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TERRORIST NEGOTIATIONS

The terrorist group is one of the most widely publicized group but the least understood of our tine. It is generally believed that the political terrorist, including international terrorist and the use of proxies are of recent origin that are both very dreadful and effective weapons, and that society has become so vulnerable to them and that government can no longer resist a handful of determined people.

DEFINITION OF TERRORIST NEGOTIATION It is a complicated crisis intervention process that comprises a system of interrelated conditions, activities, and behaviors needed to resolve a highly volatile terrorist incident.

THINGS TO CONSIDER IN NEGOTIATING WITH THE TERRORIST

1. Their mission has been well planned.


2. There is one leader of the group and he is probably the spokesman.

3. Only mid-level personnel should negotiate with terrorists.

4. The terrorist have a great deal of information about their stronghold; they normally place a defensive perimeter of personnel or explosive around it.

5. Attempts to convince the terrorist that their point has been taken, their demands heard, and any further injuries will only discredit them in the eyes of the public.

DIFFICULTIES IN DEALING WITH TERRORIST HOSTAGE-TAKERS

1. Terrorist are usually highly-trained combatants who have been politically and ideologically indoctrinated.

2. They act as part of a group; their behavior will be pressured by group dynamics.
3. Most of them receive training in the techniques that will be used against them in the country chosen for the attack.

4. Because of advance made by security forces around the world, it is not unusual for one member of the terrorist group to be accountable for keeping the terrorist from communicating with authorities on track. 5. Unless proper interception procedure are used, the terrorist themselves may be controlled by an outside entity through radio. Telephone or media transmission.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES IN NEGOTIATING WITH TERRORISTS

1. It is cynical to pretend that negotiations with terrorist engaged in this particularly offensive type of criminal behavior are welcomed for their own sake.

2. On the contrary, bargaining under these odious circumstances goes against all natural inclinations as well as the sensibilities of both public and private entities.

PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS IN NEGOTIATING WITH TERRORIST

1. The growing vulnerability of society, coupled with extraordinary advances in technology offer an individual a real prospect to challenge the governments monopoly on the use of force.

2. The terrorist hostage-taking drama is capable of producing acute conflicts of principles that are not easy to resolve.

3. Terrorist are able to place the state in the inconvenient position of declaring a value on human life.

4. By placing human life in jeopardy the hostage-takers set up a bargaining position.

CONSIDERATIONS IN NEGOTIATING WITH TERRORISTS

1. Only a society that holds human life to be of no account can maintain, at all costs, a truly inflexible hard line policy of the negotiations.

2. When accepting the importance of negotiations, it is a must to devise tactics and techniques that will ensure the safety of the hostage, and preserve the integrity of the state.

TACTICS FOR DEALING WITH TERRORISTS

1. Terrorist do not worry about their personality description, and by being flexible, modify their behavior through manipulation. If they dont respond satisfactorily to one proposal, try another.

2. The negotiator is not, and above all, should not be, bent on understanding the terrorist psychologically.

NEGOTIATING REQUIREMENT WITH TERRORISTS

1. CONTROL The control component represent a condition whereby there is management of law enforcement resources and control of all activities, responses and behaviors of persons at, or near, the target location. It includes the following activities:

A) Absolute perpetrator.

containment

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B) Evacuation and isolation of the target area.


C) Deployment of SWAT team responsible for providing specialized and highly-skilled techniques when required.

D) Prepare intelligence-gathering, crime scene management and case preparation. E) Timely, effective and continuous communication with the terrorists. F) Effective command and control activities for coordination and proper decision-making.

2. ANXIETY Represents a condition of anxiety on the part of terrorist and provision are made by the authorities for the management of that anxiety. Anxiety includes the following behaviors and conditions:

A) The difference between fear and anxiety is that a fear results when the object of a threat is known; anxiety results when the object of a threat is unknown.

B) The presence of fear on the part of the terrorists through awareness that there is a likelihood of the use of force by the authorities.

C) The presence of frustration caused by conflicting or blocked goal attainment by the terrorists.

D) The encouragement of the ventilation of feelings by authorities as a non-violent means on venting both fear and anxiety.

3. TIME Represent a condition where there is a passage of time and involves the following activities and behaviors: A) Control of response and activities of persons at or near the target location. B) Problem-solving on both the terrorist and the government through negotiators.

4. COMMUNICATIONS Represents a condition of dialogue that enhances the negotiating effort enables the attainment of the negotiating goal. This condition involves following behavior: the

A) ATTENDING Demonstration of the negotiators attention, interest and concern for the terrorist by listening in conjunction with verbal and non-verbal communication. B) PARAPHRASING This is a statement that mirrors the terrorist`s statements in exact or similar wording.

C) REFLECTION OF FEELINGS These are statement made by the negotiator that express the essence of the terrorist`s feeling, either expressed or implied. D) PROBING The negotiator`s responses that direct the terrorist`s attention inward in order to examine the situation or a specific issue in greater depth.

E) SUMMARIZING A brief review by the negotiator of the main points discussed about an issue, demand, threat or ultimatum. F) ASSOCIATION The expression of the negotiator`s feelings, opinions, attitudes and experience for the benefit of the terrorist.

G) INTERPRETING A presentation to the terrorist of an alternative way of looking at the situation or a specific issue. H) CONFRONTATION A negotiator`s statement or question which points out contradictions on the part of the terrorist or that which induces the terrorist to face an issue he is avoiding.

5. DEPENDENCY Represent a condition wherein the terrorist develops a reliance on the negotiator.

This condition involves the following:

A) The isolation of the terrorist from all external stimuli.

B) The presence of anxiety caused by fear and frustration.

C) Problems-solving successes on the part of the terrorist.

6. TRUST Represent a condition where in redirection of feeling between the terrorist and the negotiator occurs so that a relationship of confidence can be developed. This condition following: involves the

A) The passage of time B) The presence of realistic communication between terrorist and negotiator. C) The ability of the negotiator to influence the opinion of others.

D) A belief or commitment to trust on the part of the terrorist.

E) Transference of feeling or identification between terrorist and negotiator.

7. PROBLEM-SOLVING Represent a condition where the attainment of acceptable goals in encouraged.

This condition consists of the following:

A) A focus on the problem apparently being experienced by the terrorist. B) The collection and evaluation of information relative to the apparent problem. C) The selection implementation of a choice. and

NEGOTIATING STAGES WITH TERRORISTS

1. INTRODUCTORY STAGE This stage represents behavior on the part of the negotiating participants. The purpose is to gain attention, develop trust and deal with anxiety.

2. INFORMATION-GATHERING STAGE This stage represents behavior on the part of the negotiating participants who purpose is to inquire, to listen, and to offer feedback on the situation.

3. PROBLEM-SOLVING STAGE This stage represents the behavior of the negotiating participants whose purpose is to identify and to evaluate choices to resolve the incident. 4. DECISIONS AND COMMITMENT STAGE This stage represents the behavior of the negotiating participant whose purpose is to select courses of action and to implement options

PARAMETERS FOR SELECTING A NEGOTIATOR

1. He should be a mid-level member of a law enforcement agency who is a volunteer and in excellent mental and physical condition. 2. He should possess emotional maturity that will allow him to accept abuse, ridicule and insult without reacting emotionally. 3. He must be an officer who understands his role as police negotiator.

4. He should be a good listener and must have excellent interviewing skills. 5. He should be a credible person. 6. He should have the ability to use logical arguments to convince other that his viewpoint is reasonable. 7. He should be well-read and wellversed in many areas critical to communicating with terrorist.

8. He should be able to communicate with persons from all levels. 9. He should appear sympathetic and understanding to win trust and must avoid judging or condemning the other person. 10. He should have the ability to cope with uncertainty and willing to accept responsibility. 11. He should have a total commitment to the negotiation concept. 12. He should have practical intelligence,

13. He should understand that if negotiations are not progressing and lives are in imminent danger, he may have to assist in supporting an assault or some other action to rescue the hostages. 14. He should be mature in appearance and voice quality. 15. He should have a clear, intelligent speaking voice that is neither hoarse nor high-pitched. 16. He should have quick mind, a vivid imagination and sharp memory.

CONSIDERATIONS FOR SELECTING A NEGOTIATOR 1. Someone who speaks a foreign language 2. Someone who is fluent is sign language 3. Someone who is knowledgeable about various religions 4. Someone who is a member of a certain ethic racial group

RULES AND COMPOSITION OF THE NEGOTIATING TEAM

1. Negotiating Team Coordinator The negotiating team coordinator is the team`s supervisory officer and is responsible for the following: A. directs supervision of team members during the incident B. select and trains team members C. organizes and schedules on-going training

D. documents and evaluates the team`s activity during terrorist operations


E. liaises with in-scene commander during an operation F. direct post-operation interviews of hostages and terrorist by team members

2. Primary Negotiator The role of primary negotiator is that of the team member who is assigned to directly communicate with the terrorist and is responsible for the following actions: A) Establish direct and effective communication with the terrorists B) Be prepared to utilized any method available to communicate with the terrorists

C) Maintain communication with the coach during the incident


D) Be prepared to support other component of the Conflict Management Team when requested regardless of any personal feeling toward the terrorists

3. Coach This team member is positioned near the primary negotiator and is responsible for the following actions:

A) Monitors all communications between the primary negotiator and the terrorists B) Interacts with the primary negotiator by offering ideas, tactics and to pursue new intelligence

C) Record pertinent parts of the negotiations and be prepared to make certain recommendations to the on-scene commander D) He should be ready to step in and assume the role of primary negotiator if necessary E) He should be ready to offer postoperation empathy to help the primary negotiator stabilize himself before going home

4. Chronographer The chronographer positions himself near the on-scene commander and records all pertinent activity on a Chronographer`s Log Report Form and is responsible for the following: A) To be in a position to listen to all the ground commander`s decisions and to monitor radio frequencies B) To record all pertinent information in a timely and understandable fashion

C) All notations should be documented in accordance with time and activity D) He should be familiar with the log and should be able to instantly go to a specific activity for clarification E) He should have the best understanding of event and as such should always be included in briefings, brainstorming sessions, etc. F) He should assist any component of the Conflict Management Team in its postoperation documentation of events

5. Messenger This role is important as it insulates the negotiator from spur-ofthe-moment recommendation of the on-scene commander or other ill-timed interference into the negotiations.
A) he should be inside the negotiation room unless otherwise ordered B) he should carry written communications between the negotiator and the on-scene commander

6. Intelligence Officers There should be three intelligence officers responsible for providing the Conflict Management Team components with any information.

1. He should be assigned to coordinate


the collection, gathering, analyzing, recording, disseminating and keeping of all information coming from all sources of the three major categories:

THE THREE MAJOR CATEGORIES ARE: A) the terrorist B) the hostage C) the target location

2. He should be responsible for the timely and effective use of all report forms needed to systematically document the information obtained 3. He should ensure that all incoming information passes each station to prevent misplacement 4. He should attend all briefings, brainstorming sessions, etc. 5. He should be a part of the negotiating team

REQUIREMENT FOR AN EFFICIENT ANTITERRORISM STRATEGY

Consensus must be reached that the requirements for an efficient anti-terrorism strategy should be beyond passive defensive to consider means of active prevention, presemption, and retaliation.(summarize read what is not in-code ^_^)

THAT ALL!!!
THANK YOU ^___^

Prepared by:
Tepace, Jomari Matias, Edmar Magno, Reymond Daguman, Judelemuel