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FUNCTION OF KIDNEY Blood filtration for removal of waste.


remove toxin and ultra filtration occurs through glomerular capillaries. homeostasis


Maintain salt and water balance Regulate blood cells Regulate drug level

Renal failure Chronic kidney disease

Non toxic Non allergenic Bio compatible Sterlizable Strength Durability

Dialysis can not maintain blood pressure. Dialysis can not maintain pH

Leucocyte count in blood decrease.

Dialysis may cause joint problem.

Artificial kidney consists of two parts Filtration zone Excretion zone

Dialysis membranes are stacked together. These are dense , defined shape and filter with bodys own blood pressure. Separate toxic waste from blood.

In this zone , a kidney cell is coated on membrane to

reabsorb water , sugar and salt.
The waste goes to urinary bladder.

The dialysis membrane are made up of viscose polysulphone, cuprophan and cuproammonium fibers.


Moderate mechanical strength Bio compatible

Non toxic
Selective absorption


Ultra thin Excellent ultra filtration

Good mechanical strength


Selective removal of urea , ceretinine. Retain nutritive molecules such as vitamin B 12


The manufacturing of artificial kidney involves two steps : Batch fabrication process Physical deposition


Surface membrane = 0.8 2.0 m Membrane thickness = 15 micron

Inner diameter = 180 micron

Outer diameter = 200 300 micron


Blood flows into fiber and dialysate flows from fiber. Walls of fiber acts as dialyzer.


Blood flow rate greatly affects clearance of a small particles such as urea. Ultra filtration mainly removal of large solutes such as inulin. Solutes pass from high concentrated area to less concentrated area. The solute diffusive flux depends on concentration gradient, membrane thickness, diffusivity coefficient.


The convective flux depends on ultra filtration rate , concentration of plasma and solute sieving coefficient. Membrane surface area determines maximum clearance for given blood flow rate.


There are 2 ways to test performance of artificial kidney Sieve co efficiency test Renal clearance test Sieve coefficient test It is the ratio of renal clearance to ultra filtration rate.


The volume of plasma from which substance removed is completely removed by kidney in given amount of time. It is function of glomerular capillaries. It gives the amount of blood cleaned in a unit time.


Mass transfer coefficient Dialysate flow Solute sieving coefficient temperature


The artificial kidney is of great benefit for treatment of kidney patients. It has a healthy room in research sector.