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Different generation of various cellular networks Why leap towards 4G?

4G Features of 4G Comparison of 4G with other networks Comparison of speed of various generations 4G Network Structure 4G Layered Architecture How 4G Network Works?? WiMAX,LTE,802.20 Key Technologies in 4G OFDMA,SCFDMA,MIMO,MU-MIMO,SDR Challenges in 4G 4G in India 4G across the world Applications of 4G


User friendliness User personalization Terminal and Network heterogeneity High Performance Interoperability Intelligent Networking Network Convergence Scalability Lower power consumption Low costs

The 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is used broadly to include several type of broadband wireless access communication not only cellular telephone system. 4G is a IP-based heterogeneous network. One of the term used to describe 4G is MAGIC, M-Mobile Multimedia A-Anytime anywhere G-Global mobility Support I-Integrated wireless solution and C-Customized personal service

Fourth generation (4G) wireless was originally conceived by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the same organization that developed the wired Internet. In 2008, the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G standards, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbps for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1Gbps for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users). 4G system is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure all-IP based mobile broadband solution to laptop computer wireless modems, smartphones , and other mobile devices. Facilities such as ultra-broadband Internet access, IP telephony, gaming services and streamed multimedia may be provided to users. Due to sustained attempts undertaken by DOCOMO (a Japanese Company), Samsung and Apple Inc. 4G has become operational in number of countries during last three months (which was expected to be operational by 2012). It has been launched in China, USA, Norway and Sweden.

Wider and extensive mobile coverage region. Larger bandwidth - higher data rates. Terminal Heterogeneity and Network Heterogeneity. Smoother and quicker handoff. WLAN for hot spots, an extension of 2G and 3G. Better scheduling and call admission control techniques. Global roaming and inter-working among various other access technologies. Supports interactive multimedia, video, wireless internet, voice and various other broadband services. User Friendliness and Personalization.

2.5 G 2.75G

GPRS EDGE UMTS W-CDMA EV-DO Rev.A HSPA 3.6 HSPA 7.2 WiMax LTE HSPA+ HSPA 14 WiMax 2(802.16m) Avanced LTE

RealWord (avg) Download Upload 32-42Kbps 15Kbps 175Kbps 30 /kbps 226Kbps 800Kbps 1Mbps 650Kbps 1.4Mbps 3-6Mbps 5-12Mbps ----2Mbps ---30Kbps 60Kbps 500Mbps 260Kbps 700Kbps 1Mbps 2-5Mbps ----700Kbps -----

Theoratical (max) Download Upload 114Kbps 20Kbps 384Kbps 6oKbps 384Kbps 2Mbps 3.1Mbps 3.6Mbps 7.2Mbps 100Mbps+ 100Mbps+ 56Mbps 14Mbps 100Mbps mobile/1Gbps Fixed 100Mbps mobile/1Gbps Fixed 64Kbps 153Kbps 1.8Mbps 348Kbps 2Mbps 56Mbps 50Mbps 22Mbps 5.7 Mbps 60Mbps

Availabilty Today Today Today Today Today Today Today Today End 2010 2011 Today 2012







Data Throughput Upto 3.1 Mbps

Practically Speaking, 3 To 5 Mbps But Potential Estimated At A Range Of 100 To 300 Mbps. 500 Mbit/S 1 Gbit/S

Peak Upload Rate Peak Download Rate Switching Technique Network Architecture Services And Applications

50 Mbits/S 100 Mbit/S

Packet Switching Wide Area Cell Based CDMA UMTS, etc

Packet Switching, Message Switching Integration Of Wireless LAN And Wide Area. 2000, Wimax2 And LTEEDGE Advance

Forward Error Correction (FEC): Frequency Band

3G Uses Turbo Codes For Error Correction. 1.8 2.5GHz

Concatenated Codes Are Used For Error Corrections In 4G. 2 8GHz

Application This layer is composed of various third party applications which provide value added services to its subscribers. Network This layer consists of various sub layers described as follows: Services -This layer manages the interaction between various value-added services and networks. Mobility Management -This layer provides quality and uniform services to the mobile/stationary terminal across various heterogeneous networks. It provides features of low handover latency and packet loss during the provision of real-time and non-real time services to the end user moving across different networks. To achieve this, it performs tasks such as binding update (updating the care-off address of the mobile user), location management, common control signaling (signaling required to perform wireless network discovery), address assignment, handover control mechanism and so forth.

Resource Management -This layer incorporates the functionalities of allocation, de-allocation and reallocation of the network resources which are acquired during the communication sessions within the same or different network domains. This activity is performed during or before the communication activity. This layer also performs the task of congestion control, packet scheduling and packet classification. Quality of service (QoS) management -This layer provides best optimal utilization of the available resources. In scenarios where the network resources are limited it provides an option to the applications to choose between high overall throughput and low end-to-end delay. It provides the best trade-off mechanisms depending on the applications preference. It encompasses several activities such as link utilization control, bandwidth control and so forth.

Physical This layer consist of the core IPV6 network of 4G and other heterogeneous access networks such as GSM ,CDMA and WLAN in their physical view. This layer is composed of two sub-layers namely: Convergence layer Different RAN Operation, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning This layer spans across all the layers of the network architecture and provides the functionalities of network controlling, network monitoring and fault detection. It also maintains the repudiation between various services and resources of several heterogeneous and core networks. Security This layer also branches across all the layers of the 4G network architecture which perform the function of authentication, authorization, encryption, establishment and implementation of service policy agreement between the various vendors.

Talking about the standard of 4G technology, still not defined as set standard, three technologies are supposed to be the based features of 4G. 1. WiMAX 2. LTE 3. 802.20

Mobile WiMAX, stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a sophisticated next generation mobile broadband wireless network based on IEEE 802.16e-2005 which supports 4G. Now the modified standard 802.16m has been developed with the properties of speed, wide spectrum, and increase band. WiMAX can support data rates up to 75 Mbps with a range of nearly about 30 miles.

LTE(Long Term Evolution) was first proposed in Toronto conference in 2004 for attaining higher speed and lesser packets latency in UMTS 3G wireless systems. Current 3G service is evolved into 3GPP LTE (long term evolution) which is one of the candidate technologies for 4G. Under the 3GPP LTE, 4G technology will be used basically in 3G spectrum and platform that means existing carriers maintain present customer base and services are integrated 4G. To support broadband service there will be an additional spectrum band with current 3G spectrum band. 3GPP LTE plan to support All-IP based backbone network to connect with other heterogeneous networks seamlessly.

The IEEE 802.20 or so-called Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) specification is also the first IEEE standard that explicitly addresses the needs of mobile clients in moving vehicles. The design parameters of the specification include support for vehicular mobility up to 250 Km per hour. This criterion will support use in fleet cars and trucks, as well as in the high-speed commuter trains in use throughout much of the world. Whereas 802.16e's roaming support is generally limited to local and regional areas, 802.20 shares with 3G the ability to 802.20 supports QoS to give good quality for low-latency services, unlike 3G cellular data service, which is an inherently highlatency architecture. Both 802.16e and 802.20 also share synchronous efficiency between uplinks and downlinks, as opposed to the asynchronous nature of 3G cellular networks, which have lower-efficiency uplinks, relative to their downlinks.

WiMAX 802.16e, WiBro

Key technology Duplex Channel Bandwidth Peak data rate (network) Mobility Coverage DL UL OFDMA, MIMO TDD/FDD 10 MHz 46 Mbps 14 Mbps Middle 2 ~ 5Km (typical)

IEEE 802.20
OFDMA, MIMO TDD/FDD 5 ~ 20 MHz 260 Mbps 60 Mbps High (~250 Km/h) MAN scale

OFDMA/SC-FDMA, MIMO TDD/FDD 1.25 ~ 20 MHz 100 Mbps 50 Mbps High (~250 Km/h) < 20km, WAN scale WCDMA band with additional band 2009 ~ 2010

Frequency Band Commercial ready

2 ~ 6GHz 2007 ~ 2008

Below 3.5 GHz unexpected

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OFDMA or Orthogonal Frequency division multiplexing which is also known as Discrete Multitone Modulation (DMT),is a modulation method for the modulation of a frequency channel based on the FDM(frequency division multiplexing) OFDMA can be used for the downlink transmission (signal transmission from the base station to mobile terminal) of the symbols for achieving high spectral efficiency. It provides high performance on full bandwidth usage. Basic principle:In this technique, the frequencies and modulations of frequency division multiplexing are arranged orthogonally to each other to eliminate any interference between the channels. The main aim of OFDMA is to send the low rate modulations in a parallel stream rather than sending a high rate wave front, as low rate modulations are less sensitive to multipath.

Orthogonal FDM's spread spectrum technique spreads the data over a lot of carriers that are spaced apart at precise frequencies. This spacing provides the "orthogonality" in this method which prevents the receivers/demodulators from seeing frequencies other than their own specific one.

In WiMAX, OFDMA is employed both on the uplink (UL) and the downlink (DL) . Frame Structure: In WiMAX, frame duration of 5 ms is used along with time division duplexing (TDD). The frame is then divided into OFDM symbols (for e.g., 48) Some of them are allocated for downlink (DL) and the rest for uplink (UL) transmissions. The first symbol in the frame is used for preamble transmission. For control and data transmissions sub channels are then formed out of a group of subcarriers [2]. The base station (BS) announces a schedule after every frame period (i.e., 5 ms) to convey the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) allocation. Subcarriers resource mapping Subcarrier (also known as resource elements in LTE) is the smallest granular unit in the frequency domain and OFDM symbol duration is the smallest granular unit in the time domain [2]. In an OFDM symbol, groups of subcarriers are considered together since subcarriers are too large in number to handle the allocation plane. For supporting numerous services, a group of OFDM symbols are handled together for minimizing the signaling overhead and achieving granularity in the achievable rates.

Frequency Diversity
o In WiMAX sub channels are formed by grouping 24 subcarriers, present in different parts of the spectrum, in the PUSC (partially used subcarriers) sub channelization method. This pseudorandom selection of the positions of the subcarriers over the entire band depends on the CELL_ID. For sending all the basic control messages diversity based sub channelization approach is employed.

Multiuser Diversity
For achieving multiuser diversity in WiMAX, groups of adjacent subcarriers are spread out over a few OFDM symbols in the BAMC approach. The subcarriers are then arranged into groups of 9 adjacent subcarriers called as bins. A group of four bins is termed as a band where each bin constitutes 8 data and 1 pilot subcarrier. The base station chooses 2 bins in one of these bands and assigns the same bin over 3 consecutive OFDM symbols which results in 48 data subcarriers for a BAMC slot.

Interference Diversity
Sub channel formation in WiMAX depends on the CELL_ID. Sub channels will be different for different users. Hence, the user experiences interference diversity which is likely to provide improved performance as compared to the dominant interferer case. Note that interference diversity leverages only in the case of PUSC transmissions. Hence interference diversity cannot be used for BAMC transmissions .

LTE uses OFDMA only on the downlink (DL). Frame Structure: In LTE, the frame duration of 10 ms is divided to form sub frames of 1 ms duration. A sub frame is used to form two slots each of 0.5 ms duration. The base station (BS) programs transmissions after every 1 ms and the subcarriers form resource blocks for allocation on the downlink (DL) [2].

Subcarriers resource mapping Frequency Diversity

In LTE, a RB (resource block) constitutes the similar 12 adjacent subcarriers for 7 OFDM symbols. However, a different RB can be used in the second slot of the sub frame to leverage FD (frequency diversity) instead of using the similar RB in the second part of the sub frame [2].

Multiuser Diversity

In LTE, the BTS opts for the RB for sending data to a user. It makes use of the channel feedback from the mobile device to schedule a RB for the user in a frame. The base station receives configuration from the channel feedback in LTE for its scheduled downlink (DL). Usually, 160 ms is the maximum gap between feedback messages and is 2 ms is the minimum duration between feedback messages and the channel status report is requested from the mobile by the BTS in a periodic feedback. In LTE simultaneous use of FD and MUD for different users is possible whereas in WiMAX, it cannot coexist in time [2]. In LTE, RBs are allocated to the users independent of the CELL_ID. The interference on the downlink (DL) will not be randomly distributed across RBs of adjacent cells. Hence there is no interference diversity on the downlink (DL) in LTE [2].

Interference Diversity

It can be used for the uplink transmission of the symbols. It is a channel allocation scheme used for data transmission based on single carrier frequency division multiplexing technique that allows the transmission of the symbols across a single carrier . The techniques used for splitting the data is IFFT and Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) which performs the task of splitting the data across multiple sub-carriers and transmitting virtually as a single carrier. DFT is performed prior to IFFT. SCFDMA provides low peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) as compared to OFDMA. In this scheme, as the data is transmitted along the multiple subcarriers and if one subcarrier is in problem it is easy to recover the data from the other subcarriers based on frequency selection for the channel. But the recovery of data at the receiver side requires the selection of the data from the multiple subcarriers and requires more efforts for removing the error in the data.

This is an antenna technology which uses multiple channels in radios to provide the functions of both the transmitter and receiver of data signals sent over the network as shown in the figure. It provides high spectral efficiency and link reliability facilitating significant increase in the data throughput and radio link usage without additional bandwidth and transmission power. This high efficiency is due to the availability of an independent path in a rich scattering environment for each transmitter and receiver antennas in the radio.

This is the variant antenna technology that enhances the communication capabilities of the individual radio terminal used by radios in the network by introducing multiple independent radio terminals. This allows transmission and reception to and from multiple users using the same band.

SDR is a radio communication system implemented as software on the personal computer or embedded devices. It scans the available networks and then reconfigures itself for the selected network by downloading the software specific to that network. It is used for implementation of the multimodal, multi-band, multi-standard user terminals and base stations which allows accessibility across various wireless and wireline heterogeneous networks. Advantages flexibility in network expansion i.e. operator can expands its network infrastructure by adding few modems to base station transceiver system. It reduces the cost for development of multimodal, multiband and multi-standard user equipments.

Mobile station: Multimode user terminal Wireless network discovery Wireless network selection System: Terminal mobility Network infrastructure and QoS support Security Fault tolerance Services: Multiple operators and billing system Personal mobility

Bharti Airtel launched India's first 4G service, using TD-LTE technology, in Kolkata on April 10, 2012. Airtel 4G services are available in Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune and Chandigarh region (The Tricity or Chandigarh region consists of a major city Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula. RIL is launching 4G services through its subsidiary, Jio Infocomm. RIL 4G services are currently available only in Jamnagar, where it is testing the new TD-LTE technology. RIL 4G rollout is planned to start in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata and expand to cover 700 cities, including 100 high-priority markets. India uses the TD LTE frequency #40 (2.3 GHz), Apple iPhone 5s supports the TD LTE 40 band but its yet to be launched in India.

Canada-Telus and Bell Canada, the major Canadian cdmaOne and EV-DO carriers, have announced that they will be cooperating towards building a fourth generation (4G) LTE wireless broadband network in Canada. United States-Sprint had deployed WiMAX technology which it has labeled 4G as of October 2008. It was the first US carrier to offer a WiMAX phone. United Kingdom-On July 9, 2013, Ofcom announced that mobile network operators would be allowed to repurpose their existing 2G and 3G spectrum, specifically in the 900, 1,800 and 2,100 MHz bands, for 4G services. - Both O2 and Vodafone launched their 4G networks on August 29, 2013.O3 will launch their 4G network in December 2013.

A. Live Mobile Video. 4G wireless networks provide many features to handle the current challenges in video communication . The WiMax and Long Term Evolution (LTE) 4G networks now being built will be able to handle broadcast-quality data loads over much cheaper, faster, and more mobile connections than satellite trucks. For instance, one developer, Nomad Innovations, offers a WiMax-based modem that attaches to the back of a professional video camera, obviating the need for satellite connectivity in the field. B. Mobile/Portable Gaming Since most gaming platforms have Wi-Fi connectivity built in, you can easily use the portable modem to share a 4G connection with five to eight different devices thus broadening the use of 4G for swift portable gaming experience. C. Cloud-Based Apps The emergence of the 4G wireless network will make cloud computingworking with data and apps that are stored onlineeven more winsome than it is today with the cloud services becoming considerably more reliable, functional and secure for the mobile users. D. Emergence Response and Tele-medicine 4G networks have the ability to transfer large files(like x-rays) in quick time along with providing interactive video for remote physician monitoring and direction.This has led to the development of special gears and services for the health-care operations that will provide better, faster, and less expensive medical and emergency care.

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