Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 46

3G Evolution Paths Benchmark

(UMTS Multi-Radio and cdma2000)

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

UMTS Multi-Radio Technology building blocks


[Users/MHz/sector]

Seamlessly Integrated under a single UMTS Multi-radio

Voice Capacity

WCDMA
WCDMA

TDMA/GSM

GPRS

EDGE

AMR

OWLAN

HSDPA

DFCA

[kbps]

Data rates Capability


2 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

UMTS Multi-Radio and cdma2000


EDGE Rel99 introduces several enhancements to the GPRS air interface and UMTS QoS harmonization In 3GPP Rel5 standardization GSM/EDGE is fully integrated with WCDMA (e.g. same interfaces to UMTS Core Network)
2G GSM GSM GPRS AMR 3G UMTS UTRAN

ED GE

GERAN

3G UMTS Multi-Radio

cdma2000 is the 3G evolution of cdmaOne (IS-95)


IS-95 1X 1X-EV-DO 1X-EV-DV cdma2000

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Technology Globalization
Telecommunication market has become global In a global market, with global operators, global technologies are needed 3G has two differentiated Evolution Paths which will likely lead to a single technology in the next technology generation

TACS NMT AMPS NETCEBRA

PDC GSM cdmaOne US/TDMA

Radiocom 2000 RTMS

cdma2000 UMTS Multi-Radio

1st Generation (Analog)

2nd Generation (Digital)

3rd Generation (Multimedia)

4th Generation

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

2nd Gen Technology Evolution


All 2nd Gen Technologies but IS-95 naturally evolves towards UMTS
2G Standard
GSM PDC (Japan) US - TDMA (IS - 136) CdmaOne (IS - 95)

3G Standard
GSM/EDGE/WCDMA WCDMA 1 TDMA/GSM/EDGE/WCDMA cdma2000 or GSM/EDGE/WCDMA

Evolution Path
UMTS UMTS UMTS cdma 2000 or UMTS

The two Japanese operators (NTT DoCoMo and J-Phone) that have selected UMTS WCDMA technology for their 3G Evolution represents 92.4% of the existing PDC market]

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

2nd Gen Technology Marketshare


2nd Gen marketshare will define 3rd Gen marketshare 81% of all new subscriptions during 2001 were done in a GSM system Despite an important initial growth of cdmaOne its global marketshare has not grown in the last 2 years
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Source: EMC Database

Analogue CDMA GSM PDC US-TDMA

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Mobile Subscribers by 2006


Americas
cdmaOne CDMA2000 31%

EMEA
cdmaOne CDMA2000 0%

APAC
cdmaOne CDMA2000 13%

GSM/EDGE WCDMA 69%

GSM/EDGE WCDMA 100%

GSM/EDGE WCDMA 87%

Over 85% of subscribers will be GSM/EDGE/WCDMA by 2006

Total: 1.54 B Subs

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Global evolution to 3G multiradio networks


UMTS Multiradio Network

TDMA
GSM/GPRS GSM PDC
cdmaOne cdma2000 1x

GSM/GPRS/EDGE WCDMA

cdma2000 1xEV-DV

cdma2000 1xEV-DO

2G

First Steps to 3G

3G Phase 1

Evolved 3G Networks

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

UMTS Multi-Radio and cdma2000 Technical Benchmark

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Air Interface Capacity


GSM/EDGE, WCDMA, IS-95, cdma2k

10

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Voice Capacity in 5 MHz Allocation


GSM Evolution gives 20% higher capacity than IS-95 cdma2k offers 40% higher capacity than IS-95 WCDMA provides clearly the highest capacity
25
non BCCH (Hopping)

20

Users/MHz per sector

Both have variable rate voice codecs. GSM additionally DFCA Fast power control and coherent detection. WCDMA has advanced features, like fast power control, closed loop tx diversity and wide bandwidth

15

10

0 GSM/EDGE IS-95 WCDMA cdma2k

11

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Voice Capacity in 10 MHz Allocation


GSM Evolution performs equal to cdma2k WCDMA provides ~25% higher capacity than cdma2k
25
Non BCCH (Hopping)

GSM Evolution performance in larger bandwidths would converge to the non BCCH (Hopping) performance, which is clearly higher than the one of cdma2000

20

Users/MHz per sector

15

10

0 GSM/EDGE IS-95 WCDMA cdma2k

12

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Data Capacity in 5 MHz Allocation


EGPRS offers >3x higher bit rates than GPRS CS1-2 and outperforms cdma2k 1x-EV/DO and WCDMA/DSCH
WCDMA/HSDPA provides clearly the highest 500 capacity
Total kbps/MHz per sector
400
Non BCCH

EGPRS has adaptive modulation and coding schemes and incremental redundancy

HSDPA

300

200
DSCH

100

0 GSM/EDGE WCDMA cdma2k cdma2k 1xEV/DO

13

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Data Capacity in 10 MHz Allocation


EGPRS offers >3x higher bit rates than GPRS CS1-2 and outperforms clearly cdma2k 1x-EV/DO WCDMA/HSDPA is clearly the a superior data technology, both from an spectral efficiency and data rate capability point of view
500

Total kbps/MHz per sector

400

Non BCCH

HSDPA

300

200

DSCH

100

0 GSM/EDGE WCDMA cdma2k cdma2k 1xEV/DO

14

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Spectral Efficiency vs Throughput (10 MHz case) EGPRS is more efficient for Low Throughput requirements due to the earlier
adoption of Adaptive Modulation/Codign schemes and Hybrid ARQ WCDMA is more efficient for High Throughput requirements due to its wideband nature The combination of GSM/EDGE and WCDMA yields optimum data performance HSDPA brings a superior wireless data technology 400.0
WCDMA
350.0

Spectral Efficiency (kbps/MHz/sector)

BCCH Included

cdma2000 1X EGPRS (1/3 w/o BCCH)

300.0

EGPRS (1/3 w BCCH)

250.0

200.0

150.0

100.0

50.0

0.0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Best Effort

Average Throughput

15

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

UMTS Multi-Radio Coverage

16

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Basic Speech Link Budget


All 3G technologies have an equivalent speech link budget performance
Speech MS tx power [dBm] BS sensitivity [dBm] BS ant diversity gain [dB] Interference margin [dB] Fast fading margin (incl. SHO gain) [dB] BS antenna gain [dBi] Cable loss incl. MHA gain Body loss for speech terminal [dB] MS antenna gain [dBi] Maximum path loss [dB] cdma2000 GSM/EDGE WCDMA 23 30 21 -124 -110 -124 3 4 3 3 0 3 4 0 2 18 18 18 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 158 159 158

17

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Uplink Coverage in GSM/EDGE & WCDMA (1900)


Similar coverage for low bit rates 162
160 158 156 154 152 150 148 146 144 142 Speech 32 kbps 64 kbps 128 kbps

cdma2000 equivalent speech coverage to WCDMA

GSM/EDGE (2TSL) WCDMA

Wideband system performs better for high bit rates

18

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Downlink Coverage with EGPRS


Effective throughput conditioned by the DL TSL terminal capability 60
[kbps] in DL per TSL Throughput [Kbps] per TSL DL Throughput
55 50 45 40 35 30

Cell Range (AMR 12.2)

25
20 15 125

130

135

Path loss [dB]


Assumptions: 18 dB antenna gain and 2 dB back off 3dB Body loss for speech (data pathloss at cell edge 1583 dB=155 dB)

140 145 Paht loss in [dB]

150

155

160

19

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Downlink Coverage with GSM1900 Sites


cdma2000 1X peak What is the user bit rate at the edge of GSM1900 cell ? rates at cell edge 3-4 EDGE (4-slot) >100 kbps in noise limited case times lower than WCDMA (due to higher chip rate WCDMA and wideband single user per cell => 350-650 kbps (terminal limitation typicallybenefits) 384 kbps) five users per cell => 70-130 kbps the range depends on the load of the neighboring cells Other cell interference

GSM1900

Signal 155 dB path loss

x kbps?

21

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

800 MHz 1900 MHz


Attenuation at 800 MHz is ~9 dB lower than at 1900 MHz GSM/EDGE can provide very good data coverage when deployed in 800 MHz Similar UL coverage for 64 kbps (2 TSLs) as for 1900 speech 170 kbps DL throughput (4 TSL) for range associated to 1900 cell edge

GSM/EDGE 2-slot uplink Data 64 kbps 800 MHz GSM/EDGE/WC DMA Voice 1900 MHz

Similar coverage

22

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Technology infrastructure cost analysis

23

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

WCDMA RAN CAPEX is 5-30% lower than cdma2k CAPEX


The same equipment prices assumed for WCDMA and cdma2k in terms of basestation baseband, base station cabinet and RNC cdma2k power amplifiers assumed to be 10% cheaper because of narrowband Both systems support max. 12 carriers per base station cabinet Typical non-equipment CAPEX assumed for site costs
Equivalent CAPEX cost for low capacity scenarios
4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
1165 143 241 408 689 50 85

CAPEX [kEUR] per user

CDMA 2000 1x BSS11 AMR/HR+DFCA WCDMA

WCDMA has 30% lower CAPEX with high capacity


Simultaneous users per km2

24

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

10000 Subscribers per km2 with 50 mErl


GSM and cdma2k need more carriers and cabinets than WCDMA WCDMA CAPEX 25% lower with 500 voice users per km2
Equipment CAPEX [kEUR] per site
700 600 500

25%

50 mErl + 10000 subscribers => 500 simultaneous users per km2 WCDMA brings the RAN cost down to 40 EUR per subscriber for high capacity areas.

400 300 200 100 0 GSM WCDMA cdma2k

Non- equipment Transmission Cabinet RNC Carrier

25

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Technology Capabilities Clarification

26

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Operators Have Choices to Support Voice & Data:


250.0

7+0
200.0

6+1

2 x 10 MHz spectrum Available 2 WCDMA (5 MHz) Carriers or 7 1X (1.25 MHz) Carriers


5+2

Qualcomm & CDG Claims


7 CDMA2000 1X only
7 1X and 1xEV (CDMA2000 family)

Voice (Erlangs)

150.0

4+3 CDMA2000 1x & 1xEV-DO 3+4 2+5

2 - WCDMA GSM/EDGE GSM/GPRS

100.0

50.0

CDMA2000 1X & 1xEV-DO


WCDMA

1+6 0+7

0.0 0.0 0.7 1.3 2.0 2.7 3.3 4.0 4.6 5.3 6.0 6.6 7.3 8.0 8.6 9.3 10.0 10.6

Aggregate Throughput / sector (Mbps)


27 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Operators Have Choices to Support Voice & Data:


250.0

200.0

2 x 10 MHz spectrum Available 2 WCDMA (5 MHz) Carriers or 7 1X (1.25 MHz) Carriers

Factual based true analysis


7 CDMA2000 1X only 7 1X and 1xEVDO GSM / EDGE

Voice (Users)

150.0

100.0

CDMA2000 1x & 1xEV-DO CDMA2000 1X & 1xEV-DO

2 - WCDMA 2 WCDMA / HSDPA (2004)

50.0

WCDMA

0.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

Aggregate Throughput / sector (Mbps)


28 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

The misinterpretation facts:


Cdma2000 1X maximum capacity per carrier in realistic propagation environment: 24 users / carrier (number widely accepted by the industry)
The use of 33 users/carrier which is related to 1-path propagation environment, a non existing ideal environment WCDMA maximum capacity per carrier in equivalent propagation environment and for an equivalent codec (7.95 kbps) is: 98 users per carrier without transmit diversity 110 users per carrier with transmit diversity The use of WCDMA reference capacity for 12.2 kbps codec and without the use of transmit diversity, which is a mandatory terminal feature in WCDMA (I.e. 63 users per carrier) The use of the concept of Erlangs, I.e. the numbers should refer to users (voice paths), not to carried traffic (Erlangs) over a certain period and under a certain GoS (Grade of Service, I.e. blocking rate)

The use of an aggregate throughput of 1.5 Mbps per carrier for 1X-EV-DO. According to the only current reliable technical public source, Korean operator SKT research web page (http://www.sktelecom.com/), such number is 337 kbps per carrier in realistic conditions
29 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

UMTS Multi-radio (GSM/EDGE/WCDMA) technical fatcs: The introduction of AMR in GSM (2002) increases the capacity by 150%
Other available Dynamic Channel Allocation techniques may further increase the capacity of GSM networks by 40-50% The introduction of EDGE increases by 150% spectral efficiency of current GPRS networks and by 400% the data rate capabilities1 Equivalent capabilities as those introduced by EDGE (Type II Hybrid ARQ and Adaptive Modulation and Coding Schemes) are available in WCDMA / HSDPA standard, which will deliver the best data performance capabilities when commercially deployed GSM/EDGE and WCDMA can be seamlessly integrated under the same UMTS Multi-radio network supporting a robust QoS architecture 1X and 1X-EV-DO2 are best effort only capable technologies, with no QoS architecture available to control different user/service profiles UMTS Multi-radio (GSM/EDGE/WCDMA) is at least expected to cover 85% of the global cellular marketshare Cdma2000 is a viable and competitive technology but it is about time the industry perception is based on factual information, rather than in 1 CS1-2 GPRS networks considered misinterpretation 2 Release 0 (2002 availability) considered
30 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

WCDMA, the most efficient CDMA based Radio Access Technology

31

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Nokias IPR Position in UMTS


Essential Patents per Company*
UMTS 4/2002 3/2002 UMTS
2% 2% 2% 3% 14% 3% 3% 4% 5% 26% 10% Matsushita InterDigital AirTouch NEC Hitachi Fujitsu Motorola NTT DoCoMo Ericsson Nokia Qualcomm Others

26%

Nokia 26% = 167 essentials Qualcomm 26% = 162 essentials


* Study based on public information from ETSI, ARIB and TTC
32 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Voice Capacity
WCDMA with AMR provides 25% higher voice capacity than cdma2k with EVRC because of the benefits of wideband signal cdma2k provides 40% higher capacity than IS-95 because of fast power control and coherent detection
100
ector per 5 MHz ers per s Us

80 60 40 20 0

Fast power control, coherent detection

88 72 25% more because of wideband signal

51

IS- 95

cdma2k

WCDMA

33

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Best Effort Data Capacity


WCDMA provides 20% higher best effort data capacity than cdma2k because of wideband signal
HSDPA improves WCDMA throughput by 75% with advanced features, like adaptive modulation and Layer 1 retransmissions 75% more because of new features 2,000 20% more because of wideband signal 1,500
Throughput [kbps] per sector per 5 MHz
1,000 500 0
cdma2k WCDMA cdma2k- EV/DV WCDMA/HSDPA

Transmit diversity can be used to further increase WCDMA capacity

34

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Why WCDMA is More Efficient?


WCDMA benefits from the wideband signal (1) Common channel overhead is lower with wideband signal cdma2k 20% (see next slide) WCDMA 11% (2) Power fluctuations are smaller with wideband signal Less fluctuations => operation closer to the pole capacity possible We assume up to 5% gain for WCDMA (1-0.11)/(1-0.20)*1.05 = 17% (The gain is higher for 5MHz deployment)

WCDMA provides 17-25% higher capacity (depending on the deployed BW)


35 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Low Common Channel Overhead with WCDMA The required power for pilot channel and for broadcasting
channel is approximately the same in WCDMA and in cdma2k The common channels are needed for every carrier in cdma2k eating up more capacity than in WCDMA (in theory, the difference should be 3x more power in cdma2k. This calculation is pessimistic for WCDMA) 3 x cdma2k WCDMA

Traffic channels 80%

11% (=89/80) more capacity for traffic channels

Traffic channels 89%

Common channels 20%


Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Common channels 11%


WCDMA pilot 5%, CCPCH + SCH 6% => 11%

36

NOKIA

WCDMA Supports Simultaneous Speech and Data


WCDMA allows to allocate all capacity for speech users or data for users Flexibility for different traffic scenarios and future evolution Lower blocking and higher data throughput

cdma2k-EV/DO only supports data


Power

Blocking for speech

Max capacity

All capacity fully utilized

Power

Max capacity

Low data throughput

EV-DO 5 MHz WCDMA cdma2k voice


Unused capacity

= data = voice

cdma2k voice WCDMA


37 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

2 x cdma2k + EV-DO

Advanced Transmit Diversity


WCDMA supports supports two transmit diversity modes which are mandatory for all terminals Open loop with space-time coding Closed loop with fast feedback to the base station These gains are not available in cdma2k because of no terminal and Average gain in micro Gain of transmit diversity cells up to 3 dB = standard support. 100% more capacity Transmit diversity can be 4.0 added to WCDMA BTSs Open loop 3.0 without any changes to Closed loop Average gain in antennas. 2.0
Closed loop is not supported by cdma2k standard
1.0 0.0 3km/h Low antenna 3km/h Macro cell 50km/h Macro cell 120km/h Macro cell

Open loop mode is optional for cdma2k terminals

Gain [dB]

macro cells 1.0-1.5 dB = 25-40% more capacity

Channel type and mobile speed


38 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Low antenna refers to dense urban areas where antennas below roof tops.

WCDMA has High Cabinet Efficiency for Flexible Site Solution


Single WCDMA Ultrasite base station cabinet is designed to support the maximum air interface capacity of 3-sector site with 10 MHz spectrum allocation Ultrasite supports 1152 voice connections or 18-36 Mbps data in one cabinet which is in-line with the air interface capacity Benefits of single cabinet solution

No RF combiners and related losses with WCDMA No extra space for several cabinets with WCDMA

cdma2k requires typically 3 cabinets for the same capacity (Samsung, Lucent, Nortel)

Single WCDMA cabinet

Three Base station CAPEX up to 100-150% Wideband signal allowsis higher HW cdma2k higher for cdma2k than for RF WCDMA cabinets integration level with less

components
39 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Conclusions on WCDMA/HSDPA vs cdma2k


20% higher capacities than cdma2k/EV-DV 200% higher bit rates than cdma2k/EV-DV 5-30% lower RAN CAPEX than cdma2k/EV-DV Full QoS support Further enhancements today including transmit diversity Flexible air interface for new services
Wideband solutions handle traffic more efficiently

40

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Bit Rates: Peak, Average, Best Effort, QoS .

41

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

IS-95B 9.6 kbps and 14.4 kbps voice service (RS1 and RS2) Theoretically up to 76.8 kbps (8x9.6) or 115.2 kbps (8x14.4) data services using code multiplexing cdma2000 1X 9.6 kbps and 14.4 kbps voice service Practical ~60..80 kbps Theoretical downlink peak data rate 307 kbps (typical throughput Theoretical uplink peak data rate 307 kbps quoted by CDMA 1XEV-DO (HDR) operators) Theoretical downlink peak data rate 2.4 Mbps using link adaptation Theoretical uplink peak data rate 307 kbps Voice service not supported! CDMA2000 1xEV-DV 9.6 kbps and 14.4 kbps voice service Theoretical downlink peak data rate 4.8 Mbps Uplink same as cdma2000 1X cdma2k EV-DV standard is expected to be completed during 1H/2002
42 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Background Information - CDMA Standards & Theoretical Data Rates

Comparison of End-user Bit Rates


GPRS CS1-4 and cdma2k provide typically 70 kbps
EDGE and cdma2k EV-DO provide typically 150 kbps WCDMA and cdma2k EV-DV provide typically 300 kbps WCDMA/HSDPA is clearly a superior data technology 700 HSDPA provides 600 the highest bit rates. 500 End user bit rate [kbps] 400

300 200 100 0


43 NOKIA

GPRS CS1-2

GPRS CS3-4

EDGE

WCDMA HSDPA

cdma2k cdma2k cdma2k EV-DO EV-DV

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Service Provision
UMTS Multi-Radio (GSM/EDGE/WCDMA) support standardized QoS mechanisms
core network can inform radio network about the required QoS
Conversational Real time interactive games Guaranteed bitrate file down load

Conversational voice and video

QoS information allows radio network to manage the existing bandwidth efficiently cdma2000 Release 0 does only support best effort data UMTS All-IP Core Network architecture (IMS) is designed for the efficient provision of IP based Multimedia services

Streaming

Streaming audio and video

Info services, Messages Interactive E-commerce, Games WWW

Voice messaging

Background

E-mail, WWW, File download

Fax

44

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

WCDMA is Harmonized with GSM/EDGE the Global Cellular Standard Today


GSM/EDGE and WCDMA use the same 3G core and the same QoS parameters GSM/EDGE can be added to WCDMA mobile with neglible cost impact as GSM/EDGE and WCDMA modes share the same components and do not operate at the same time make Nokia Multiradio features QoS Classes in Iu 3G/SGSN Conversational GSM/EDGE + WCDMA to co-exist together Common core Streaming taking the best of both technologies network Iu
Interactive Background

Harmonized UMTS QoS classes


RNC BSC

CRRM

Handovers between EDGE and WCDMA

EDGE or WCDMA
Ultrasite TripleMode BTS

Common radio resource and QoS management

AMR speech codec

Common base station

45

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Nokia UMTS 3G references a global footprint


Telenor Suomen 2G/3G Telia Mobiles O2 UK T-Mobil Orange UK Hutchison 3G Voicestream Cingular Wireless AT&T Wireless AT&T Wireless BTC Mobility GSM/EDGE BSS + Core GSM/EDGE BSS WCDMA RAN VIAG Digifon e OrangeFran ce (Itineris) Cegetel Omnitel Vodafone WIND Proximus Belgacom NetCo m Sonera Radiolinja Europolita n Vodafone 3G Infrastructure Services E-Plus MobilCom T-Mobil Viag EuroPlattform AG One Orange Switzerla nd Cable & Wireless Optus Cable & Wireless Optus StarHub

(30 April 2002)


Hong Kong CSL JPhone

M1

WCDMA RAN + 3G Core


Shared network (RAN + 3G Core)
46 NOKIA Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe

Conclusions
UMTS Multi-Radio (GSM/EDGE and WCDMA) provide the most efficient 3G Evolution Path UMTS will have much higher volumes (6:1) and therefore economies of scale UMTS outperform cdma2000 in all technical areas: throughput capabilities, voice and data spectral efficiency, QoS architecture and service provision capabilities

47

NOKIA

Technology Workshop 23rd January / JMe