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Refresher course


Experimental physics

Course Director: Dr R. Srinivasan

Neelam Kapoor R. K. Talreja College Mumbai University

is a product from the PHOENIX project (Physics with Home made Equipment & Innovative Experiments), started in 2004 under the leadership of Dr. B.P. Ajith Kumar by IUAC
Inter University Accelerator Centre (An Autonomous Research Facility of UGC)


Open Source Software and Hardware

The software developed under Linux (Ubuntu) operating system and written in Python is under open software. The software developed for expEYES is also open software. All information on software and hardware is available at the website. For the beginners, expEYES can be operated from a LIVE DVD using a PC or laptop and no installation of any kind is needed.

ExpEYES supports a wide range of experiments suitable for higher secondary, B.Sc and the first year electrical and electronics engineering degree courses.


Hardware Features
Micro-controller based design

Analog Input /Output with 12 bit resolution Digital Input / Output Oscilloscope Frequency Counters Waveform Generators Programmable Current Source 3 Inv. Amplifiers and one Non-Inv. Amplifier Digitizing sound using microphone


Architecture of ExpEYES

PIN Description PIN 1

3 4 23

Software can read the logic voltage level applied to them. Any voltage less than 0.8volts is treated as 0(LOW) anda nything higher than 2volts is treated as1(HIGH). Digital Output Voltage at these terminals 0 or 5 volts. OD0 and OD0 is transistor buffered and can drive up to 100mA current. OD1 OD1 can only drive up to 5mA. Sensor Input(SEN) For connecting any sensor resistance of which varies with the measured parameter.
Frequency Counters

Digital Inputs ID0 and ID1


The terminal 15 can measure the frequency of a bipolar signal (that goes to both negative and positive values).
Common ground for signals

5,11, 16,27



Signal Generators SINE SQR1

7 8 9 10


PULSE Analog Voltage Inputs A0 and A1 A2

Fixed frequency sine wave generator, frequency is around 100Hz. Can generate a square wave, swings from 0 to 5 volts. Frequency is programmable from 15Hz to 1MHz. Can generate a square wave, swinging from 0 to 5 volts. Frequency can be set any where between 0.7Hz and 90kHz. The oscillator requires an external variable resistor, 22k, between 8 and 9. Output frequency is 488 Hz. Duty cycle can be programmed from 0 to 100% in 255 steps.
For voltage measurement. Can measure voltage within the 5 volts range. Input must be within the 0 to 5 volts range.

26 25 24

Analog Voltage Outputs

Bipolar voltage output (BPV). Can be programmed to any value between -5V to +5V. Unipolar voltage output. Can be programmed between 0 and +5V. This is just the output at BPV coming out through a 1k resistor Programmable to any value from 0.05 to 2.0 milliAmpere

30 31
29 28

IV Constant Current Source(CS) Inverting Amplifiers 1513 1412 1718

15 13 14 12 17 18

There are 3 Inv. Amplifiers. Amplifier A: Input to at terminal 15 and output at 13. Default Gain = 50. The gain can be reduced by feeding the input through a series resistor . Amplifier B: Input at terminal 14 and output at 12. Amplifier C: Input at 17 and output at 18. Default Gain=100. The gain can be reduced by feeding the input through a series resistor.
The input is at 21 and output at 22. The gain is

Non-Inverting Amplifier 21

Example: IV characteristics of Diodes

Transient response of LCR circuit

RC circuit

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