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SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE(SEM)

PIU RAJAK
DCMP & MS

Introduction
The first commercial scanning electron microscope became available in 1965 by Cambridge Scientific Instruments.

The SEM image gives the information about Topography Morphology Crystallography Composition of an object.

SEM vs. Optical Microscope


Advantages Continuously variable

Disadvantages

Magnification
High resolution (1-2nm)

Depth of focus
Elemental analysis attachments

Cost More knobs Vacuum Sample limitations

How SEM works & main components


Main components are

Electron column

Electron gun Condenser lens Objective lens

Specimen chamber Vacuum system Signal detection

Electron gun
Generates & accelerates electrons to an energy range 0.1-30 keV. Two main types of electron gun Thermionic Gun Tungsten (W) Hairpin Electron Gun

Lanthanum Hexaboride (LaB6) Electron Gun


Field Emission (FEG).
Tungsten (W) Hairpin Electron Gun

Cold
- Thermal - Schottky

Electrons leave the filament tip with a negative potential so accelerate towards the earthed anode and into the microscope column.

A small negative bias on the Wehnelt then focuses the beam to a crossover which acts as the electron source.

Electromagnetic lens

The focal length is given by f=K.U/(N.I)^2 K:constant U: accelerating voltage N:windings I:lens current

1/f=1/p+1/q Magnification =M=q/p Demagnification=m=p/q

Electromagnetic lens defects

Spherical aberration: ds=1/2Cs ^3 Chromatic aberration: dc=Cc (E/E0) Diffraction: dd=0.61O/

To resolve

Chromatic aberration- Electron beam should be monochromatic and by placing an aperture after the specimen.

Spherical aberration- A small opening aperture that cuts off the most offensive part of the lens.
Astigmatism- By using a stigmator.

Deflector (scan) Coils

The beam is raster from left to right and top to bottom.

Red dot represents area of beam-specimen interaction.


magnification=area scanned on the monitor/area scanned on the specimen.

Interaction with solid

Detector
Electron beam Scintillator light pipe

to photomultiplier

Solid angle of BSE detector specimen

Everhart-Thornley detector (with positive bias)- for Secondary electron The solid state detector- for back scatter electron Energy Dispersive Spectrometer- for X-rays

Why do need vacuum?


Critical vacuum required for Chamber: ~ 6 x 10^-6 Torr Column: ~ 2 x 10^-9 Torr

Roughing Pump

Turbomolecular Pumps

Vacuum need because To avoid collisions between electrons and gas molecules. To avoid high voltage breakdown between anode and cathode. To avoid substantially decreasing life of the filament as it will get oxidized .

Operator control for resolution

Effect of aperture size

Effect of condenser lens strength Can increase the resolution by: Increasing the strength of the condenser lens Decreasing the size of the objective aperture Decreasing the working distance Depend on depth of the field

Effect of working distance

References
AMGEN SMP TR0549.00 Joseph I. Goldstein, Scanning Electron Microscope and X-ray Microanalysis 2ed, Plenum Press, New York, 1992 Directive 200183EC Part 2 1.3: Chemical Pharmaceutical & Biological Testing of Medicinal Products. Scanning Electron Microscopy, McCrone Research Institute, Fall 2001 course notes. NFMC Spring School on Electron Microscopy, April 2011

Difference with TEM


The first part is equivalent to the TEM miroscopy. But it has difference
a) The sample is outside the objective lens. b) The signal recorded corresponds to reflected or to secondary electrons. c) No necessity for difficult sample preparation d) Max resolution 2 nm

Field Emission Gun (FEG)

A very strong magnetic field (~10 9 Vm -1 ) draws electrons from a very fine metallic tip (usually W). An extraction voltage of around 2kV is applied to the first anode to create an intense electric field to allow electrons to escape from the tip. The second anode is then used to accelerate the electrons into the microscope at the required energy. Combination of the two anodes focuses the beam into a crossover creating a fine beam source.

Difference with TEM The first part is equivalent to the


TEM miroscopy. But it has difference a) The sample is outside the objective lens. b) The signal recorded corresponds to reflecteor to secondary electrons. c) No necessity for difficult sample preparation

d) Max resolution 2 nm

Difference with TEM


The first part is equivalent to the TEM miroscopy. But it has difference
a) The sample is outside the objective lens. b) The signal recorded corresponds to reflected or to secondary electrons. c) No necessity for difficult sample preparation d) Max resolution 2 nm