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Chapter 10:


Sexual Orientation. Differences in Sexual Attitudes and

Sexual Dysfunctions. Development of Gender Roles. Gender Stereotyping.

How many kinds of sexual orientation are there?

What contributes to the development of it?

The tendency for a person to be attracted to members: The same sex The other sex Both sexes

Personal Preference

Same sex

Opposite sex

Both sexes





Think again!

The tendency for a person to be attracted to members of the same sex, other sex or to both sexes. A matter of degree Ex: 15% teenagers have had emotional and sexual attractions to a same sex person. (Daugelli,1996)

2 main groups: Lesbian and Gay Small portion of population.

~ 3.5% US population. ~ 2% Viet Nam population.

Unevenly distributed across geographical locations, concentrated in Urban locals.

Easily finding companion. A way to deal with homophobia (fear of lesbian and gay prejudice and hate crimes )

Same-sex encounters are observed in both human and animal.

a. Biological factors:
Different amount of hormones: Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone. Genetic. Brain structure.

a. Biological factors:

a. Biological factors: (cont.) 2 as large in men as in women. 2-3 times larger in heterosexual than in homosexual.

A tiny portion of the hypothalamus

a. Biological factors: (cont.) a. Biological factors: . Neutron in this area may be related to androgens (testosterone) level of androgen, neutrons survive, hence the region androgen levels unusually Low in unborn males who A tiny portion of the hypothalamus become gay. High in unborn females who become lesbian.

b. Environment All genetically identical women and men do not share the same sexual orientation. Ex: Twins test A male with older brothers is three times more likely to be gay than a boy with no older brothers. ( big brother effect)

Sons raised by a bossy mom and a weak father not GAYs. Girls having a primary role father not LESBIANs. Children raised by gay and lesbian parents not GAYS/LESBIANS in the future. GAY and LESBIAN adults were NOT seduced as children by an older person of their sex.

Male sexual anatomy

Male sexual anatomy

Combine of both biologic and psychologic components.

4 Stages:

Excitement: the individual's blood vessels in the genitals become enlarged. Plateau: excitement reaches its peak. Men: Penis increases further and the testicles may increase in size 50% - 100%. Women: The vaginal opening is narrow up by 30% to 50%.

Orgasm: muscle contractions occur all over the body Men: An ejaculation of semen. Women's orgasm increases chances of reproduction as her vagina expands for a sperm deposit. Resolution: The body slowly returns to its normal level of functioning Men: Refractory period cannot reach another orgasm again. Women: below the Plateau level; Could continue, perhaps even more easily, to have orgasms.

CDs, magazines, advertisements, movies, and porno websites,.

Daydreaming about sexual activity
Masturbation Addicted to porno entertains Disconnected from Real Relationships Lower our view of women

Earlier ages of intercourse Increased in sex-before-marriage Greater number of partners Ineffective of using contraceptives.

Ignore the potential consequences of their

Teenagers become pregnant unexpectedly Vulnerable to sexual diseases: AIDS, syphilis-giang mai, gonorrhea-bnh lu, Abortion


The prevalence of sexual dysfunction. More women than men experience SD

Sexual desire disorders

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Sexual aversion disorder Female sexual arousal disorder Male erectile disorder

Sexual dysfunction

Sexual arousal disorders Sexual pain disorder Not otherwise specified

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD)

Sexual aversion disorder (SAD)

Male erectile disorder

Male erectile disorder

Sexual pain disorder:

Parents Influent on Children's GenderTyped Choices

Most children between the ages of 2 and 3 can label themselves as boys or girls . They can classify other people as member of the same or the other sex. By age 3, most children know the traditional expectations for males and females.

Their preferences changes have changed over the years.

Four Theories

Psychodynamic theory Observational theory Cognitive developmental theory Gender-schema theory

Their preferences changes have changed over the years.

Young girls develop a similar attraction to their father

Young boys develop a sexual attraction to their mother

Observational theory

Observational learning: explain the development of a number of behaviors. Applied to gender roles, children learn these roles from parents through rewards and punishments, along with imitation and modeling.

Parents respond to their children

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0



10 boys girls

communication physical assertion

Cognitive development theory Explanation for the learning of gender roles that holds that cognitive factors give rise to gender identity , gender stability, and gender constancy. Children might think if Im a boy Id better figure out what kinds of things boys do.

Gender schema theory Explanation for the learning of gender roles that suggests that children form schemas of masculine and feminine attributes , which influence memory , perception, and behaviors

The beliefs about the personal attributes, or specialty that make up your personality, and who you are as a person of females and males.

Career: like only women can be nurses or men

make better CEOs

Emotional: The stereotype that boy's don't cry and women are overly-emotional
Physical: men should be taller than women Mental: The stereotype that boys are better in math and science, while girls are better in language arts

Impaired performance:
+ The performance of those under conditions of stereotype threat suffers compared to those who perform under less threatening conditions

Physiological outcomes:
+ Increase the blood pressure. + Mens stereotypic leadership-historically led by men is on downhill trend. + Women has been a huge disadvantage for the advancement of women socially, through education and in the workforce.

Can lead to depression, anxiety, and eating disorders:

+ Women reported feeling bad about their bodies after looking at images of models in magazines and advertisements

In deciding among male and female job candidates: + When the position was risky thus, the male candidate was
selected significantly more often.