Various types of weapons Increased food production Domestication of cattle

Rise of Urban Centers Clearing of Forests in Indo-

Gangetic Plain Beginning of Sedentary agrarian Civilization


Horse chariots Carpentry works

Built of temporary materials Vernacular materials such as

Bamboo, timber and thatch Dwellings were simple and easy to maintain or rebuild in case of damage due to natural calamities ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Village boundary Gate way Altars Vedic houses

Vaastushastra provided guidelines for planning village

and building abodes which meant to be free of destructive elements and radiation. Structure were in complete harmony with the cosmic forces based upon the cardinal principal of vaastushastra

Consists of timber and thatch huts Arranged in a group of 3 or 4 houses around an

open courtyard Finally protected by a timber fence consisting rectangular wooden posts For the sake of protection from wildlife Initially fence used to be made of bamboo Three horizontal bars called suchi were threaded in the fence This type of protection became universal after sometime and used widely These people had a defined spaces for cattle and granary Gateways were provided which rose high Gateway for a controlled entry into the village called as toranas(which later has been used in Buddhist architecture)

Mostly built off temporary materials There are few types of houses in the village 1)circular

hut

2)rectangular hut 3)sky court house CIRCULAR HUT The most elementary hut was circular in plan, this was the simplest to construct with bamboo and thatch Circular huts, through easy to erect had obviously functional limitations RECTANGULAR HUT Elastic nature of bamboos was used in roofing A barrel like effect was created for the roof by bending the bamboo in the form of an arch and bending the bamboo over bamboo walls (barrel vault) SKY COURT HOUSE Sometimes rich people made their houses out of mud brick, and roofed them with wood shingles or clay tiles they had upper floors containing a traditional central open to sky court The roof is vault an ogee curve at top ending with graceful gable ends

SIZE

Communities were small SPACE MEASUREMENTS using principles of equilateral triangle LAND USE was mainly residential and agricultural LOCATION near to water body and cultivation lands PATTERN town was laid square with a grid iron pattern STREETS three main streets would run north-south and another three in east-west direction SEWAGE SYSTEM the town was also served by a immature sewage system with soak pits with perforated bases

Kashi, koshala and magadha were the kingdoms of this

time. The towns of this kingdom were shravasti,champa, rajagriha, ayodhya, kaushambi, and kashi. Excavations at kaushambi near allahabad have revealed that this town was built with baked bricks of immense size. City was protected with ramparts over 9 metres high built in mud. Rectangular towers were erected on the bastions. Town was also served by a rudimentary sewage system equipped with soak pits with perforated bases.

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