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CHAPTER ONE (1)

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT)

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Learning Objectives

After completing this chapter you will be able to: Describe the evolution of Information Technology and Communications Explain the concepts of ICT and IT Introduce to computer hardware Introduce to computer software Discuss the history of Windows Technology

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Chapter Outline

Introduction
IT & ICT

Computer Hardware Software Application Operating System Programming Languages Windows Technology
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What is IT/ICT?

IT is concerned with technology to treat information. Technology = the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, procedures, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. Information = data that is organized and meaningful. Data = raw fact i.e. numbers, characters, unprocessed image. IT = the {acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination} of {vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information} by a {microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications.}

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Information Technology

Information Technology (IT) is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of information systems". Information technology is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information.
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What is ICT?

Information Communications Technology (ICT) covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form. For example, personal computers, digital television, email, robots. ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data. It is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other.
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The Importance of IT/ICT

essential ingredient in managing business processes of most organizations reduction in administration costs improve staff productivity assist in the design & manufacture of products improve the efficiency of interactions with clients, customers, suppliers & distribution outlets create opportunities for new services, products & business ventures speed, efficiency, effectiveness & competitive advantages
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IT Components
Process Application (software) Hardware

that is used to get, create, arrange, analyze and present the information in various format including text, image, audio and video.
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Process
The ability to translate the information needs, to analyze and present the information and the ability to analyze the process effectiveness. It Includes techniques and activities that involve design, development, implementation and IT management.

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Application (Software)

Software can be categorized into:


Curricular software
it is designed to educate students with concepts and skills. The learning objective is determine by the software.

Generic software
Software that is used to achieve various learning objectives. Example: Word processor, databases and multimedia

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Hardware
The physical components of a computer system Includes all types of technology hardware including computers, scanner, modem, printers etc.

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Telecommunication devices

Wireless Phone Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Walkie Talkie Pager Fax machine Video Conferencing Telegraph Chatting software: Example IRC, Yahoo Messenger
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Example of Telecommunication Devices


CELULAR PHONE PAGER

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Example of Telecommunication Devices


PDA

WALKIE TALKIE

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Example of Telecommunication Devices


FAX MACHINE

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Example of Telecommunication Devices


Computer

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Computer

An electronic device or a programmable machine that receives inputs, stores and manipulates data (retrieves and processes data), can be programmed with instructions and provides output in a useful format. A computer is composed of hardware and software, and can exist in a variety of sizes and configurations.
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Computer
Monitor

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Keyboard

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Types of Computer

Analog
Process physical data. Example: Temperature, air pressure, electrical

Digital
Process data in binary ( 1 and 0)

Hybrid
Combination of analog and digital computers

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Components of Computer
Central Processing Unit (CPU) Storage Input Devices Output Devices Communication Devices

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Central Processing Unit (CPU)

CPU or the processor is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computer's functions. Manipulates raw data into a more useful form and controls the other parts of the computer systems. A microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable, clock driven, register based device that takes input and provides output. E.g. Intel Pentium, AMD Athlon, SUN UltraSparc
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Storage

A data storage device often called memory is a device for recording (storing) information (data). Primary Storage (main memory, internal memory) Temporarily stores data and program instructions during processing (volatile storage). Example RAM. Secondary Storage (external memory) Store data and programs when they are not being used in processing. Example: HardDisk, Floppy Disk, CD, DVD, Tape Drive, ROM, flash memory (USB)
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Input Devices

Any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a computer). Convert data and instructions into electronic form for input into the computer. Example
Pointing devices (mouse, touch screen) Source data automation (optical character recognition ~ Bar code, magnetic ink character recognition) Handwriting recognition (pen-based input ~ PDA, laptop mouse pointing) Keyboard, Scanner, sensor device 10/28/2013 STID 1103 23 voice input device (Microphone)

Output Devices

Any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world. Convert electronic data produced by the computer system and display them into a form that people can understand. Example:Video Display Terminal (monitors), Printers, plotters, speakers, headphone, earphone. 10/28/2013 STID 1103

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Communication Devices
Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Provide connections between the computer and communication networks. Example: Modem, Digital Camera, HeadPhone/Telephony (conferencing), radio/TV.

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Categories of Computers
Supercomputer
Mainframe Midrange

(Minicomputers) Microcomputers Workstation

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Supercomputer

Highly sophisticated and powerful computer that can perform very complex computations extremely rapidly. Most powerful & expensive. Used in scientific and military work, such as classified weapons research and weather forecasting.

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Mainframe

Largest category of computer, used for major business processing. Intended to service multiple users Capable of handling and processing very large amounts of data quickly. Used in large institutions such as government, banks and large corporations.

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Midrange (Minicomputers)

A class of computer systems which fall in between mainframe computers and microcomputers. Capable of supporting the computing needs of small organizations or of managing networks of other computers such as in Universities, factories and research laboratories as server to manage organization computer network E.g. Digital Equipment Corporation, HewlettPackard (HP3000 line), and Sun Microsystems (SPARC Enterprise).
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Microcomputers

A computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit Also known as personal computer. Physically small compared to mainframe and mini. E.g. desktop computers, laptop and notebook computers, tablet PC, palmtop computers, personal digital assistants (PDA's).

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Workstation

A high-end microcomputer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. Desktop computer with powerful graphics and mathematical capabilities and the ability to perform several complicated at once. Used in scientific, engineering and design work

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Computer Hardware
14, 15, 17 & 21 Keyboards- 108, 110, 114 keys, Mouse, Speaker, Printer, Scanner, CD Drive, CD Writer Floppy A Drive Joy Stick Plotter
Monitor
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Monitor
A monitor or display (sometimes called a visual display unit) is an electronic visual display for computers. It comprises the display device, circuitry, and an enclosure. 2 types of Monitor CRT -Cathode Ray Tube (just like television set Flat Panel - Using TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display, or plasma display panel (pixel rely on gas in the cell or plasma) 10/28/2013 STID 1103

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Printers

a printer is a peripheral which produces a hard copy (permanent readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies.
o o o o

Dot matrix Ink Jet Laser Jet Bubble Jet


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Software

The collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do and how to do. Complete instructions that control, manage and support operational activities of computer system. 3 basic functions:
a) manage computer systems data sources b) create platforms & tools to use the data source c) act as the middle-man between human and data source storage
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User
Application Software System Software Computer Hardware

Relationship between User, Application Software, System Software and Computer Hardware
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Example of Computer Software


System Software Application Software Programming Languages Firmware Device Drivers Middleware Testware

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System Software
A computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide and maintain a platform for running application software. The most important types of system software are:

The operating system The computer BIOS and device firmware Utility software Computer Language Translation Programs
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Operating System

Allows the parts of a computer to work together by performing tasks like transferring data between memory and disks or rendering output onto a display device. It also provides a platform to run high-level system software and application software. Manages and control the computers activities Main functions of the operating system
Allocates and assigns system resources Schedules the use of computer resources and computer job Monitor computer system activities

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Example of Operating System


DOS UNIX OS/2 Macintosh Windows 95/98/2000/NT/ME/XP LindowsOS

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DOS

Disk Operating System (DOS) Operating system for older IBM and IBMcompatible PCs between 1981 and 1995. Advantage:
Ease of use ~ user interface (command line interface)

Disadvantage:
Do not support multitasking Limits program use of memory to 640 kilobytes

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DOS

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UNIX

A computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs. Operating System for all types of computers, which is machine independent and support multi-user processing, multitasking and networking. widely used in both servers and workstations
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UNIX

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OS/2
Operating system/2 created by Microsoft and IBM for IBM PCS that can take advantage of the 32-bit microprocessor. Support multitasking and networking. Has its own graphical user interface and desktop and server version Require memory intensive applications

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OS/2

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Macintosh
OS for Apple Macintosh computer that support multitasking. The first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface. Has access to the internet and has powerful graphics and multimedia capabilities.

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Macintosh System 1.1

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Mac OS 8.0

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Mac OS X Jaguar

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Microsoft Windows
A series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Windows Operating System to control and manage computer activities Based on graphical user interface easier to use

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List of Microsoft Windows versions

1985 November 20 - Windows 1.01 1986 August - Windows 1.03 1986 May - Windows 1.02 1987 April - Windows 1.04 1987 December - Windows 2.03 1988 May - Windows 2.10 1989 March - Windows 2.11 1990 May - Windows 3.0 1992 August - Windows 3.1 1992 October - Windows for Workgroups 3.1 1993 August - Windows NT 3.1 1993 November - Windows for Workgroups 3.11 1993 October - Windows 3.2
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List of Microsoft Windows versions (cont)


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1994 September - Windows NT 3.5 1995 August - Windows 95 1995 June - Windows NT 3.51 1996 July - Windows NT 4.0 1998 June - Windows 98 2000 April - Windows Mobile 2000 February - Windows 2000 2000 June - Windows Me 2001 August - Windows XP 2003 April - Windows Server 2003 2006 November - Windows Vista 2008 February - Windows Server 2008 2009 July - Windows 7 2012 Oct - Windows 8
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Windows 3.1

Introduced graphical User Interface for example Program manager Based on windows- allowing few program in their own windows. Disadvantages: Require high memory and storage Operates only on computers with micro processor 286, 2MB RAM and at least 10MB hardisk.
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Windows 3.1

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Windows 95

Popular in mid 90s, used in personal PCs. Most of the software is based on windows format Using storage area of 80 MB, 8MB RAM and micro processor at least 486 DX. Using 32-bit operating system Perform twice better than windows 3.1(16-bit) Support multitasking Support plug and play Better GUI
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Windows 95

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Windows 98

32-bit operating system that is closely integrated with the Internet and that supports multitasking, multithreading and networking Faster and more integrated compare to windows 95 with support for additional hardware such as MMX, DVD. The most visible features is integration of the OS with Web browser software
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Windows 98

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Windows 2000
32-bit operating system for PCs, workstations and network servers. Support multitasking, multiprocessing, intensive networking and Internet services for corporate computing.

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Windows 2000 Pro

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Windows ME

Microsoft Windows ME (Millennium Edition) Enhanced Windows Operating System for consumer users featuring tools for working with video, photos, music and home networking. Improved capabilities for safeguarding critical files.

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Windows ME

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Windows NT

Microsoft Windows NT (New Technology)


Posses the same ability in UNIX such as multi-user, multitasking and high security. Suitable for high technology application, graphic and animation. Appropriate as server in a network.

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Windows NT 3.1

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Windows XP

Microsoft Windows XP (Experience)


Reliable, robust operating system with versions for both home and corporate users. Features support of internet and multimedia and improved networking, security and corporate management capabilities

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Windows XP

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Windows 7

For use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, netbooks, tablet PCs, and media center PCs New features are advances in touch and handwriting recognition, support for virtual hard disks, improved performance on multicore processors, improved boot performance, DirectAccess, and kernel improvements.
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Windows 8

For use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablets, and home theater PCs. Primarily focused towards improving its user experience on mobile devices such as tablets to better compete with other mobile operating systems like Android and Apple's iOS. Featuring a new Start screen that replaces the "Start menu" of earlier Windows versions. A new app platform with an emphasis on touchscreen input, and the new Windows Store to obtain and/or purchase applications to run on the operating system.
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Windows 8

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LindowsOS

Linspire, previously known as LindowsOS, was a commercial operating system based on Debian GNU/Linux and later Ubuntu. The first "Broadband OS" Built to take full advantage of broadband technology. Designed to fully utilize the world of tomorrow, where Internet connectivity is bountiful and cheap, and computers are ubiquitous.
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LindowsOS

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The computer BIOS and device firmware

The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a standard defining a firmware interface. It is built into the PC. Firmware is a term often used to denote the fixed, usually rather small, programs and data structures that internally control various electronic devices. It provides basic functionality to operate and control the hardware connected to or built into the computer. The primary function of the BIOS is to load and start an operating system. When the PC starts up, the first job for the BIOS is to initialize and identify system devices such as the video display card, keyboard and mouse, hard disk, CD/DVD drive and other hardware. The BIOS then locates software held on a peripheral device (designated as a 'boot device'), such as a hard disk or a CD, and loads and executes that software, giving it control of the PC.
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The computer BIOS and device firmware (example)

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Firmware

Low-level software often stored on electrically programmable memory devices. Fixed, usually small programs and data structures that internally control various electronic devices. Examples of devices containing firmware range from end-user products such as remote controls or calculators, through computer parts and devices like hard disks, keyboards, TFT screens or memory cards, all the way to scientific instrumentation and industrial robotics. Also more complex consumer devices, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, synthesizers, etc., contain firmware to enable the device's basic operation as well as implementing higherlevel functions.
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Device Drivers

A device driver or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a hardware device. Control parts of computers such as disk drives, printers, CD drives, or computer monitors. Acts as a translator between a hardware device and the applications or operating systems that use it.

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Utility software

Utility software is a kind of system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the computer. A single piece of utility software is usually called a utility or tool. Example of utility softwares:
Disk storage utilities ~ manage the storage like HDD, FDD, CD Disk defragmenters ~ detect computer files whose contents are broken across several locations on the hard disk, and move the fragments to one location to increase efficiency. Disk partitions ~ divide an individual drive into multiple logical drives Backup utilities ~ make a copy of all information stored on a disk, and restore either the entire disk or selected files Disk compression ~ compress/uncompress the contents of a disk, increasing the capacity of the disk. Anti-virus utilities ~ scan for computer viruses. Registry cleaners ~ clean and optimize the Windows registry by removing old registry keys that are no longer in use. Network utilities ~ analyze the computer's network connectivity, configure network settings, check data transfer or log events. STID 1103 77

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Computer Language Translation Programs


Convert programming languages into machine language. Programs written in high-level language such as COBOL, C must be translated into machine language that the computer can execute The program in high-level language before translation is called source code. A compiler translates source code into machine code called object code But some programming language do not use complier, but use an interpreter Interpreter used to translate each source code statement one at a time into machine code during execution and executes it. It is a bit slow to execute since it translated one statement at a time.
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Compiler

Translates source code into machine code called object code. Translates a high level language into an assembly or machine language. Examples include Ada, ALGOL, BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I, C/C++.

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Interpreter

Translates a high level language into an assembly or machine language. Used to translate each source code statement one at a time into machine code during execution and executes it. Examples include Ada, ALGOL, BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I, C/C++.

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Programming languages

An artificial language designed to express computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine, to express algorithms precisely, or as a mode of human communication. Many programming languages have some form of written specification of their syntax (form) and semantics (meaning).
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Programming languages (cont)

The syntax is the form or arrangement of symbols and characters typical to a particular language. Semantics deal with the meaning that a set of characters convey when arranged in a particular way.
Programming languages can be divided into: Low-level programming languages High-level programming languages Very high-level programming languages
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Low-level Programming languages

A programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture. The word "low" refers to the small or nonexistent amount of abstraction between the language and machine language; because of this, low-level languages are sometimes described as being "close to the hardware." Low-level programming languages are sometimes divided into two categories:
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First Generation Languages

The first-generation programming language, or 1GL also known as Machine Language, is machine code. It is the only language a microprocessor can process directly without a previous transformation. Using binary code ( 1 and 0 ) Programming in machine language is very slow, labor-intensive process Example : 1010 1101 8B54 2408 83FA 0077
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Second Generation Languages


2GL, is assembly language, developed in 1950s that resembles machine language but substitutes mnemonics for numeric codes. ( example: load, sum). It is considered a second-generation language because while it is not a microprocessor's native language, an assembly language programmer must still understand the microprocessor's unique architecture (such as its registers and instructions). These simple instructions are then assembled directly into machine code. The assembly code can also be abstracted to another layer in a similar manner as machine code is abstracted into assembly code. Difficult to read, debug and learn and costly in term of programmers time Example:
85

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Example: Assembly Language


This assembler program changes the size of the computer cursor. 1. use any editor program to create the source file. Type the following lines:
; use ; to put comments in the assembler program .MODEL SMALL ; memory model .STACK ; memory space for program instructions in the stack .CODE ; the following lines are program instructions mov ah,1h ; moves the value 1h to register ah mov cx,07h ;moves the value 07h to register cx int 10h ;10h interruption mov ah,4ch ;moves the value 4 ch to register ah int 21h ;21h interruption END ; finishes the program code

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Example: Assembly Language


2. Save the file in ASCII format with the following name: examp1.asm 3. Use the TASM program to build the object program. Example: C:\>tasm exam1.asm
Turbo Assembler Version 2.0 Copyright (c) 1988, 1990 Borland International Assembling file: exam1.asm Error messages: None Warning messages: None Passes: 1 Remaining memory: 471k

The TASM can only create programs in .OBJ format, which are not executable by themselves, but rather it is necessary to have a linker which generates the executable code.

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Example: Assembly Language


4. Use the TLINK program to build the executable program example:
C:\>tlink exam1.obj
Turbo Link Version 3.0 Copyright (c) 1987, 1990 Borland International

C:\> Where exam1.obj is the name of the intermediate program, .OBJ. This generates a file directly with the name of the intermediate program and the .EXE extension.

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Example: Assembly Language


5. Execute the executable program
C:\>exam1[enter] Remember, this assembler program changes the size of the cursor.

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High-level Programming languages


A programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. It may use natural language elements, be easier to use, or be more portable across platforms. Such languages hide the details of CPU operations such as memory access models and management of scope. It makes the language user-friendly. Can be divided into:
3rd Generation language 4th Generation language

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rd 3

Generation Language

Specify instructions as brief statements that are more like natural language than assembly language. Easier to write and understand in comparison of assembly language. More user friendly Example: FORTRAN, COBOL,BASIC, Pascal Lisp and C
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Example: BASIC (source code)


Syntax: PROGRAM Hello ! Example Print "Hello World" ! Hello world will be printed on the screen END
Semantics: Hello World =============================================================== PROGRAM product ! Another example LET m = 2 LET a = 4 LET force = m*a PRINT force 10/28/2013 END ! mass in kilograms ! acceleration in mks units ! force in Newtons
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Example: C++ Language


int main () { cout << " Hello World!"; return 0; }
// prints Hello World!

=============================================
int main () = the beginning of the definition of the main function (all C++ programs start their execution). { = opening the function cout << "Hello World!"; = This line is a C++ statement/expression } = closing the function // = comments return 0; = The return statement causes the main function to finish.

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Example: COBOL Language


Syntax: DISPLAY "Good Morning". STOP RUN Semantics: Good Morning

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th 4

generation Languages

A programming language that can be employed directly by end user or less skilled programmers to develop computer applications more rapidly than conventional programming languages (nonprocedural or less). Use for the development of commercial business software Seven categories of 4th generation languages
Query languages Report generators Graphics languages Application generators Very high level programming languages Application software packages PC tools

E.g. LINC (Logic and Information Network Compiler), Oracle Express 4GL.
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Very High-level Programming languages


A programming language with a very high level of abstraction, used primarily as a professional programmer productivity tool. Very high-level programming languages are usually limited to a very specific application, purpose, or type of task. For this reason, very high-level programming languages are often referred to as goal-oriented programming languages. Example: 5th Generation Language

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th 5

Generation Languages

A programming language based around solving problems using constraints given to the program, rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer. Used mainly in artificial intelligence research. E.g. Prolog, OPS5 (Official Production System), and Mercury
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Application software

Also known as an application, is computer software designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Application software that we will learn in this class

Word Processor (Microsoft Word) Electronic Spreadsheets (Microsoft Excel) Database (Microsoft Access) Graphic presentation Presentation (Microsoft Power Point) 10/28/2013 STID 1103

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Word Processor

A computer application used for the production and manipulating (including composition (creating), editing, formatting, deleting, saving and possibly printing) of any sort of printable material (e.g. memo, letters, report, etc.) Advantages (in comparison with type writer)
Save time and efficient to create documents More flexible in term of deleting, and editing the content

Used in
Business Personal Educationetc

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Electronic spreadsheet

A computer application that simulates a paper, accounting worksheet, which manipulates lines and numbers and to do calculation and is used to create charts, graph and table. It displays multiple cells that together make up a grid consisting of rows and columns, each cell containing alphanumeric text, numeric values or formula. A formula defines how the content of that cell is to be calculated from the contents of any other cell (or combination of cells) each time any cell is updated. Spreadsheets are frequently used for financial information because of their ability to re-calculate the entire sheet automatically after a change to a single cell is made.
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Database

Consists of an organized collection of related data for one or more uses, typically in digital form. Shared collection of logically related data (and a description of this data), designed to meet the information needs of an organization Advantages: Data consistency More information from the same amount of data Sharing of data Improved data integrity Improved security Enforcement of standards Economy of scale
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Graphic Presentation
A computer program that allows users to compose and edit graphics images and pictures interactively on a computer and save them in one of many popular vector graphics formats, such as EPS, PDF, WMF, SVG, or VML . Animation Example: Corel Draw, Photoshop.

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Middleware

Computer software that connects software components or applications. Controls and co-ordinates distributed systems which includes web servers, application servers, and similar tools that support application development and delivery. Examples include EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) software, telecommunications software, transaction monitors, and messaging-and-queueing software.
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Middleware

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Testware
Software for testing hardware or a software package. Example use of testware:

Web testing, environment & compatibility testing, performance testing Functional testing, scalability testing, test automation, load and stress testing
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IT in Management
1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

6.
7.

Latest in cost efficiency- including labor cost, transportation, communication Increment in business performance virtual marketing and globalization, Sharing of information Global marketing- E-commerce, E-business Increment in customer satisfaction Increment in share market Low margin cost Increment in quality- products and services
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The Importance of Computer

Efficiency and effectiveness in information management Business management Education purposes Borderless world Military Entertainment Finance and banking Town planning Publication Graphic and animation
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The Problems of Computer

Computer crime Hackers Illegal downloading Hard to manage Computer broke down Gap between humans Less communication among people Secluded in their rooms Privacy and confidentiality Personal information can be revealed easily
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Review

Introduction
IT & ICT

Computer Hardware Software Application Operating System Programming Languages Windows Technology
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