(434.1 nm) H
o
(410.2 nm) 

.

\

=
2 2
1
2
1 1
n
R
H
\

=
2
1
1
1
n
R
H


.

\

=
2 2
1
3
1 1
n
R
H


.

\

=
2 2
1
4
1 1
n
R
H
t 2
h
=
... , 3 , 2 , 1 = = n n vr m
e
Apply Newtons 2
nd
law to the electron, the electric
force exerted on the electron must be equal to the
product of mass and its centripetal acceleration (a
c
=v
2
/r)
(2)
r
v m
a m F
r
e k
e
c e
e
2
2
2
= = =
r
e k v m
K
e e
2 2
2 2
= =
k
e
= Coulomb constant
2 2 9
0
/ . 10 99 . 8
4
1
C m N k
e
= =
tc
r
e k
E
r
e k
r
e k
U K E
e
e e
2
2
2
2 2
=
= + =
The total energy of the Hatom is
= =
2
2 2
2 2
2
r m
e k
r m
n
v
e
e
e
,.... 3 , 2 , 1
2
2 2
= = n
e k m
n
r
e e
n
Bohr radius
(n = 1)
+e
e
4a
o
a
o
9a
o
Negative energy indicates bound electronproton system.
From eq(1) and (2)
n vr m
e
=
r
e k v m
e e
2 2
2 2
=
r
n
= n
2
a
o
Energy quantization
Substitute r
n
= n
2
a
o
in the total energy equation


.

\

= =
2
2 2
1
2 2 n a
e k
r
e k
E
o
e e
n
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
. . . , 3 , 2 , 1
606 . 13
2
= = n eV
n
E
n
E
1
= 13.606 eV
2
1
n
E
E
n
=
Ionization energy = minimum energy required to ionize
the atom in its ground state
= 13.6 eV for Hatom
From the equation E
i
E
f
= hf
Frequency of the photon emitted during transition of the
atom from state i to state f is


.

\

=
=
2 2
2
1 1
2
i f o
e
f i
n n h a
e k
h
E E
f
Use c = f


.

\

=
2 2
1 1 1
i f
H
n n
R


.

\

= =
2 2
2
1 1
2
1
i f o
e
n n c h a
e k
c
f
c h a
e k
R
o
e
H
2
2
=
R
H
= 1.097 x 10
7
/m
Extension of Bohrs theory to other oneelectron
atoms  Nuclear charge = + Z e
Radius
Energy
( )
Z
a
n r
o
n
2
=
. . . , 3 , 2 , 1
2
2
2 2
=


.

\

= n
n
Z
a
e k
E
o
e
n
Limitations of Bohrs theory:
When spectroscopic techniques improved, it was
found that many of the lines in the Hspectrum
were not single lines but closely spaced groups of
lines. The lines appear split when the Hvapour was
kept in magnetic field.
Bohrs correspondence principle:
Quantum physics agrees with classical physics
when the difference between quantized levels
becomes vanishingly small.
PROBLEMS
Formulae:
. . . , 3 , 2 , 1
2
2
2 2
=


.

\

= n
n
Z
a
e k
E
o
e
n


.

\

=
2 2
1 1 1
i f
H
n n
R
pm n a n r
n
9 . 52
2
0
2
= =
r m
e k
v
e
e
2
2
=
r
e k
E
e
2
2
=
r
e k
r U
e
2
) ( =
k
e
= 8.99 x 10
9
N.m
2
/C
2
is Coulomb constant
R
H
= 1.097 x 10
7
/m
0
4
1
tc
=
e
k where
[42.1 P1] (a) What value of n is associated with the
94.96nm spectral line in the Lyman series of
Hydrogen ? (b) Could this wavelength be associated
with the Paschen or Balmer series ?
SOLUTION:
(a)Lyman Series


.

\

=
2
1
1
1
n
R
H


.

\

=
2
7
9
1
1 10 097 . 1
10 96 . 94
1
n
5 = n
(b) Paschen Series


.

\

=
2 2
1
3
1 1
n
R
H


.

\

=
2
7
1
9
1
10 097 . 1
1
n
The shortest wavelength for this series corresponds to n =
for ionization. For n = , gives = 820 nm. This is larger than
94.96 nm, so this wavelength cannot be associated with the
Paschen series
Balmer Series


.

\

=
2 2
1
2
1 1
n
R
H


.

\

=
2
7
1
4
1
10 097 . 1
1
n
with n = for ionization, = 365 nm. Once again the shorter;
given wavelength cannot be associated with the Balmer
series
[SP 42.1] Spectral lines from the star Puppis :
Some mysterious lines in 1896 in the emission
spectrum of the star Puppis fit the empirical
equation





.

\


.

\



.

\

=
2 2
2
1
2
1 1
i f
H
n n
R
\

= n
n
Z
a
e k
E
o
e
n


.

\

=
2
2
4
2 n a
e k
E
o
e
n


.

\

=
=
2 2
2
4 4
2
i f o
e
f i
n n h a
e k
h
E E
f
( ) ( )


.

\

=
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
2
i f
o
e
n n
h a
e k
f
( ) ( )


.

\

= =
2 2
2
1
2
1 1
i f
H
n n
R
c
f
c h a
e k
R where
o
e
H
2
2
=
[SP 42.2] (A) The electron in a Hatom makes a transition
from the n=2 energy level to the ground level (n=1). Find
the wavelength and the frequency of the emitted photon.
(B) In interstellar space highly excited hydrogen atoms
called Rydberg atoms have been observed. Find the
wavelength to which radioastronomers must tune to detect
signals from electrons dropping from n=273 level to n=272.
(C) What is the radius of the electron orbit for a Rydberg
atom for which n=273 ?
(D) How fast is the electron moving in a Rydberg atom for
which n=273?
(E) What is the wavelength of the radiation from the
Rydberg atom in part (B) if treated classically ?
SOLUTION(A)


.

\

=
2 2
1 1 1
i f
H
n n
R


.

\

=
2 2
2
1
1
1 1
H
R
4
3
H
R
=
H
R 3
4
=
) ( 5 . 121 10 215 . 1
7
t ultraviole nm m = =
Hz
c
f Frequency
15
10 47 . 2 = =
SOLUTION(B)


.

\

=
2 2
1 1 1
i f
H
n n
R


.

\

=
2 2
273
1
272
1 1
H
R
m 992 . 0 =
SOLUTION(C)
r
n
= n
2
a
o
= 273
2
x(0.0529nm)
r
273
= 3.94m
pm
e k m
a
e e
o
9 . 52
2
2
= =
SOLUTION(D)
SOLUTION(E)
We have speed v and radius r from (C) and (D)
r
v
T
f
t 2
1
= =
r m
e k
v
e
e
2
2
=
) 10 94 . 3 )( 10 11 . 9 (
) 10 60 . 1 )( 10 99 . 8 (
6 31
2 19 9
= v
r m
e k
v
e
e
2
=
s m v / 10 01 . 8
3
=
Hz x
r
v
T
f
8
10 24 . 3
2
1
= = =
t
m
f
c
926 . 0 = =
r
T
r v
t
e
2
= =
[42.2 P3] According to classical physics, a charge e
moving with an acceleration a radiates at a rate
(a) Show that an electron in a classical hydrogen
atom spirals into the nucleus at a rate
(b) Find the time interval over which the electron
will reach r = 0, starting from r
o
= 2 x 10
10
m.
3
2 2
6
1
c
a e
dt
dE
o
tc
=
3 2 2 2 2
4
12 c m r
e
dt
dr
e o
c t
=
SOL: A The total energy is given by,
3 2 2 2 2
4
12
Therefore
c m r
e
dt
dr
e o
c t
=
r
e k
E
e
2
2
=
0
4
1
tc
=
e
k where
r
e
E
o
tc 8
2
=
The centripetal acceleration a is given by


.

\

=
8
6
1
2
2
3
2 2
e
r
c
a e
dt
dr
o
o
tc
tc
3
2 2
2
2
6
1
8 c
a e
dt
dr
r
e
dt
dE
o o
tc tc
= =
3
2 2
6
8
c
a r
dt
dr
=
r m
e k
v
e
e
2
2
=
SOL:B
3 2
e
2 2
o
2
4
c m r 12
e
dt
dr
c t
=
} }
=
T
x
e o
dt e dr c m r
0
4
0
10 00 . 2
3 2 2 2 2
10
12 c t
T
r
e
c m
x
e o
=
10
10 00 . 2
0
3
4
3 2 2 2
3
12 c t
[42.3 P7] A hydrogen atom is in the first excited state
(n = 2). Using the Bohr theory of the atom, calculate
(a) the radius of the orbit
(b) the linear momentum of the electron
(c) the angular momentum of the electron
(d) the kinetic energy of the electron
(e) the potential energy of the system and
(f) the total energy of the system.
SOLUTION:
a) r
n
= n
2
a
o
r
2
= 2
2
x(0.0529nm) = 0.212 nm
[42.3 P9] A photon is emitted as a hydrogen atom
undergoes a transition from the n = 6 state to the n = 2
state. Calculate
(a) the energy
(b) the wavelength
(c) the frequency of the emitted photon.
Solution b:
Solution a:
Solution c:
[42.3 P13] (a) Construct an energylevel diagram for
the He
+
ion (Z = 2). (b) What is the ionization energy for
He
+
?
Solution a: The energy levels of a hydrogenlike ion whose
charge number is Z are given by
Thus for Helium (Z = 2), the energy
levels are
(b) What is the ionization energy for He
+
?
Solution b: For He+ , Z = 2 , so we see that the ionization
energy (the energy required to take the electron from the n =
1 to the n = state) is
THE QUANTUM MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM
37
The potential energy function for the Hatom is
r
e k
r U
e
2
) ( =
k
e
= 8.99 x 10
9
N.m
2
/C
2
is Coulomb constant
r = radial distance of electron from proton (at r = 0)
The timeindependent schrodinger equation in three
dimensional space is
E U
z y x m
= +


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
P
y
x
z
r
\

=
. . . , 3 , 2 , 1 ,
606 . 13
2
= = n
n
eV
The polar function f() is associated with the orbital
quantum number l.
The azimuthal function g() is associated with the orbital
magnetic quantum number m
l
.
The application of boundary conditions on the three parts of
leads to important relationships among the three quantum
numbers:
[1] n can range from 1 to .
[2] l can range from 0 to n1 ; [n allowed values].
[3] m
l
can range from l to +l ; [(2l+1) allowed values].
which is in agreement with Bohr theory.
All states having the same principal quantum number
are said to form a shell. All states having the same
values of n and l are said to form a subshell:
n = 1 K shell l = 0 s subshell
n = 2 L shell l = 1 p subshell
n = 3 M shell l = 2 d subshell
n = 4 N shell l = 3 f subshell
n = 5 O shell l = 4 g subshell
n = 6 P shell l = 5 h subshell
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solution:
When n = 2, l can have the values 0 and 1.
If l = 0, m
l
can only be 0.
If l = 1, m
l
can be 1, 0, or +1.
Hence, we have one 2s state with quantum numbers
n = 2, l = 0, m
l
= 0
and three 2p states for which the quantum numbers are
n= 2, l=1, m
l
=1
n= 2, l=1, m
l
=0
n= 2, l=1, m
l
=+1
All these states have the same principal
quantum number, n=2, they also have the
same energy, E
n
=(13.66eV) Z
2
/n
2
E
2
=(13.66eV)/2
2
= 3.401eV
[SP 42.3]: For a Hatom, determine the number of allowed
states corresponding to the principal quantum number n
= 2, and calculate the energies of these states.
[42.4 P16]: A general expression for the energy
levels of oneelectron atoms and ions is
where k
e
is the Coulomb constant, q
1
and q
2
are the
charges of the electron and the nucleus, and is
the reduced mass, given by
The wavelength for n = 3 to n = 2 transition of the
hydrogen atom is 656.3 nm (visible red light). What
are the wavelengths for this same transition in (a)
positronium, which consists of an electron and a
positron, and (b) singly ionized helium ?
2 2
2
2
2
1
2
2 n
q q k
E
e
n
=
2 1
2 1
m m
m m
+
=
so the energy of each level is one half as large as in
hydrogen. The photon energy is inversely proportional to its
wavelength, so for positronium,
so the transition energy is 2
2
= 4 times larger than hydrogen.
2 2
2
2
2
1
2
2 n
q q k
E
e
n
=
[42.4 P17]: An electron of momentum p is at a distance
r from a stationary proton. The electron has a kinetic
energy
The atom has a potential energy and total
energy E = K + U. If the electron is bound to the proton
to form a Hatom, its average position is at the proton,
but the uncertainty in its position is approximately equal
to the radius r of its orbit. The electrons average
vector momentum is zero, but its average squared
momentum is equal to the squared uncertainty in its
momentum, as given by the uncertainty principle.
e
m
p
K
2
2
=
r
e k
U
e
2
=
Treating the atom as onedimensional system,
(a) estimate the uncertainty in the electrons momentum
in terms of r.
(b) Estimate the electrons kinetic, potential, and total
energies in terms of r.
(c) The actual value of r is the one that minimizes the
total energy, resulting in a stable atom. Find that
value of r and the resulting total energy. Compare
your answer with the predictions of the Bohr theory.
The potential energy for Hatom depends only on the
radial distance r between nucleus and electron.
Some of the allowed states for the Hatom can be
represented by wave functions that depend only on r
(spherically symmetric function).
The simplest wave function for Hatom is the 1sstate
(ground state) wave function (n = 1, l = 0):
a
o
= Bohr radius.

1s

2
is the probability
density for Hatom in 1sstate.
o
o
s
a
r
e
a
r
=
3
1
1
) (
t
o
o
s
a
r
e
a
2
3
2
1
1


.

\

=
t
\

=
P(r) dr is the probability of finding
the electron in this shell.
P(r) dr = 
2
dV = 
2
4tr
2
dr
P(r) = 4tr
2

2
Radial probability density for Hatom in its ground
state:
Plot of the probability of finding the electron as a
function of distance from the nucleus for Hatom in the
1s (ground) state. P
1s
(r) is maximum when r = a
o
(Bohr
radius).
Crosssection of the spherical electronic charge
distribution of Hatom in 1sstate
r
MOST PROBABLE
= a
o
r
AVERAGE
= 3a
o
/2
r
MOST PROBABLE
= 5a
o
The next simplest wave function for the Hatom is the
2sstate wave function (n = 2, l = 0):
o
o o
s
a
r
e
a
r
a
r


.

\



.

\

= 2
1
2 4
1
) (
2
3
2
t
2s
is spherically symmetric.
(depends only on r).
E
2
= E
1
/4 = 3.401 eV
(1
ST
excited state).
[SP 42.4]. Calculate the most probable value of r (=
distance from nucleus) for an electron in the ground
state of the Hatom. Also calculate the average value r
for the electron in the ground state.
Solution:
The most probable distance is the value of r that makes the
radial probability P(r) a maximum. The slope of the curve (P
v/s r) at this point is zero, so the most probable value of r is
obtained by setting dP/dr= 0 and solving for r.
0
4 ) (
2
3
2
1
=


.

\

=
o
o
s
a
r
e
a
r
dr
d
dr
r dP o
o
s
a
r
e
a
r
r P
2
3
2
1
4
) (


.

\

=
0
4 ) (
2
3
2
1
=


.

\

=
o
o
s
a
r
e
a
r
dr
d
dr
r dP
( ) 0
2 2
2 2
=

.

\

+
o
a r
o
a r
e e
dr
d
r r
dr
d
0 2
2 2
2
2 = +
o
a r
o
a r
e re ) a ( r
o
0 ] 1 [ 2
2
=
o
a r
o
a r
re
0 1 =
o
a
r
o
a r =
The expression is satisfied if
The most probable value of r is the Bohr radius
} }



.

\

= = =
0
3
2
0
2
4
) ( dr
a
r
r dr r rP r r
o
o
av
a
r
e
The average value of r is the expectation value of r
}


.

\

=
0
3
3
2
4
dr r
a
o
o
a
r
e
( )
o
o
o
a
a
a 2
3
/ 2
! 3 4
4 3
=


.

\



.

\

=
o av
a r
2
3
=
+ + =
*
) ( r P Here
dx x x
}
0
Solution:
The probability is found by integrating the radial probability
density for this state, P
1s
(r), from the Bohr radius a
0
to .
o
o
s
a
r
e
a
r
r P
2
3
2
1
4
) (


.

\

=
[SP 42.5] Calculate the probability that the electron in
the ground state of Hatom will be found outside the
Bohr radius.
We can put the integral in dimensionless form by changing
variables from r to z = 2r/a
0
. Noting that z = 2 when r = a
0
, and
that dr = (a
0
/2)dz, we get
o
o
s
a
r
e
a
r
r P
2
3
2
1
4
) (


.

\

=
This is about 0.677, or 67.7%.
[42.5 P21]: For a spherically symmetric state of a
Hatom the schrodinger equation in spherical
coordinates is
Show that the 1s wave function for an electron in
Hatom
satisfies the schrodinger equation.
o
o
s
a
r
e
a
r
=
3
1
1
) (
t
E
r
e k
r r r m
e
e
=


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2 2
2
2
Solution:
o
o
s
a
r
e
a
r
=
3
1
1
) (
t
\

c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2 2
2
2
o
o
o
a
a
dr
d
a
r
e
1 1
5
=
=
By Substituting the above values
The orbital quantum number l
According to quantum mechanics, an atom in a
state whose principal quantum number n can take
the following discrete values of the magnitude of
the orbital angular momentum:
PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM
NUMBERS
1 , . . . , 2 , 1 , 0 ) 1 ( = + = n L l l l
The orbital magnetic quantum number m
l
The energy U of the electron with a magnetic moment
in a magnetic field is According to
quantum mechanics, there are discrete directions allowed for
the magnetic moment vector with respect to magnetic field
vector
Since
one finds that the direction of is quantized. This means
that L
Z
the projection of along the zaxis [direction of ]
can have only discrete values. The orbital magnetic quantum
number m
l
specifies the allowed values of the zcomponent
of the orbital angular momentum.
. B
. B  U
 =
L
m
e


.

\

=
2
L
l
m L
z
=
The quantization of the possible orientations of with
respect to an external magnetic field is called
space quantization. Following vector model describes
the space quantization for l = 2.
L
is quantized 0
) 1 (
m L
cos
Z
+
= = u
l l
l
L
The Zeeman effect:
Splitting of energy levels and hence spectral lines
in magnetic field
ENERGY
n=1, l=0
n=2, l=1
hf
o
hf
o
h(f
o
f)
h(f
o
+f)
m
l
=0
m
l
=0
m
l
=1
m
l
=+1
NO MAGFIELD
MAGFIELD PRESENT
f
o
f
o
(f
o
+f) (f
o
f)
SPECTRUM
WITHOUT
MAGFIELD
SPECTRUM WITH
MAGFIELD
PRESENT
The spin magnetic quantum number m
s
The quantum numbers n, l, m
l
are generated by applying
boundary conditions to solutions of the schrodinger
equation. The electron spin does not come from the
schrodinger equation. The experimental evidence showed the
necessity of the spin magnetic quantum number m
s
which
describes the electron to have some intrinsic angular
momentum. This originates from the relativistic properties of
the electron. There can be only two
directions for the spin angular
momentum vector spinup and
spindown as shown in the figure:
, S
65
( )
2
3
1 = + = s s S
S
is quantized in space as
described in the figure:
It can have two orientations
relative to a zaxis, specified by
the spin magnetic quantum
number m
s
= .
The zcomponent of is :
S
Z
= m
s
= /2
S
e
SPIN


.

\

=
S
SPIN
e
SPIN,Z
m
e
=
J/T .
m
e
e
B
24
10 27 9
2
= =
  L
l l 3 2 ) 1 3 ( 3 ) 1 ( = + = + = L
3 2 ) 1 (
cos
l l
l l
m m L
Z
=
+
= =
L
u
The allowed values of L
Z
is given by
L
Z
= m
l
3
, 2
,
, 0, 1
, 2
,3
SJExample42.8For a Hatom, determine the quantum
numbers associated with the possible states that
correspond to the principal quantum number n = 2.
n l m
l
m
s
subshell shell No of states
in subshell

2 0 0
2 0 0  2s L 2
2 1 1
2 1 1 
2 1 0 2p L 6
2 1 0 
2 1 1
2 1 1 
[42.6 P27] How many sets of quantum numbers are
possible for an electron for which (a) n=1, (b) n=2, (c)
n=3, (d) n=4, and (e) n=5 ? Check your results to show
that they agree with the general rule that the number of
sets of quantum numbers for a shell is equal to 2n
2
.
[42.6 P31] The meson has a charge of e, a spin
quantum number of 1, and a mass 1507 times that of
the electron. Imagine that the electrons in an atom were
replaced by mesons. List the possible sets of quantum
numbers for mesons in the 3dsubshell.
Solution:
THE XRAY SPECTRUM OF ATOMS
1895 : Wihelm Conrad
Roentgen discovered XRays
while experimenting with
discharge tubes
Xunknown => X  radiation or
X rays
When a beam of fast moving
electron strikes on solid target
an invisible and high
penetrating radiation is
produced. These radiations are
called X rays.
History
Xray spectrum
The X rays have wide range of
wavelengths (from 0.01 nm to
10 nm) with the intensity
distributed over the entire
range.
Based on their characteristics
& their origin, Xray spectra
may be classified as
a) Continuous Xray spectrum
b) Characteristic Xray spectrum
min
min
min
I
max
max
max
o
K

K
kV 40 V =
kV 30 V =
kV 20 V =
kV 50 V =
min
Braking
lung Bremsstrah
rays X Continuous
rays X stic Characteri
Continuous Xray spectrum
A few fast moving electrons
penetrate deeply interior part of
atom in the target material.
They experience the strong
attractive force due to the nucleus.
In this process the electrons not only
get deflected from their original
paths, but they are slow down i.e.
the electrons are decelerated, which
give rise to loss of energy. The loss
of energy during retardation is
emitted as xray of continuously
varying wavelength.
Spectrum is called continuous xray
spectrum (Bremsstrahlung).
"Bremsstrahlung" means "braking radiation" and is
retained from the original German to describe the
radiation which is emitted when high energetic
electrons are decelerated or "braked" when they are
fired at a metal target..
Characteristic Xray spectrum
In an Xray tube, an electron emitted
from cathode strikes the target with
tremendous velocity it may penetrates
well inside the atoms of the target and
knockout one of the electrons from
inner shell.
Immediately the transition of electron
from outer shell n
2
to inner shell n
1
take place
and the energy ( E
n2
E
n1
)
difference appears as Xray photon of
frequency
A K series of lines results from the
transition of electron from the higher
shell to K shell.
Ex: L K transition K
o
, M K transition K

M L transition L
o
N L transition L

h
E E
1 n 2 n
= v
Similarly L series
consists of L
, L
lines
when electrons jumps
from M, N shell to L
shell.
The K, L, M, N
series constitute the X
rays spectrum which is
the characteristic of
particular material.
o
K

K
o
L
L

L
K
E
O
E
L
E
N
E
M
E
0 E = = n
K 1 n =
L 2 n =
M 3 n =
N 4 n =
O 5 n =
I
min
K
o
K o
L 
L
Energy level diagram
Shell to shell transitions
Summary of continuous and characteristic Xrays
82
To examine the motions of electrons that lie deep within
multielectron atoms, one needs to consider the xray
spectrum of atoms, shown in the figure below:
The xrays are emitted by
atoms in a target when the
atoms are bombarded with high
energy electrons. The xray
spectrum has two parts:
Continuous spectrum and
characteristic spectrum.
Sharply defined cutoff wavelength
(
MIN
) is a prominent feature of
the continuous xray spectrum.
TARGET: MOLYBDENUM
XRAY TUBE VOLTAGE:
V = 35 kV
MIN
= 35.5 pm
Consider an electron accelerated through a potential
difference of V (xray tube voltage), hitting a target atom.
The electrons initial kinetic energy is K = e V. The electron
loses its kinetic energy by an amount K = hf, which
appears in the form of xray photon energy (Bremsstrahlung).
K can have any value from 0 to K.
Thus the emitted xrays can have any value for the
wavelength above
MIN
in the continuous xray spectrum.
Thus
MIN
MAX
c h
hf V e
= = A
V e
c h
MIN
A
=
MIN
depends only on V
The peaks in the xray spectrum have wavelengths
characteristic of the target element in the xray tube and
hence they form the characteristic xray spectrum.
When a high energy (K = e V, V = xray tube voltage)
electron strikes a target atom and knocks out one of its
electrons from the inner shells with energy E
m
( E
m
 K,
m = integer), the vacancy in the inner shell is filled up
by an electron from the outer shell (energy = E
n
, n =
integer).
The characteristic xray photon emitted has the energy:
m n
E E
c h
hf = =
A K
o
xray results due to the transition of the electron
from Lshell to Kshell.
A K

xray results due to the transition of the electron
from Mshell to Kshell.
When the vacancy arises in the Lshell, an Lseries (L
o
,
L

, L) of xrays results. Similarly, the origin of Mseries
of xrays can be explained.
XRAY ENERGY
LEVEL DIAGRAM
FOR MOLYBDENUM
E
Ko
= 17.4 keV
Ko
= 71 pm
[HRK 48.1 P1]: Show that the shortwavelength
cutoff in the continuous xray spectrum is given by
where V is the applied potential
difference in kilovolts.
pm
V
MIN
A
=
1240
=
= =
o
o
o
o
v
pm
x x x
x x x
E E
hc
hc
h E E
K
K
K
K
37 . 63
10 6 . 1 10 ) 4 . 0 20 (
10 3 10 625 . 6
19 3
8 34
1 2
1 2
=
=
=
= =




v
m
E
hc
hc keV
E
electron incident keV E
Photon
Photon
o
12
19 3
8 34
1
1
1
1
10 68 . 49
10 6 . 1 10 25
10 3 10 625 . 6
2
50
) ( 50
=
= =
= =
=
Solution
[HRK 48.1 P9]: Xrays are produced in an xray
tube by a target potential of 50 keV. If an electron
makes three collisions in the target before coming to
rest and loses onehalf of its remaining kinetic energy
on each of the first two collisions, determine the
wavelengths of the resulting photons. Neglect the
recoil of the heavy target atoms.
m
E
hc
hc
keV E
keV collision third the before electron of Energy
Photon
Photon
12
19 3
8 34
3
3
3
3
10 375 . 99
10 6 . 1 10 5 . 12
10 3 10 625 . 6
5 . 12
5 . 12
=
= =
= =
=
m
E
hc
hc keV
E
keV collision ond the before electron of Energy
Photon
Photon
12
19 3
8 34
2
2
2
2
10 375 . 99
10 6 . 1 10 5 . 12
10 3 10 625 . 6
2
25
25 sec
=
= =
= =
=
=
= =
o
o
o
o
v
. 282
) 9 . 15 sin( 2
10 154 . 0
sin 2
1 , , sin 2
9
pm
m
d
n order first for n d
=
= =
= =
u
o
K
( ) 2 n L =
( ) 1 n K =
keV BE 951 . 0
2
=
keV BE 979 . 8
1
=
Bohr theory and the Moseley plot: Bohrs formula
for the frequency of radiation corresponding to a
transition in a oneelectron atom between any two
atomic levels differing in energy by E is


.

\

=
A
=
2 2 3 2
4 2
1 1
8
i f o
n n h
e Z m
h
E
f
c
In a manyelectron atom, for a K
o
transition, the
effective nuclear charge felt by an Lelectron can be
thought of as equal to +(Zb)e instead of +Ze, where
b is the screening constant due to the screening effect
of the of the only Kelectron.
MOSELEY PLOT OF
THE K
o
XRAYS
( ) b Z
h
e m
f and
o


.

\

=
2
1
3 2
4
32
3
c
Frequency of the K
o
xray is
( )


.

\

=
2 2 3 2
4
2
2
1
1
1
8 h
e b Z m
f
o
c
1 since ~ b
2
1
3 2
4
32
3


.

\

=
h
e m
C where
o
c
( ) 1 = Z C f
XRAYS AND THE NUMBERING OF THE ELEMENTS
Moseleys observation on the characteristic K
o
xrays shows
a relation between the frequency (f) of the K
o
xrays and
the atomic number (Z) of the target element in the xray
tube:
MOSELEY PLOT OF
THE K
o
XRAYS
( ) 1 = Z C f
C is a constant.
Based on this observation,
the elements are arranged
according to their atomic
numbers in the periodic
table.
HRKSample problem 482: Calculate the value of
the constant C in the Moseleys relation for xray
frequency and compare it with the measured slope of
the straight line in Moseley plot.
SOLUTION:
2
1
3 2
4
32
3


.

\

=
h
e m
C
o
c
2 / 3
2
32
3
h
e m
o
c
=
2 / 1 7
Hz 10 95 . 4 = C
2 / 1 7
Hz 10 96 . 4
Slope,
= C
graph From
HRKSample Problem 483: A cobalt (Z=27) target is
bombarded with electrons, and the wavelengths of its
characteristic xray spectrum are measured. A second,
fainter characteristic spectrum is also found, due to an
impurity in the target. The wavelengths of the K
o
lines are
178.9 pm (cobalt) and 143.5 pm (impurity). What is the
impurity ?
c
f =
1
1
=
Co
X
X
Co
z
z
( ) 1 = Z C f
( ) 1 =
co
co
Z C
c
( ) 1 =
X
X
Z C
c
and
1 27
1
5 . 143
9 . 178
=
X
z
pm
pm
) ( 30 Zinc Z
X
=
L ight
A mplification by
S timulated
E mission of
R adiation
LaserProfessionals.com
BASICS OF
LASERS AND LASER LIGHT
CHARACTERISTIC OF THE LASER LIGHT
1. Monochromaticity
The light emitted by a laser is almost pure in color,
almost of a single wavelength or frequency.
2. Coherence
3. Directionality
The astonishing degree of directionality of a laser
light is due to the geometrical design of the laser
cavity and to the monochromaticity and coherent
nature of light generated in the cavity.
4. LIGHT INTENSITY
The intensity of laser light is very high. For example
intensity of light from a 1mW Helium Neon laser is
hundreds of times more intense than the light starting
from an equal area on the surface of sun.
5. FOCUSIBILITY
Focusing light to a tiny , diffraction limited spot is a
challenge. Due to the incoherence and non point
source, it is difficult to focus the ordinary light to tiny
spot. But as laser emits intense, coherent light that
appears to come from distant point source, it can be
focused to a diffraction limited spot.
MIT MANIPAL
LASERS AND LASER LIGHT
Characteristics of laser light: Laser light is highly
monochromatic. Laser light is highly coherent. Laser
light is highly directional. Laser light can be sharply
focused.
Interaction of radiation with matter
Absorption: Absorption of a photon of frequency f
takes place when the energy difference E
2
E
1
of the
allowed energy states of the atomic system equals the
energy hf of the photon. Then the photon disappears
and the atomic system moves to upper energy state
E
2
(see figure).
Spontaneous Emission: The average lifetime of the
atomic system in the excited state is of the order of
10
8
s. After the lifetime of the atomic system in the
excited state, it comes back to the state of lower
energy on its own by emitting a photon of energy
hf = E
2
E
1
In an ordinary light source, the radiation of light from
different atoms is not coherent. The radiations are
emitted in different directions in random manner. Such
type of emission of radiation is called spontaneous
emission.
Stimulated Emission: When a photon (stimulating
photon) of suitable frequency interacts with an excited
atomic system, it comes down to ground state before
its lifetime. Such an emission of radiation is called
stimulated emission.
In stimulated emission, both the stimulating photon and
the stimulated photon are of same frequency, same
phase and are in same state of polarization, they are
emitted in the same direction. In other words, these
two photons are coherent. Thus amplified radiation is
obtained by stimulated emission.
Spontaneous and Stimulated emission
1. Emission take place
without external
agency.
2. Independent on
incident light intensity
3. Transition take place
b/n two states
4. Ordinary light radiation
is emitted
1. Emission take place
with external agency
namely photon of right
frequency
2. Dependent on incident
light intensity.
3. Transition take place
b/n three states
4. Laser radiation is
emitted
Population inversion: Boltzmann statistics gives the
population of atoms in various energy states at temp T.
k = Boltzmann constant. n(E
1
) = density of atoms with
energy E
1
, n(E
2
) = density of atoms with energy E
2
.
n(E
2
) < n(E
1
) if E
2
> E
1
(Figure a).
This is the normal condition in which the population of the
atoms in upper energy state is less than that in lower
energy state.
For the stimulated emission rate to exceed the absorption
rate, it is necessary to have higher population of upper
energy state than that of lower energy state. This condition
is called population inversion [n(E
2
) > n(E
1
)] (Figure b).
This is a non equilibrium condition and is facilitated by the
presence of metastable states.
( )
( )


.

\

=
T k
E E
E n
E n
1 2
1
2
exp
Metastable state: A metastable state is an excited
energy state of an atomic system from which
spontaneous transitions to lower states is forbidden
(not allowed by quantum mechanical selection rules).
The average life time of the atomic system in the
metastable state is of the order of 10
3
s which is
much longer than that in an ordinary excited state.
Stimulated transitions from the metastable state
are allowed. An excited atomic system goes to
metastable state (usually a lower energy state) due
to transfer of its extra energy by collision with
another atomic system.
Thus, it is possible to have population inversion
of atomic systems in a metastable state relative to a
lower energy state.
Principle of a Laser: The main parts of a laser are
lasing medium, resonant cavity and pumping system.
In a laser the medium chosen to amplify light is
called lasing medium (active medium). This medium
has atomic systems (active centers), with special system
of energy levels suitable for laser action (see figure).
This medium may be a gas, or a liquid, or a crystal
or a semiconductor. The atomic systems in this medium
may have energy levels including a ground state (E
1
),
an excited state (E
3
) and a metastable state (E
2
).
The atoms in the state E
3
may come down to state E
1
by
spontaneous emission or they
may come down to metastable
state (E
2
) by collision.
The atoms in the state
E
2
come down to state E
1
by
stimulated emission.
For eg., in Ruby laser the lasing medium is a ruby rod.
Ruby is Al
2
O
3
doped with Cr
2
O
3
. Cr
3+
ions are the active
centres, which have approximately similar energy level
structure shown above.
The resonant cavity is a pair of parallel mirrors
to reflect the radiation back into the lasing medium.
Pumping is a process of exciting more number of
atoms in the ground state to higher energy states,
which is required for attaining the population inversion.
In Ruby laser the
pumping is done by
xenon flash lamp.
These radiations may be
reflected due to mirror action of
the end faces (see figure).
When population inversion takes
place at E
2
, a stray photon of
right energy stimulates chain
reaction, accumulates more
photons, all coherent.
The reflecting ends turn the
coherent beam back into active
region so that the regenerative
process continues and part of
the light beam comes out from
the partial mirror as a laser
pulse. The output is an intense
beam of coherent light.
The ruby laser gives red light.
11
6
HeNe Laser has a
glass discharge tube
filled with He (80%)
and Ne (20%) at low pressure.
Hegas is the pumping medium
and Negas is the
lasing medium. The
simplified energy level
diagram (see figure) shows 4
levels: E
o
, E
1
, E
2
and E
3
.
Electrons and ions in the
electrical gas discharge occasionally
collide with Heatoms, raising
them to level E
3
(a
metastable state).
HeNe Laser
11
8
MIT MANIPAL
During collisions
between He and
Ne atoms, the
excitation energy (E
3
=20.61eV) of Heatom is transferred to
Neatom (level E
2
=20.66eV). Thus, population inversion occurs
between levels E
2
and E
1
. This population inversion between
E
2
and E
1
is maintained because:
(1) the metastability of level E
3
ensures a ready supply of
Neatoms in level E
2
and
(2) level E
1
decays rapidly to E
o
.
Stimulated emission from level E
2
to level E
1
predominates, and red laser light is generated. The mirror
M
1
is fully reflective and the mirror M
2
is partially reflective
to allow the laser beam to come out. The Brewsters
windows W & W are at polarizing angles to the mirrors, to
make the laser light linearly polarized.
BEPHYSICSATOMIC PHYSICS201112
HRKSample problem 487: A three level laser emits light of
wavelength 550 nm. (a) What is the ratio of population of the
upper level (E
2
) to that of the lower level (E
1
) in laser
transition, at 300 K? (b) At what temperature the ratio of the
population of E
2
to that of E
1
becomes half?
( )
(
=
kT
E E
N
N
a
1 2
1
2
exp )
eV
x
J x
J x
x
x x x hc
h E E
26 . 2
10 6 . 1
10 616 . 3
10 616 . 3
10 550
10 3 10 625 . 6
19
19
19
9
8 34
1 2
= =
=
= = =
  923 . 86 exp
1
2
=
N
N
38
1
2
10 77 . 1
= x
N
N
KT = 0.0259eV
K=1.38 x 10
23
/1.6 x 10
19
= 8.625 x 10
5
eV/K
This is very small number !
2
1
)
1
2
=
N
N
b
( )
(
=
(
2
1
exp
1 2
kT
E E
( )
) 2 ln(
1 2
=
(
kT
E E
K
k
E E
T 37800
) 2 ln(
1 2
=
=
HRKExercise 48.9 P28: A ruby laser emits light at
wavelength 694.4nm. If a laser pulse is emitted for 12ps and
the energy release per pulse is 150mJ
a) What is the length of the pulse and
b) How many photons are there in each pulse?
m x x x x
ct pulse the of Length a
3 12 8
10 6 . 3 10 12 10 3
) (
= =
=
17
19 3
10 25 . 5
1240
. 4 . 694 10 6 . 1 10 150
, ) (
x
eV.nm
nm eV
hc
E
n
c
nh nh E pulse per Energy b
=
= =
= =
v
HRKExercise 48.9 P29. Assume that lasers are available
whose wavelengths can be precisely "tuned" to anywhere in
the visible range (400 nm to 700 nm). If a television channel
occupies a bandwidth of 10MHz, how many channels could
be accommodated within this wavelength range?
Solution:
The lower frequency is
f
1
= c/
1
= 4.29 x 10
14
Hz
The higher frequency is
f
2
= c/
2
= 7.50 x 10
14
Hz
The number of signals that can be sent in this range is
(f
2
f
1
)/(10 x 10
6
) = 3.21 x 10
7
That's quite a number of television channels.
Hence more number of TV channels can be obtained by
replacing microwave beam with Laser beam as signal carrier !
HRKExercise 48.9 P30. A HeNe laser emits light of
wavelength of 632.8 nm and has an output power of 2.3 mW.
How many photons are emitted each minute by this laser
when operating?
HRKExercise 48.9 P33: An atom has two energy levels with a
transition wavelength of 582 nm. At 300 K, 4 x 10
20
atoms are there
in the lower state. (a) How many occupy the upper state under
conditions of thermal equilibrium? (b) Suppose, instead, that 7.0 x
10
20
atoms are pumped into upper state, with 4.0 x 10
20
in the lower
state. How much energy could be released in a single laser pulse?
( )
(
=
kT
E E
N
N
a
1 2
1
2
exp )
eV
hc
h E E 13 . 2
1 2
= = =
eV kT Also 026 . 0 , =
( )
(
=
kT
E E
N N
1 2
1 2
exp
  92 . 81 exp 10 4
20
2
= x N
16
2
10 6 . 6
~ x N
nh E b = A )
J x x x x E
19 20
10 6 . 1 13 . 2 10 7
= A
J E 240 = A
0
2
~ N
That's effectively
none.
HRKSample Problem 488: A pulsed ruby laser has a
ruby rod (Al
2
O
3
doped with Cr
2
O
3
) as an active medium,
which is 6 cm long and 1 cm in diameter. There is one
aluminium ion (active centre, with energy levels of the type
shown in the figure) for every 3500 chromium ions. The
ruby laser light has a wavelength of 694.4 nm. Suppose
that all the chromium ions are in metastable state (E
2
) and
none are in ground state (E
1
). How much energy is there
in a single laser pulse if all these ions come down to
ground state in a single stimulated emission chain reaction
episode ? Density of Al
2
O
3
is 3700 kg/m
3
. Molar mass of
Al
2
O
3
is 0.102 kg/mol.
Solution:
HOME WORK
ATOMIC PHYSICS
01. Mention the postulates of Bohrs model of Hatom.
[2]
02. Based on the Bohrs model for Hatom, obtain the
expression for (a) the total energy of the Hatom
(b) radii of the electron orbits. [5]
03. Sketch the energy level diagram of Hatom
schematically, indicating the energy value for each
level and the transition lines for the Lyman
series, Balmer series and Paschen series. [4]
04. Write the expressions for total energy of (a) the H
atom (b) other oneelectron atoms. From this, obtain
the expressions for the reciprocal wavelengths H
spectral lines in terms of quantum numbers. [4]
QUESTIONS
ATOMIC PHYSICS
05. Give a brief account of quantum model of Hatom.
[2]
06. The wave function for Hatom
in ground state is
Obtain an expression for the radial probability density
of Hatom in ground state. Sketch schematically the
plot of this vs. radial distance. [4]
07. The wave function for Hatom in 2s state is
Write the expression for the radial probability density
of Hatom in 2s state. Sketch schematically the plot
of this vs. radial distance. [2]
QUESTIONS
o
o
s
a
r
e
a
r
=
3
1
1
) (
t
o
o o
s
a
r
e
a
r
a
r


.

\



.

\

= 2
1
2 4
1
) (
2
3
2
t
ATOMIC PHYSICS
08. Sketch schematically the plot of the radial probability
density vs. radial distance for Hatom in 1sstate
and 2sstate. [2]
09. Give the physical interpretation of the following:
(a) Orbital quantum number l [1]
(b) Orbital magnetic quantum number m
l
[4]
(c) Spin magnetic quantum number m
s
[3]
10. Explain the continuous xray spectrum with a
schematic plot of the spectrum. [2]
11. Obtain an expression for the cutoff wavelength in the
continuous xray spectrum. [4]
QUESTIONS
ATOMIC PHYSICS
12. Explain the characteristic xray spectrum with a
schematic plot of the spectrum. [2]
13. Explain the origin of characteristic xray spectrum with
a sketch of xray energy level diagram. [3]
14. Write Moseleys relation for the frequency of
characteristic xrays. Sketch schematically the Moseleys
plot of characteristic xrays. [2]
15. Obtain Moseleys relation for characteristic xray
frequency from Bohr theory. [4]
16. Mention the characteristics of a laser beam. [2]
QUESTIONS
ATOMIC PHYSICS
17. Explain the following terms with reference to lasers:
(a) spontaneous emission [2]
(b) stimulated emission [2]
(c) metastable state [2]
(d) population inversion [2]
(e) pumping [1]
(f) active medium [2]
(g) resonant cavity. [1]
18. Explain the principle of a laser. [5]
19. Give a brief account of a HeNe laser. [4]
QUESTIONS