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Identity and Access Management: Overview

Rafal Lukawiecki Strategic Consultant, Project Botticelli Ltd rafal@projectbotticelli.co.uk www.projectbotticelli.co.uk

Copyright 2006 Microsoft Corp & Project Botticelli Ltd. E&OE. For informational purposes only. No warranties of any kind are made and you have to verify all information before relying on it. You can re-use this presentation as long as you read, agree, and follow the guidelines described in the Comments field in File/Properties. This presentation is based on work of many authors from Microsoft, Oxford Computer Group and other companies. Please see the Introductions presentation for acknowledgments.

Objectives
Build a good conceptual background to enable later technical discussions of the subject Overview the problems and opportunities in the field of identity and access management Introduce terminology Highlight a possible future direction

Session Agenda
Identity Problem of Today Identity Laws and Metasystem Components and Terminology Roadmap

Identity Problem of Today

Universal Identity?
Internet was build so that communications are anonymous In-house networks use multiple, often mutuallyincompatible, proprietary identity systems Users are incapable of handling multiple identities Criminals love to exploit this mess

Explosion of IDs
# of Digital IDs
Business Partners Automation (B2B)
Company (B2E)

Customers (B2C)
Mobility

Internet

Client Server

Mainframe

Time
Pre 1980s 1980s 1990s 2000s

The Disconnected Reality


Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data

HR System
NOS Lotus Notes Apps Infra Application COTS Application In-House Application In-House Application

Enterprise Directory

Authentication Authorization Identity Data

Authentication Authorization Identity Data


Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data

Identity Chaos
Lots of users and systems required to do business Multiple repositories of identity information; Multiple user IDs, multiple passwords Decentralized management, ad hoc data sharing

Multiple Contexts
Customer satisfaction & customer intimacy Cost competitiveness Reach, personalization

Your CUSTOMERS

Your SUPPLIERS
Collaboration Outsourcing Faster business cycles; process automation Value chain

Your COMPANY and your EMPLOYEES


M&A Mobile/global workforce Flexible/temp workforce

Your REMOTE and VIRTUAL EMPLOYEES

Your PARTNERS

Trends Impacting Identity


Rising Tide of Regulation and Compliance
SOX, HIPAA, GLB, Basel II, 21 CFR Part 11, $15.5 billion spend in 2005 on compliance (analyst estimate)

Deeper Line of Business Automation and Integration


One half of all enterprises have SOA under development Web services spending growing 45% CAGR

Increasing Threat Landscape


Identity theft costs banks and credit card issuers $1.2 billion in 1 yr
$250 billion lost in 2004 from exposure of confidential info

Maintenance Costs Dominate IT Budget


On average employees need access to 16 apps and systems Companies spend $20-30 per user per year for PW resets
Data Sources: Gartner, AMR Research, IDC, eMarketer, U.S. Department. of Justice

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Pain Points

IT Admin

Developer

End User

Security/ Compliance

Business Owner

Too many user stores and account admin requests


Unsafe sync scripts

Redundant code in each app


Rework code too often

Too many passwords


Long waits for access to apps, resources

Too many orphaned accounts


Limited auditing ability

Too expensive to reach new partners, channels


Need for control

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Possible Savings
Directory Synchronization
Improved updating of user data: $185 per user/year Improved list management: $800 per list

- Giga Information Group

Password Management
Password reset costs range from $51 (best case) to $147 (worst case) for labor alone. Gartner

User Provisioning
Improved IT efficiency: $70,000 per year per 1,000 managed users Reduced help desk costs: $75 per user per year

- Giga Information Group

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Can We Just Ignore It All?


Today, average corporate user spends 16 minutes a day logging on A typical home user maintains 12-18 identities

Number of phishing and pharming sites grew over 1600% over the past year
Corporate IT Ops manage an average of 73 applications and 46 suppliers, often with individual directories

Regulators are becoming stricter about compliance and auditing


Orphaned accounts and identities lead to security problems
Source: Microsofts internal research and Anti-phishing Working Group Feb 2005

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One or Two Solutions?


Better Option:
Build a global, universal, federated identity metasystem
Will take years

Quicker Option:
Build an in-house, federated identity metasystem based on standards Federate it to others, system-by-system

But: both solutions could share the same conceptual basis

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Identity Laws and Metasystem

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Lessons from Passport


Passport designed to solve two problems
Identity provider for MSN
250M+ users, 1 billion logons per day
Significant success

Identity provider for the Internet


Unsuccessful:
Not trusted outside context Not generic enough Meant giving up control over identity management Cannot re-write apps to use a central system

Learning: solution must be different than Passport

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Idea of an Identity Metasystem


Not an Identity System Agreement on metadata and protocols, allowing multiple identity providers and brokers Based on open standards Supported by multiple technologies and platforms Adhering to Laws of Identity With full respect of privacy needs

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Roles Within Identity Metasystem


Identity Providers
Organisations, governments, even end-users They provide Identity Claims about a Subject
Name, vehicles allowed to drive, age, etc.

Relying Parties
Online services or sites, doors, etc.

Subjects
Individuals and other bodies that need its identity established

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Metasystem Players
Identity Providers
Issue identities

Relying Parties
Require identities

Subjects
Individuals and other entities about whom claims are made

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Identity Metasystem Today


Basically, the set of WS-* Security Guidelines as we have it Plus
Software that implements the services
Microsoft and many others working on it

Companies that would use it


Still to come, but early adopters exist

End-users that would trust it


Will take time

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Identity Laws
www.identityblog.com

1. User Control and Consent 2. Minimal Disclosure for a Constrained Use

3. Justifiable Parties
4. Directed Identity 5. Pluralism of Operators and Technologies 6. Human Integration 7. Consistent Experience Across Contexts

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Enterprise Applicability
That proposed metasystem would work well inside a corporation Of course, we need a solution before it becomes a reality Following the principles seems a good idea while planning immediate solutions Organic growth likely to lead to an identity metasystem in long term

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Enterprise Trends
Kerberos is very useful but increasingly it does not span disconnected identity forests and technologies easily We are moving away from static Groups and traditional ACLs
Increasingly limited and difficult to manage on large scales

towards a dynamic combination of:


Role-Based Access Management, and, Rich Claims Authorization

PKI is still too restrictive, but it is clearly a component of a possible solution

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Components and Terminology

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What is Identity Management?

Web Services Security Authorization

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Identity and Access Management


Directory Services
Repositories for storing and managing accounts, identity information, and security credentials

A system of procedures, policies and technologies to manage the credentials lifecycle The process of authenticating and Access controlling access to networked resources Management and entitlements of electronic based on trust and identity credentials
Identity Lifecycle Management
The processes used to create and delete accounts, manage account and entitlement changes, and track policy compliance

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Remember the Chaos?


Authentication Authorization Identity Data

HR System NOS Lotus Notes Apps Infra Application COTS Application In-House Application In-House Application

Authentication Authorization Identity Data


Authentication Authorization Identity Data

Enterprise Directory

Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data

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Identity Integration
Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data Authentication Authorization Identity Data

Enterprise Directory

HR System Student Admin Lotus Notes Apps Infra Application COTS Application In-House Application In-House Application

Identity Integration Server

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IAM Benefits
Benefits today (Tactical)
Save money and improve operational efficiency Improved time to deliver applications and service Enhance Security

Benefits to take you forward (Strategic)


New ways of working

Improved time to market

Regulatory Compliance and Audit

Closer Supplier, Customer, Partner and Employee relationships

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Some Basic Definitions


Authentication (AuthN)
Verification of a subjects identity by means of relying on a provided claim Identification is sometimes seen as a preliminary step of authentication
Collection of untrusted (as yet) information about a subject, such as an identity claim

Authorization (AuthZ)
Deciding what actions, rights or privileges can the subject be allowed

Trend towards separation of those two


Or even of all three, if biometrics are used

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Components of IAM
Administration
User Management Password Management Workflow

Delegation
Authentication Authorization Administration Authentication

Access Management
Authorization

Identity Management
Account Provisioning Account Deprovisioning Synchronisation

Reliable Identity Data

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IAM Architecture

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Roadmap

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Microsofts Identity Management


Directory (Store) Services Access Management Identity Lifecycle Management
Identity Integration Server

Active Directory & ADAM

Active Directory Federation Services

Extended Directory Services

Authorization Manager

BizTalk

PKI / CA

Enterprise Single Sign On

Audit Collection Services

Services for Unix / Services for Netware

ISA Server

SQL Server Reporting

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Components of a Microsoft-based IAM


Infrastructure Directory Active Directory

Application Directory
Lifecycle Management Workflow

AD/AM (LDAP)
MIIS BizTalk, Partner Solutions (Ultimus BPM, SAP)

Role-Based Access Control Authorization Manager or Partner Solutions (ex: OCG, RSA) and traditional approaches
Directory & Password Synchronization SSO (Intranet) Enterprise SSO (Intranet) Strong Authentication Web SSO Integration of UNIX/Novell MIIS & Partner solutions Kerberos/NTLM, Vintela/Centrify Sharepoint ESSO, BizTalk ESSO, HIS ESSO SmartCards, CA/PKI, Partner (eg. RSA SecurID, MCLMS, WizeKey) ADFS, Partner (eg. RSA ClearTrust) SFU, SFN, Partner (eg. Vintella/Centrify)

Federation

ADFS

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Summary

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Summary
We have reached an Identity Crisis both on the intranet and the Internet Identity Metasystem suggests a unifying way forward Meanwhile, Identity and Access Management systems need to be built so enterprises can benefit immediately Microsoft is rapidly becoming a strong provider of IAM technologies and IM vision
www.microsoft.com/idm & www.microsoft.com/itsshowtime & www.microsoft.com/technet

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Special Thanks
This seminar was prepared with the help of:
Oxford Computer Group Ltd
Expertise in Identity and Access Management (Microsoft Partner) IT Service Delivery and Training www.oxfordcomputergroup.com

Microsoft, with special thanks to:


Daniel Meyer thanks for many slides Steven Adler, Ronny Bjones, Olga Londer planning and reviewing Philippe Lemmens, Detlef Eckert Sponsorship Bas Paumen & NGN - feedback