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SEK. MEN.

TEKNIK TUANKU JAAFAR

SUBJECT : MATHEMATICS

PREPARED BY :
PN. NORMALI ABDUL GHANI
STRAIGHT LINE

GRADIENT
WHICH PATH IS EASY TO RUN ON
AND WHICH IS DIFFICULT TO RUN. D
WHY?

A B

In mathematics measuring the steepness


of a slope is known as the gradient (m)
GRADIENT  VERTICAL DISTANCE
(m)  HORIZONTAL
B DISTANCE

Vertical
Distance

A
Horizontal
Distance
GRADIENT = Vertical Distance
Horizontal
Distance
Find the vertical distance and the horizontal
distance for the straight line below:

Vertical distance 6
=
Horizontal distance 3
=

Use the formula to get the


gradient

GRADIENT (m) = Vertical


Distance

m =Horizontal
6
Distance
3
m= 2
Find the gradient of straight line I, II and
III

I II III
GRADIENT = Vertical Distance
Horizontal Distance
mI=4=1 m II = 6 = m III = 3 =
3 1
4 2 6
Find the gradient of AB, BC and CD.
D
m AB = 2/2

C =1

m BC = 5/5
=1

B
m CD = 3/3
=1
A
Straight lines have the same
gradient
R

Given the gradient of PQ is 5.


Determine the gradient of
QR and PR.

Q Therefore since PQR are


collinear points of a straight
P line,
m PQ = m QR = m PR

Then m QR = m PR
=5
y Gradient of straight line on the
Cartesian Plane

y2 Q(x2,y2)

y2 – y1

y1 P(x1, y1) x2 – x1
x1 x2 x

GRADIENT (m) = Vertical = y2 – y1


Distance
x2 – x1
Horizontal
Distance
Gradient of two point on the
Cartesian Plane
m = y 2 - y1
x2 - x1
Example 1:
 A(2 , 2) and B(4 , 8) Or A(2 , 2) and B(4 , 8)
x1 y1 x2 y2 x2 y2 x1 y1

 m = 8–2  m = 2–
4–2 8
2–4
= 3
= 3
 Example 2
P(4, 0) and Q(-2,
12) m = x2 -
x1 y 1 x2, y2 x1
y2 -
y1
mPQ = 12 – m = x2 -
0 y1
-2 – y2 -
4
mPQ = 12 x1
m = y2 -
-6 x1
x2 -
= -2
y1
Find the
gradient:
Q1. P(1, 1) and Q(3, 9)

m= 9–1
3–1
m= 4

Q2. R(2, -3) and S( - 4, 3)

m= 3–
(-3)
-4–2
m = -1
B B

Vertical Opposite
Distance side
A Ө A
Horizontal Distance Adjacent side

GRADIENT = Vertical TanӨ = Opposite


Distance side
Horizontal Adjacent side
Distance

Gradient = Tan
Ө
Find the gradient of the straight line
PQ if
∠PQR = 400.
P

400
R Q

Gradient = Tan
Ө
Gradient = Tan 400

m PQ =
0.839
1. Find the gradient of the straight line AB
and EF.
B
F m AB =

E m EF =
A

2. Find the gradient of the straight line on


a
Cartesian plane.
(6,10)

(12,4)
1. Find the gradient of a straight line that
joins these two points
i. (2,0) and (4,8)
ii. (-9,0) and (-12,15)

4. Diagram shows a straight line


OA subtends an angle θ with y A ( 5, 3)

the x- axis. Find

• gradient b) tan θ θ x
Answer for the worksheet:

Q1. m AB = 6 m EF = 3
3 6
=2 = 0.5

Q2. m = 10 – Or m = 4 – 10
4
12 – 6
= 6- –1 12 = -1

Q3. i) m = 8 – Or m=0–8
0
2–4
= 44– 2 = 4
Q3. ii) m = 15 – 0 Or m = 0 – 15
-12 – -9 – (-12)
(-9) = -5 = -5

Q4. a) m OA = 3 – 0 b) tan OA = m
OA
5–0 = 3
= 3 5
5
INTERCEPT
y

Y-
intercept

X-intercept
x

Gradient = - y-intercept
x-intercept
1 y 2 y

12
6

3 -4
x x

Gradient = - 6 Gradient = - 12
3 -4
m =-2 m =3
Based on the graph given, determine

i. gradient of the straight line BC


y
mBC = mBO
A
8 * B(5, 2) and O(0, 0)
x2 y2 x1 y1
B(5,2)

D mBC = 2 – 1 = 1
x 5–0 5
O
C
ii. x-intercept of the straight line AD,
given the gradient of AD is – 4

mAB = _ y-intercept x-intercept = _ __8_ = _ _8_ = 2


x-intercept mAB -4
Conclusio
n GRADIENT
m y2 - y1
x 2 - x1

Vertical Distance
Tan Ɵ
Horizontal Distance

A straight line have


a same gradient Gradient = - y-intercept
from any two x-intercept
points
EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE

y = mx +
c
m : gradient
c : y - intercept
EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE

y Equation of a straight
line :

(0, c) y = mx + c
Where m : gradient

x c : y-intercept
0
Example :
y= 3x + 7

m= 3 and c = 7
Draw the graph for each of the
following equation :
1. y = x + 5 2. y = 2x - 6

x 0 -5 x 0 3
y 5 0 y -6 0

y y

5
3
x

-5
x -6
Determine whether the given point lies on
the given straight line below:

EXAMPLE:

i. (3, 4) ; y = 2x - 2 ii. (-1, 3) ; y = 3x + 1

x = 3 and y = 4 x = -1 and y = 3

y = 2x -2 y = 3x +1
4 = 2(3) – 2 3 = 3(-1) + 1
4 = 4 3 = -2
LHS = RHS LHS ≠ RHS

Yes No
Determine whether the given point lies on
the given straight line below:

iii. (-2,-3) ; y = 3x +3

yes

iv. (4, 0) ; y = 3x - 11

No
Determine the gradient and the y-intercept
of each of the following straight lines:

EXAMPLE:

i. y = 5x + 3 ii. 3y = 6x + 4

y = mx + c y = mx + c
m = 5 and c = 3 y = 6x + 4
3 3
y = 2x + 4/3
m= 2 and c = 4/3
Determine the gradient and the y-intercept
of each of the following straight lines:

iii. 2y = 5x - 2 iv. 3x + 2y = 5

m= 5/2 m= -3/2
c= -1 c= 5/2
DETERMINE THE
EQUATION
OF A STRAIGHT LINE

i. Given : m and c
Equation of a straight
line :
y = mx + c
Where m : gradient
c : y-intercept

Eg.
m=2 and c=8

y= 2x + 8
ii. Given : one point and m

m=3

(1,2)

y= 3x + c : x=1, y=2
2= 3(1) + c
2= 3 + c
-1=c

y= 3x -1
iii. Given : two points
(4,8)

(1,2)

m=8–2 y = 2 x + c , (1 , 2)
4–1 x=1 ,y=2
m=2 2 = 2(1) + c
y=2x+c c=0

y= 2x + 0
PRACTICE

1. Find the equation of straight line which


pases through the point given and has a
gradient m.
a. (1, 3) and m =
1
b. (-4, 5) and m =
-6
2. Find the equation of straight line which
pases through the point given.
a. (5, 2) and (3,
10)
a. (-5, -3) and
(-8,1)
Conclusio EQUATION
n OF A
STRAIGHT Given :
LINE m and c

y = mx + c
Where m : Given : one
gradient point and m
c : y-
intercept
Given :
two points