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PROCESS

INSTRUMENTATION

A Presentation on Level measurement

Presented to: Madhusudhan Sir

Presented By: Nitish.G.R

LEVEL MEASUREMENT

Level measurement is defined as the determination of position of an interface between the two media. These media may be solids, fluids or the combination of solid and fluid. Many methods are available for the measurement of level with its own advantages and disadvantages

IMPORTANCE OF LEVEL MEASUREMENT

The measurement of level is of great importance in the industrial field, particularly when control is also necessary. Most of the industrial process require the amount of material in a tank or closed vessels. In many situations it is not possible to view the interior of equipments directly.

LEVEL MEASURING SENSORS

Level measuring sensors detect the level of substances that flow, including liquids, slurries, granular materials, and powders. The substance whose level to be measured can be
Inside a container or in its natural form (e.g. a river or a lake). In open tank or closed tank

CLASSIFICATION OF LEVEL MEASURING SYSTEMS


Liquid or Solid Level Measurement Point or Continuous Level Measurement * Electromechanical or Electromagnetic Level Measurement Contacting or Non-Contacting Level Measurement

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN LEVEL MEASURING SENSOR SELECTION


Density and viscosity Chemical composition Ambient temperature Process temperature Process pressure Regulated environment Process agitation

POINT/SWITCH LEVEL MEASUREMENT AND DETECTION SYSTEMS


Point level measurement sensors are used to mark a single discrete liquid heighta preset level condition. They are:

Floats Displacers Conductivity Probes Vibrating fork Resonance

FLOATS

A float operated liquid level control operates on the basic buoyancy principle, which states, "a body (float) immersed in a liquid is buoyed upward by a force equal to the weight of the displaced liquid". As a result, floats ride on the liquid surface partially submerged and move the same distance the liquid level moves.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES:

The Advantages of this method are that it is relatively simple, suitable for various products, and very accurate.
The Disadvantages are that it requires a certain amount of mechanical equipment, especially in pressure vessels.

DISPLACERS

DISPLACERS

Displacer level sensors are force balance devices in accordance with Archimedes' principle which states that the buoyant force acting on an object equals the weight of the fluid displaced.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES:

The obvious Advantage of this method is that the absolute level does not change.
The Disadvantages are that it is dependent on relative density and requires a signicant amount of mechanical equipment. Cost of installation for displacers is high and many refineries are now replacing them due to the inaccuracies experienced under process density changes especially on interface duties.

CONDUCTIVITY PROBES

The principle for this form of level measurement is that the presence of a product will cause a change in the resistance between two conductors.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES:

The Advantages of this method are simple, inexpensive and suitable for dual or multiple point control.

The Disadvantages are probe cannot become contaminated with grease or other deposits and has limited suitability for products of varying conductivity.

VIBRATING FORKS RESONANCE

Frequency changes which shift tuning fork Piezo crystal which oscillates forks and Solution causes a reduction in resonant frequency Second crystal detects.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES:


Advantages: No moving parts, thus no maintenance. Can be mounted in any position. Small and can be mounted in a 1-in or smaller mounting boss.

Disadvantages: They are prone to material buildup between the tines. Build up material can cause inaccurate reading.

CONTINUOUS LEVEL MEASUREMENT AND DETECTION SYSTEMS

Continuous level sensors are more sophisticated and can provide level monitoring of an entire system.
They include;
Radar Systems Ultrasonic Systems RTD Magnetostrictive

RADAR

It is a Continuous level measurement system Extremely short microwave impulses with low emitted power in the 6.3 GHz frequency range are emitted by the antenna system to the measured product, reflected by the product surface and received again by the antenna system. Guided wave radar is used to measure the level of bulk solids and powders. Micro-pulses at the speed of light are transmitted and reach the material surface and reflect back to the GWR. Time is calculated and it is converted into level of the solid surface.

ADVANTAGES:
Response is instantaneous. Reading is not affected by the dust. Accuracy is very high. It is used to measure the level up to 115 feet. Can be used for high temperature and high pressure. Installation is very easy.

DISADVANTAGES:

Purchasing cost is high. Pulses can be damaged by the large particles.

Not used for sanitary applications.

ULTRASONIC LEVEL MEASUREMENT

Ultrasonic level measurement technique is used to measure the level of solid without contacting the solid.

Ultrasonic level transmitter sends sound waves into the vessel where solid is placed and is reflected back to the ultrasonic level transmitter. Ultrasonic transmitters work on the principle of sending a sound wave from a peizo electric transducer to the contents of the vessel. Software enhances the signal.

The device measures the length of time it takes for the reflected sound wave to return to the transducer.

ADVANTAGES :

It is non-contact sensor.

It compensates the temperature changes automatically.


Can be used for temperature less than 3000F.

It can be used for less than 260 feet.


Response time is less.

Installation is easy.

DISADVANTAGES:

It is used for pressure less than 40psi. Reading is changed due to the change in the angle of repose. It is not suitable for light weight material due to the absorbing of sound waves signal.

Heavy dust affects the performance.


Uneven shape of solids affects the performance.

TIME-DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY TDR


The principle of this technology is to launch an extremely short microwave impulse on a waveguide, which can be a cable or rod. This waveguide, or probe, contains the signal in a close area around the cable or rod.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES:

The Advantages of TDR level measurements are disregard of the presence of vapors, steam, dust, gas layers, buildup, temperature changes, pressure changes, acoustic noise, changing density of the material to be measured, changing dielectric constant of the material to be measured, and changing conductivity of the material to be measured. Some Disadvantages of this measuring system are that it does come in contact with the process and is an intrusive form of measurement. The system is not suitable for highly agitated liquids.

MAGNETOSTRICTIVE

A magnetostrictive system consists of a magnetostrictive wire in a probe and a donutshaped oat containing a permanent magnet. The oat is the only moving part and travels up and down the probe.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES:

Advantages are high accuracy and independence from material characteristics such as conductivity and dielectric constants. Disadvantages are limitations to relatively clean liquids and anything that would cause the oat to hang up on the probe.

OTHERS METHODS FOR LEVEL MEASUREMENT


Dip Stick Weight and cable Laser. Thru wave radar Load cells. Strain gauges

DIP STICK

Simple and cheap Can be used with any wet material and not affected by density. Can not be used with pressurized tanks

Visual indication only (electronic versions are available)

WEIGHT AND CABLE LEVEL SENSOR

WEIGHT AND CABLE LEVEL SENSOR

Weight and cable level sensors have been used for many years to measure the level of the solids in storage vessels.
The instrument lowers a weight on the cable and touches the solid surface and rises to the sensor.

The distance it travels is measured and converted into level of the solid.

ADVANTAGES:
For high temperature system. It is very easy to install. Less cost. It is not affected by the angle of repose. It can be used for dusty particles. Not affected by the process condition. It can be used to measure the level up to 150 feet.

DISADVANTAGES:
Response time is high. For dusty application regular maintenance is required. It is used for pressure less than 30psi. Accuracy is moderate for greater than 30 feet. It has moving parts so parts may wear and require maintenance.

LASER LEVEL SYSTEM

It is used to measure the level for very difficult applications.


Laser is a narrow beam that does not scatter on reflection. It is used for long ranges.

ADVANTAGES:
No calibration is required. It can measure level up to 250 feet. Reading is not affected by the angle of repose. No effect of process conditions (temperature, pressure). Installation is easy. Response is instantaneous. High accuracy.

DISADVANTAGES:

Purchasing cost is very high.


It is not suitable for high dust application

THRU-AIR RADAR SENSOR

It operates on the same principle of GWR (Guided Wave radar) sensor. But it more desirable due to following advantages over GWR. It is non-intrusive. It can operate at higher temperature and pressure than guided wave radar level sensor. It is used to measure the level up to 130feet. Response is instantaneous than GWR

DISADVANTAGES:

It is used for those type of materials having dielectric constant greater than 1.8. Cleaning is required for dusty applications. Purchasing cost is high. Proper installation and set up is required.

LOAD CELLS

Load cells operate on the principle that when loads are applied on them than they change their resistance, capacitance and inductance. But mostly are designed to change their resistance.

ADVANTAGES:
It is not intrusive system. Can be used for extreme conditions. Un-affected by the dust. It can be used for dangerous materials. Highly accurate. Ranges from 100 lbs to 1,000,000 lbs.

DISADVANTAGES:

Purchasing cost is high.


Calibration is required. Require extra attention to get accuracy.

THANK YOU