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Pumps

Jhenu Kumar Subramaniam, 25-Oct-2013


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Jhenu Kumar Subramaniam


School Topper in +2, Recognized by Bharat Vikas Parishad for obtaining high marks during academic year 2000-2001. Passed B.E, Electrical and Electronics Engineering with distinction during 2005. Worked with TCS for 3 years (2006-2009). Awarded Merit scholarship by Coventry University, during 2009-2010, while doing MS in automobile engineering. Passed MS in Automobile Engineering with distinction from Coventry University, UK, 2010. Was in Airbag Research Project, collaborative initiative by Coventry University and Toyoda Gosei for 6 months. Worked with Jaguar Land Rover for Next Generation Infotainment System (Developing safety related features like Lane Departure Warning System) for 1 year Currently working with Visteon for 2 years in Software Product Validation.

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Pumps
Topics Basics (SI Units, Force, Energy, etc) Pump Basics and Terminologies Classification of Pumps. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps. Parts of a Pump. Important Parameter and Efficiencies of a centrifugal Pump Some Problems Introduction to Reciprocating Pumps Working Principles of Double acting reciprocating pump. Indicator Diagram Air Vessel and Performance Curves Some Problems

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7 Basics units
SI Base Unit Mass (kg) kilograms. Length(m) Metre. {In US English meter} Time (s) Second. Electric Current(A) ampere. Thermodynamic Temperature (K) Kelvin. Amount of substance (mol) mole. Luminous Intensity (Cd) candela.

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Force, Energy, Pressure, Power

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Velocity Head in Fluid Mechanics


In applied physics, the velocity head is the kinetic energy divided by the weight of the liquid: Used with Bernoulli theorem: weight = mass* acceleration due to gravity

Velocity Head(h) =(1/2*m*V2)/(m*g) h= V2/2g


Potential Energy = Kinetic Energy

(m*g*h) =(1/2*m*V2) h= V2/2g


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Velocity Head in Fluid Mechanics


Therefore Equivalent static lift due to velocity is v^2/2g We call it velocity head for incompressible fluids and velocity pressure for gases.

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What is a Pump ?
A pump is a device that moves liquids or slurries from Lower Pressure to Higher Pressure and overcomes the pressure difference by adding energy to the system.
Pumps are oldest machine used by human civilization. For Ex Persian wheels, Water wheels etc. Pump is a machine that converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. The Hydraulic energy is in the form of pressure energy. If the energy conversion is done by centrifugal force acting on the fluid then the machine is called centrifugal pump.

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Classification of Pump

Email : jhenukumar@gmail.com 9 of 60

Classification of Pump
Centrifugal Pumps are Dynamic Pumps. Displacement Pumps
Reciprocating Pumps Piston, plunger type Rotary Pumps Single Rotor Vane pump Multiple Rotor Gear pump Our study in limited to Centrifugal Pumps and Reciprocating Pumps. Centrifugal pumps are most widely used in industry because of its versatility and simple in construction and relatively in expensive to buy. They are also easier and less expensive to operate, maintain and to repair. The overall efficiency of the centrifugal pumps are high.

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What is a centrifugal Pump


Centrifugal Pump moves fluid by increasing fluid pressure through centrifugal force. Energy is imparted to the fluid by centrifugal action of moving blades from the inner radius to the outer. The flow of the centrifugal pump is radial outward direction. Centrifugal force moves the object away from the center of rotation. When the centrifugal pump is working, Impeller rotates and its blades stir the fluid and makes the fluid rotate along with impeller.

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What is a centrifugal Pump


The circular motion generates force to move the fluid away from the center of the impeller to the tips of the impeller blade. The movement of the fluid to the outside edge of the impeller creates suction at the eye of the impeller that draws more fluid into the pump. The outside edge of the impeller moves faster than the inside center.

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What is a centrifugal Pump


To stay up with the impeller the fluid has to move faster as it moves outward. This increases the energy of the fluid. The fluid enters the specially designed area of the casing VOLUTE after leaving the outside edge of the impeller. The volute is wider at discharge nozzle than where the fluid leaves the impeller.

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Volute and Energy Transformation


The volute is wider at discharge nozzle than where the fluid leaves the impeller. There increase in area (space) causes the fluid to slow down, it decreases the kinetic energy of the fluid. (velocity decreases). This kinetic energy is converted to the pressure head. This pressure forces the fluid out of the pump at a higher pressure than it entered the pump.

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Components of Centrifugal pump


Casing Impeller Packing (Seals) Shaft Bearing Coupling

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Casing
The prominent and visible part of the pump. Purpose of casing is to house and protect the pump parts inside. To confine the fluid. Casing from volute and connection points for suction and discharge pipings. Casing can be made from Cast Iron, Steel, Aluminum, Bronze or special materials depending on the requirement and operation conditions.

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Impeller
Impeller imparts energy to the fluid being pumped. Impeller is tightly attached to the shaft and rotates at the shaft speed. Impeller are usually made from cast Iron. If a corrosive fluid is to be pumped then Impellers are made from stainless steel, plastics or special materials.

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Shaft
Shaft connects the impeller to the drive (can be a steam engine, electric motor or an engine). Shaft turns the impeller. Steel is the most common material used for making shafts.

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Couplings
Coupling connects or couples the driver to the pump. It transmits the power from the driver shaft to the pump shaft. Couplings are critical part of the pump. Coupling needs to be strong enough to withstand sudden change in Loads during start and stop.

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Bearings
Bearings support shafts and reduce friction when shafts rotates in the casing. Bearings control the forward and backward movement , the thrust of the shaft and shaft side to side radial movement. Bearings prevent the shaft from rubbing against the casing. Bearings can be in the casing itself incase of small pumps. In large pumps, they are housed in separate casings.

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Packing (Seals)
Seals are used to prevent the fluid leakage around the shaft.

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