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SUBJECT : MATHEMATICS

PREPARED BY :

PN. NORMALI ABDUL GHANI

STRAIGHT LINE

GRADIENT

WHICH PATH IS EASY TO RUN ON

AND WHICH IS DIFFICULT TO RUN. D

WHY?

A B

of a slope is known as the gradient (m)

GRADIENT VERTICAL DISTANCE

(m) HORIZONTAL

B DISTANCE

Vertical

Distance

A

Horizontal

Distance

GRADIENT = Vertical Distance

Horizontal

Distance

Find the vertical distance and the horizontal

distance for the straight line below:

Vertical distance 6

=

Horizontal distance 3

=

gradient

Distance

m =Horizontal

6

Distance

3

m= 2

Find the gradient of straight line I, II and

III

I II III

GRADIENT = Vertical Distance

Horizontal Distance

mI=4=1 m II = 6 = m III = 3 =

3 1

4 2 6

Find the gradient of AB, BC and CD.

D

m AB = 2/2

C =1

m BC = 5/5

=1

B

m CD = 3/3

=1

A

Straight lines have the same

gradient

R

Determine the gradient of

QR and PR.

collinear points of a straight

P line,

m PQ = m QR = m PR

Then m QR = m PR

=5

y Gradient of straight line on the

Cartesian Plane

y2 Q(x2,y2)

y2 – y1

y1 P(x1, y1) x2 – x1

x1 x2 x

Distance

x2 – x1

Horizontal

Distance

Gradient of two point on the

Cartesian Plane

m = y 2 - y1

x2 - x1

Example 1:

A(2 , 2) and B(4 , 8) Or A(2 , 2) and B(4 , 8)

x1 y1 x2 y2 x2 y2 x1 y1

m = 8–2 m = 2–

4–2 8

2–4

= 3

= 3

Example 2

P(4, 0) and Q(-2,

12) m = x2 -

x1 y 1 x2, y2 x1

y2 -

y1

mPQ = 12 – m = x2 -

0 y1

-2 – y2 -

4

mPQ = 12 x1

m = y2 -

-6 x1

x2 -

= -2

y1

Find the

gradient:

Q1. P(1, 1) and Q(3, 9)

m= 9–1

3–1

m= 4

m= 3–

(-3)

-4–2

m = -1

B B

Vertical Opposite

Distance side

A Ө A

Horizontal Distance Adjacent side

Distance side

Horizontal Adjacent side

Distance

Gradient = Tan

Ө

Find the gradient of the straight line

PQ if

∠PQR = 400.

P

400

R Q

Gradient = Tan

Ө

Gradient = Tan 400

m PQ =

0.839

1. Find the gradient of the straight line AB

and EF.

B

F m AB =

E m EF =

A

a

Cartesian plane.

(6,10)

(12,4)

1. Find the gradient of a straight line that

joins these two points

i. (2,0) and (4,8)

ii. (-9,0) and (-12,15)

OA subtends an angle θ with y A ( 5, 3)

• gradient b) tan θ θ x

Answer for the worksheet:

Q1. m AB = 6 m EF = 3

3 6

=2 = 0.5

Q2. m = 10 – Or m = 4 – 10

4

12 – 6

= 6- –1 12 = -1

Q3. i) m = 8 – Or m=0–8

0

2–4

= 44– 2 = 4

Q3. ii) m = 15 – 0 Or m = 0 – 15

-12 – -9 – (-12)

(-9) = -5 = -5

Q4. a) m OA = 3 – 0 b) tan OA = m

OA

5–0 = 3

= 3 5

5

INTERCEPT

y

Y-

intercept

X-intercept

x

Gradient = - y-intercept

x-intercept

1 y 2 y

12

6

3 -4

x x

Gradient = - 6 Gradient = - 12

3 -4

m =-2 m =3

Based on the graph given, determine

y

mBC = mBO

A

8 * B(5, 2) and O(0, 0)

x2 y2 x1 y1

B(5,2)

D mBC = 2 – 1 = 1

x 5–0 5

O

C

ii. x-intercept of the straight line AD,

given the gradient of AD is – 4

x-intercept mAB -4

Conclusio

n GRADIENT

m y2 - y1

x 2 - x1

Vertical Distance

Tan Ɵ

Horizontal Distance

a same gradient Gradient = - y-intercept

from any two x-intercept

points

EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE

y = mx +

c

m : gradient

c : y - intercept

EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE

y Equation of a straight

line :

(0, c) y = mx + c

Where m : gradient

x c : y-intercept

0

Example :

y= 3x + 7

m= 3 and c = 7

Draw the graph for each of the

following equation :

1. y = x + 5 2. y = 2x - 6

x 0 -5 x 0 3

y 5 0 y -6 0

y y

5

3

x

-5

x -6

Determine whether the given point lies on

the given straight line below:

EXAMPLE:

x = 3 and y = 4 x = -1 and y = 3

y = 2x -2 y = 3x +1

4 = 2(3) – 2 3 = 3(-1) + 1

4 = 4 3 = -2

LHS = RHS LHS ≠ RHS

Yes No

Determine whether the given point lies on

the given straight line below:

iii. (-2,-3) ; y = 3x +3

yes

iv. (4, 0) ; y = 3x - 11

No

Determine the gradient and the y-intercept

of each of the following straight lines:

EXAMPLE:

i. y = 5x + 3 ii. 3y = 6x + 4

y = mx + c y = mx + c

m = 5 and c = 3 y = 6x + 4

3 3

y = 2x + 4/3

m= 2 and c = 4/3

Determine the gradient and the y-intercept

of each of the following straight lines:

iii. 2y = 5x - 2 iv. 3x + 2y = 5

m= 5/2 m= -3/2

c= -1 c= 5/2

DETERMINE THE

EQUATION

OF A STRAIGHT LINE

i. Given : m and c

Equation of a straight

line :

y = mx + c

Where m : gradient

c : y-intercept

Eg.

m=2 and c=8

y= 2x + 8

ii. Given : one point and m

m=3

(1,2)

y= 3x + c : x=1, y=2

2= 3(1) + c

2= 3 + c

-1=c

y= 3x -1

iii. Given : two points

(4,8)

(1,2)

m=8–2 y = 2 x + c , (1 , 2)

4–1 x=1 ,y=2

m=2 2 = 2(1) + c

y=2x+c c=0

y= 2x + 0

PRACTICE

pases through the point given and has a

gradient m.

a. (1, 3) and m =

1

b. (-4, 5) and m =

-6

2. Find the equation of straight line which

pases through the point given.

a. (5, 2) and (3,

10)

a. (-5, -3) and

(-8,1)

Conclusio EQUATION

n OF A

STRAIGHT Given :

LINE m and c

y = mx + c

Where m : Given : one

gradient point and m

c : y-

intercept

Given :

two points

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