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Water Pollution

Some of the stuff that it dissolves / suspends is good for us

Others, not so good

Can you name 5 things that dissolve in water?


Know of any 2 that can be called pollutants those dangerous to life ?

If we drink polluted water, we can get sick

Figure out some pollutants

C
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T
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SK
_______
_______
Clue: toothpaste

GH
Sounds like

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________ _____ _____

Led Zeppelin Deep Purple Black Sabbath Iron Maiden

Figure out some pollutants

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T
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SK
ARSENIC
NITRATE
Clue: toothpaste

GH
Sounds like

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FLUORIDE HEAVY METAL

Led Zeppelin Deep Purple Black Sabbath Iron Maiden

How do we know that water is polluted?


Sometimes polluted water changes colour..but not always

Sometimes it tastes different ..but not always

Sometimes it stinksbut not always

How do we know that water is polluted?

Water pollution can be confirmed only by testing it in a lab

Sources of water pollution are generally grouped into two categories


Non-point source of pollution: Contamination gathered by water over a large area.

Point-source of pollution: Contaminants enter a waterway at a discrete point

Water can get polluted naturally

When water seeps into the ground, it absorbs different substances depending on the type of soil and rock that it flows through.

Water can get polluted naturally

Some of these substances (arsenic, iron, fluoride, etc.) can be harmful to our health.

Natural pollution is a non-point source of pollution

Arsenic

In groundwater

Fluoride
In groundwater

Natural pollution can introduce chemicals that collect in our bodies. Over time this can cause chronic problems and even life threatening diseases.

Does Man Pollute Water?


This is what a young person like you has to say:
If you had a bottle of life-preserving fluid on which your life depended, would you pour into it all your sewage and rubbish, along with any other poisonous chemicals you could find? And yet, that is exactly what we are doing to our water supply all over the world.

The various ways in which man pollutes water


Untreated or inadequately treated municipal sewage
An example of Point source of pollution

Yamuna, when it leaves Delhi, resembles a sewer full of the citys wastes. A few hundred kms downstream is Agra, where this sewer is the main municipal drinking water source.

YUCK!!
eutrophication

The various ways in which man pollutes water


Untreated or inadequately treated municipal sewage
An example of Point source of pollution

Untreated sewage seeps in and contaminates groundwater aquifers


Such aquifers show a higher than acceptable level of nitrate content

Reaches ground water bodies

The various ways in which man pollutes water

Dumping garbage in surface water bodies

When garbage is dumped in a landfill, toxic chemicals leach into the soil and groundwater.

The various ways in which man pollutes water

Over 10 million people bathe in the Ganga daily!


Washing and bathing introduces phosphates and other chemicals into water

The various ways in which man pollutes water


Agriculture
An example of Non- Point source of pollution

dissolve in irrigation water or rainwater.

They contaminate surface water and groundwater with pollutants like

nitrates, phosphates, and non degradable synthetic organic pollutants.

Agriculture is a major source of groundwater contamination.

The various ways in which man pollutes water

Industry
An example of Point source of pollution

Agro industries (sugar, food processing, pulp and paper, distilleries) their wastes have high concentration of dissolved organic matter. Chemical Industries If their wastes are not treated properly, the chemicals can destroy our soil and water resources. Petroleum refining water used in the process needs to be separated from all the oil before releasing it into naturebut is that done?
Minamata disease

The various ways in which man pollutes water

Industry
An example of Point source of pollution

Thermal power plants water is needed to cool the process. The water gets hot and when its released into a larger water body, it upsets the ecology by modifying the delicate temperature balance. This is called Thermal pollution

Effluent treatment plants


Liquid wastes from an industry are treated in effluent treatment plants. Large industries have in-house effluent treatment plants. Its expensive for small industries to have such plants of their own. In some industrial estates, a group of small industries have a common effluent treatment plant.

A RE-CAP
Water can be polluted naturally Water can be polluted by man Sewage in our water bodies Garbage dumps Washing and bathing Pesticides and fertilizers Industries

Hangman
Divide the class into 5 teams Draw as many dashes as in the name of a water pollutant or a pollution cause. Team A starts. They guess a letter. The teacher puts in the letter at the correct place, if it is there in that name. Else, the letter is written down on one side. A maximum of 10 wrong guesses are allowed. The team gets as many points as letters on the side (maximum of 10). The team with the lowest number of points wins.

Eutrophication (pronounced as you-tro-fi-kay-shun)


When wastes with high organic content (such as sewage wastes) are dumped into a water body like a lake or pond, eutrophication can occur, killing all life in the water body.

Organic wastes are rich in nutrients (nitrates and phosphates)

They stimulate excessive plant growth especially weedy species

Eutrophication
On dying, the plants further add to the organic waste in water. Microorganisms that decompose the organic material in water use up a lot of dissolved oxygen.

This depletes the available oxygen in the water and upsets the ecological balance, since fish and other life forms perish without adequate oxygen.
Eventually all the oxygen is used up.

Eutrophication
Anaerobic organisms then attack the organic wastes, releasing gases such as methane and hydrogen sulphide. The result is a foul smelling, waste filled body of water, quite like many of the lakes in India. These water bodies are also natural groundwater recharge systems and their contamination also leads to groundwater pollution.

Minamata disease
Industrial wastewater from the Chisso corporation (manufacturing fertilizers and other chemicals) was released into the Minamata Bay in Japan. The waste water was rich in methyl mercury.

Mercury content in shellfish in that region increased.


People ate the shellfish and the cats ate the leftovers.

Strange things started to happen cats had convulsions and died, crows fell from the sky, dead fish floated. Young children had convulsions and difficulty in walking and speaking. People died. Investigation showed organic mercury poisoning affecting the nervous system. First discovered in 1956. Lawsuits and claims continue till today.