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Cell division: mitosis and meiosis

I. Dividing cells II. Mitosis and the cell cycle III. Stages of mitosis A. Prophase B. Metaphase C. Anaphase D. Telophase IV. Stem cells V. Telomeres and telomerase VI. Cancer cells VII. Meiosis VIII. Gametogenesis

Binary Fission- prokaryotes

Meiosis, mitosis, and the chromosome number


Ploidy levels: diploid (2N) and haploid (1N) In mitosis, ploidy level is maintained In meiosis, ploidy level is halved.
Human = 46

Dog = 78

Chicken = 78

Record > 1000!

Chimpanzee = 48

II. Mitosis and the cell cycle

10 hours

8 hours

5 hours 1 hour

If a cell, like a red blood cell, were to stop dividing, what stage of the cell cycle would be terminal for that cell? a. G1 b. G2 c. S d. mitotic If a cell that was 4N at the start of meiosis, the end result would be _______ cells . a. 1N b. 2N c. 3N d. 4N

III. Stages of mitosis

What is the ploidy of a cell in anaphase of mitosis? a. Haploid b. diploid c. triploid d. quatraploid
In what phase do chromosomes line up at the equator? a. metaphase b. anaphase c. prophase d. telophase

When attached together , what are the two replicated DNA strands of a single chromosome called? a. centromeres b. chromosomes c. chromatids d. chromatin

Mitosis

Mitosis animation

DNA before and after mitosis

IV. Stem cells

Tissues without adult stem cells?

Stem cell research


Adult stem cell research Embryo stem cell research

Stem cell potential


Incompatibility, ethics, and the law Adult cell cloning

IVF/ PGD and stem cell research

How does the PGD technique circumvent the ethical issues surrounding the use of embryos in stem cell research? a. it doesnt b. embryos are not used in any way for this technique c. embryos are not destroyed d. only dead embryos are used What is the advantage of using embryonic stem cells over other types of stems cells? a.They divide more quickly b.There is less controversy in using them c.They are easier to work with d.They are more versatile

Even with tissues derived from embryonic stem cells, patients still face the problem of tissue incompatibility. What is one way this could be overcome? a. Use tissues derived from modified PGD b. Use tissues derived from adult stem cells c. Use tissues derived from cloned embryos What is the current federal law regarding embryonic stem cell research? a. There are no restrictions b. Federal funding is allowed only for research on existing lines c. All embryonic stem cell research is illegal d. Embryonic stem cell research is allowed on defective embryos only

V. Telomeres and telomerase


TTAGGG

embryos stem cells cancer cells

What exactly are telomeres? a. Caps at the ends of chromosomes b. An enzyme that allows cells to keep dividing c. A repeated sequence of nucleotides at the ends of chromosomes d. Structures found only in embryos Which of the following cells do not have telomerase? a. Mature skin cells b. Liver stem cells c. Early embryonic cells d. Cancer cells

VI. Cancer
A. Two types of tumors (neoplasms) B. Cancer cell anatomy and physiology 1. differentiation 2. shape 3. embryonic proliferation 4. non-programmed cell death C. Genes and cancer 1. oncogenes 2. tumor suppressing genes 3. teleomerase

A. Two types of tumors (neoplasms)


An inappropriate proliferation of cells Neoplasms: two types benign malignant Metastasis

B. Cancer cell anatomy and physiology


1. differentiation 2. shape 3. proliferation 4. Non-programmed cell death 5. Telomerase

Stem cells, cancer, and aging

C. Genes and cancer


1. oncogenes

Ink4

2. tumor suppressing genes 3. Telomerase genes


Progression of cancer

What is the problem with enhancing the activity of Ink4? a. Increased risk of cancer b. Speeding up of the aging process c. Both a and b d. Neither a or b What are oncogenes? a. Genes that regulate cell division b. Genes that suppress tumors c. Genes that reestablish telomeres d. Mutated proto-oncogenes

VII. Meiosis

A. Overview
Why half?

1. Homologues/ homologous pairs

2. 2 goals: reducing the chromosome number by half and shuffling (recombining) the genes

Human Life Cycle

Meiosis I

Crossing over

Meiosis II

Independent Assortment

Crossing Over

Independent Assortment
2n = number of unique gametes

Meiosis II

Meiosis animation

In what phases of meiosis do genetic recombination take place? a. Prophase I and Prophase II b. Metaphase I and Anaphase I c. Prophase II and Metaphase II d. Prophase I and Metaphase I

If an organism has 3 pairs of chromosomes, based on independent assortment, how many genetically unique gametes would it have? a. 3 b. 6 c. 8 d. 9

Problems in meiosis:aneuploidy
Nondisjunction and Trisomy: Anaphase II

Problems in meiosis
Nondisjunction and Trisomy

Women over 35, 2 to 6 times the number of mutations Implantation of embryo more likely Most common trisomy is trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

Trisomy 21: Down syndrome


Trisomy 21 karyotype

Klinefelters Syndrome

Turner Syndrome

Monosomy

Which of the following is the most accurate statement concerning aneuploidy? a. Nondisjunction of chromosomes during meiosis b. A condition in which there are not the correct number of chromosomes c. Three chromosomes at position number 21 d. The result of early implantation of the embryo What would be the result of a nondisjunction in Anaphase I? a. Two normal gametes, one with an extra chromosome, and one missing a chromosome b. Two normal gametes, two with an extra chromosome c. Three gametes with a missing chromosome, one with an extra chromosome d. Two gametes with an extra chromosome, two with a missing chromosome

Meiosis compared to mitosis


Purpose Number of cells produced Genetics of cells produced Ploidy of cells produced Where they occur
Somatic cells Sex cells

Meiosis compared to mitosis

Meiosis compared to mitosis

VIII. Gametogenesis

Spermatogenesis
Puberty

Average sperm production = 100 million per day

Oogenesis
Arrested at Prophase I

Arrested at Metaphase II

Meiosis completed at fertilization

In embryo
At birth Approximately 400, 000 Ovulation 400 released

When does oogenesis start in female mammals? a. At birth b. Before birth c. At puberty d. At fertilization When does oogenesis end in female mammals? a. At birth b. Before birth c. At puberty d. At fertilization

In oogenesis, what is the end result of interkinesis? a. Two secondary oocytes b. One secondary oocyte and one polar body c. One secondary oocyte and two polar bodies d. Two secondary oocytes and two polar bodies

Contributions of egg and sperm to embryo


egg 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. sperm Haploid set of chromosomes 1. Haploid set X to males and females 2. X to females; Y to males Protection Nourishment Directions for early development Mitochondria

Mutations?

Which of the following is a contribution of the sperm to the embryo? a. Mitochondria b. Directions for early development c. Protection d. Nourishment e. Most mutations The contribution of the sperm above is __________ . a. Beneficial b. Detrimental c. Neutral d. Could be any or all of the above

The end