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Importance of Early Detection and Identification for Differently Able

By Manisha Verma Asha School Danapur

What Is Early Identification and Detection?

Identification-Recognition of Condition

Early
Means In the Course of Childs problem

What Do Statistics Say?

Nature and Nurture

Etiological Factors of Disability


Pre-natal Genetic Developmental Malformation Maternal Age Drugs/Medicines/Radiation etc Peri-natal Low birth Weight\Pre-Maturity Trauma during Labor Asphyxia etc Post-natal Infections(Poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, meningitis, encephalitis) Accidents Malnutrition Environmental factors Psycho-social factors

Growth And Development

Fixed Development Pattern After Birth


Social Smile at the age of 1month Holding neck at approx 3 months Sitting by 6 months Standing by 7 months Walking and talking by 1 year

Language
Most sensitive, receptive, language skills and ability to recognize speech till 5-6 years

Motor Skills
Myelination of Cerebellum peaks by 4 years of age Gross Motor skills grow through stimulation initiated by childrens advances

Hearing
Auditory perception has reached adult levels by 2 years

What are Developmental Delays

Early Detection
Reveals the area of Difficulty The special ability of child to learn Special help he needs

Ways Identification
Informal or Natural Referral Questionnaire or Inventory Screening

Screening is a procedure which accurately categorizes individuals as possibly handicapped or delayed or as not currently handicapped or delayed

Important Areas of Assessment


Measurement of overall level of Intellectual functioning Assessment of Adaptive Behavior Detailed Analysis of Individual abilities and deficits

Screening Methods
Sensitive
Specific

Inexpensive

Simple

Repeatable

Acceptable to Public and Professionals

Process of Screening

Outreach or Case Findings

Screening

Further Assessment

Early Intervention

School Entry Level Screening


Neurodevelopmental Screening Visual Screening Auditory Screening Language Level Screening Screening Instruments
NIMH Developmental Screening Schedule Basic-MR Dolls Vineland Social Maturity Scale The Automated Software Screener Developed by Sampath kumaran Veeraraghavan and Dr Karthik Srinivasan

Multidisciplinary Approach of Identification Requires input of various professionals Physiotherapists special educators psychologists Occupational therapists social workers speech therapists

Early Detection and Identification


Includes
Developmentally disabled at risk children and their families

Benefits Of Early Detection


o Restrict Number of Handicaps o Timely treatment o Training o Counseling o Steps of Prevention

Counselling
Information of risk factors in birth of other siblings Efforts to create a positive environment Involvement of All family members Opening of channel of communication among family members Providing support and necessary training

When to Start Early Intervention


As soon as it is recognized that young child is developmentally delayed These start with Diagnosis and continue till age of 5 or 6 years. Infant brain is more adaptable First 24 months of childs life involves tremendous and rapid growth and development

Use It or Loose It
2 Years

Twice the no: of Synapses in the adult


Brain is 95% of adult size Weakly formed Synapses Start regressing

5 Years

10 Years

Child Development
Critical Periods
Windows of Opportunity Time of Selective Vulnerability

Plasticity
Parts of the Damaged brain can be compensated with in by forming alternate pathways

Nature of early intervention services


No two kids are the same Designed to suit the specific needs of the child Concentrates not only on child but also its environment Inclusive of family and other important members in child

Early Intervention for a Child


Motor

Sensory Cognitive Social Emotional Activities of Daily living


Providing Stimulation and exposing child to all possible activities can work wonders !!!

Early Intervention For Child


Develop skills for future learning Reduces occurrences of associated handicaps Provides opportunity to live with family from beginning Child can attain maximum potential

Early Intervention for Families


Provide Info and Skills Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSP) Understanding Limitations, strengths and needs of the child Genetic Counseling Emphasizing need for Spacing and Small size of Family Ensuring Future Guardianship role

Early Intervention For Family


Learning of effective parenting skills to teach and stimulate the child Early counseling to accept child better Minimize disruption in the family, establish positive of interaction among family members Feelings of self worth is increased among siblings Future guardianship role is facilitated

challenges to Early Childhood Identification

Sharing of information across disciplines Labeling Issues Changing family dynamics Sharing criteria for referral, shared protocols Work towards better understanding between culture/agencies Who should be involved in Early Childhood Intervention-Parents, case workers, family members Strategic Planning

children's development must be viewed as integrated and interactive children must be served with in the context of the family.

Ayan* :A Success
DIAGNOSIS Ayan Was diagnosed with spastic Quadriplegia -when he was 2 year old He had balancing problems Scissor Gait He was given physiotherapy since July 2010 Goals of Therapy To improve his balance Facilitation of Equilibrium To continue academic activities in play way method

(*-Name changed)

Ayan : A Success
After 3 months an evaluation was done
Sitting posture improved..he can sit and maintain balance when legs are kept straight in front for short duration Can pull himself up from sitting position Now can stand with support Can bear weight on the legs Inverted tendency of feet is reduced Shows interest in coloring and can scribble with crayons and identifies family members as well as colors and five pictures
(*-Name changed)