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Facts: 1984 1996 (From FSF)

More than 30 CFIT crashes involving large jetliners Over 65% were non-precision approaches (VOR) 80% of them were flown by the captains involved Co-pilots involved not assertive enough?

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A Study Based On 287 CFIT Crashes Of All Categories Of Airplanes

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Flying Tigers B747-200 Freighter Flt 66 In KL (18.2 1989) Air Inter A320 Flt 148 In Strasbourg (20.1.1992) PIA A300 Flt PK 268 In Kathmandu (28.9.1992) AA B757 Flt 965 In CALI (20.12.1995) USAF CT-43A (B737) In Dubrovnik Croatia (03.04.1996) Korean Air B747-300 Flt 801 In Guam (7.8.1997) Thai Airways A310 Flt 261 In Surat Thani (11.12.1998) Gulf Air A320 Flt GF072 In Bahrain (23.8.2000) CrossAir Avro RJ100 Flight 3597 In Zurich (24.11.2001) And More! Many more!

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Pilots Were Unfamiliar With The Mechanics Of NonPrecision Approaches That Killed Them

Descent Gradient Climb Gradient Descent Angle Climb Angle Rate Of Descent Rate Of Climb Crosswind Correction

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1 in 60 Rule

One part vertical distance = 60 parts of horizontal distance For every 60ft, 1 angle will subtend a height of 1 foot For every 6000ft, 1 angle will subtend a height of 100 feet For every 1nm, 1 angle will subtend a height of 100 feet For every 1nm, 3 angle will subtend a height of 300 feet

Note: 1 nm = Approximately 6000 feet

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On a typical 3 ILS slope If FAF is at 10nm ( 60000ft), It will be about 3000ft in altitude.

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= = = =

Vertical distance Horizontal distance (Vertical distance Horizontal distance) x 100 1/20 or 0.05 = 5% (0.05 x 100) 1/20 or 0.05 = 5%

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Gradient = Vertical Distance / Horizontal Distance Gradient (%) x 0.6 = Slope Angle 5.0% Gradient x 0.6 = 3 Or 3 0.6 = 5.0% Gradient!

Example: 11% gradient x 0.6 = 6.6 (Kathmandu VOR-DME Rwy 02)

To Be precise (Using Trigonometry):

3 = 5.24% Gradient 1 Subtends A Ratio Of Exactly 1 : 57.3

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Gradient x Groundspeed = ROC or ROD

Some Examples: 5% minimum climb gradient x 180kt = 900fpm r.o.c. 5% descent gradient (3 slope) x 150kt = 750fpm r.o.d.

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The B744 has a typical heavyweight V2 speed of 180kt. If the SID requires a minimum climb gradient of 5%. (e.g. on Changi rwy 02L to clear the ship mast at 1km from end of rwy.) What is the minimum ROC required to achieve that?

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CAUTION!

Do Not Mix Up Gradient With Slope Angle It Is Potentially Fatal To Regard 5 Slope As 5% Gradient. Or To Regard 3 Slope As 3000fpm Rate Of Descent

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The approach speed is 150kt, ground track is 270, a cross wind from the right of 10kt, What is your heading to make good the track (drift angle)? Answer: 4

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(You Need A Scientific Calculator) Approach Chart Designers Use This Method For Accuracy Purpose

Tangent (gradient) = Vertical Distance / Horizontal Distance Gradient (%) = Vertical Distance x 100 or Tangent x 100 Horizontal Distance = Gradient (%) (where is the slope angle) Tangent x 100 e.g. 6.5% Gradient = 0.065/Tangent = 3.7

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When The Angle Is Small (3-6), Tangent & Sine Value Are Quite Similar.

5.24% Gradient = 0.0524 x Tan-1 = 3 (Ground Dist FMS) 5.24% Gradient = 0.0524 x Sine-1= 3 (Slant Range DME)

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Tips: Study The Destinations & The Emergency Alternates Non-Precision Approach Charts While In Cruise Phase, Figure Out The Gradient, Descent Angle & Groundspeed. The Early You Prepare, The Less Likely You Will Get Caught.

It is safe to use the 1 in 60 rule to figure out your descent angle or path of a non-precision approach (VOR-DME, VOR only, or NDB/LOCATOR approach), as long as there are no obstacles along the descent path, you can execute a continuous descent profile (Constant angle non-precision approach CANPA). However, if obstacles exist, you have to observe the prescribed safety heights to avoid terrain contact! 18

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If You Are Asked To Do A Charter Flight To Kathmandu In Short Notice, Are You Ready For It?

From D10 to D5.0 (6076ft x 5 = 30380ft) 9500ft 6100ft = 3400ft Sine = 3400/30380 = 0.1119 = 11.2 % gradient = 6.4 At ISA + 15 : 160Kt IAS = 192Kt TAS Rate Of Descent = 11.2 x 192 = 2150fpm

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Approach Speed 160kt, Nil-wind Condition and OAT 15

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It Seamlessly Tackles SPEED, ALTITUDE & DISTANCE In The World Of Aviation It Has Beauty & Elegance It Is Practical & Easy To Use It Works Well With GA Airplanes All The Way To Commercial Jetliners It Is A Good Back-Up Skill When All The Goodies Failed To Work It Only Breaks Down When The Angle Gets Too Large

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The End

This Has Been A Technical Presentation By Capt Eddie Foo S N.

The 1 In 60 Rule Paper Was Published In The SIA Flight Safety Magazine Issue No 89 Dec 2003.

For A Personal Copy Of The 1 In 60 Rule Paper, just e-mail to me eddiefoo@starhub.net.sg

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