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# VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

STATICS
Ninth Edition
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University
CHAPTER
11
Kinematics of Particles
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Contents
11 - 2
Introduction
Rectilinear Motion: Position,
Velocity & Acceleration
Determination of the Motion of a
Particle
Sample Problem 11.2
Sample Problem 11.3
Uniform Rectilinear-Motion
Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear-
Motion
Motion of Several Particles:
Relative Motion
Sample Problem 11.4
Motion of Several Particles:
Dependent Motion
Sample Problem 11.5
Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-
Motion Problems
Other Graphical Methods
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity
& Acceleration
Derivatives of Vector Functions
Rectangular Components of Velocity
and Acceleration
Motion Relative to a Frame in
Translation
Tangential and Normal Components
Sample Problem 11.10
Sample Problem 11.12
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Introduction
11 - 3
Dynamics includes:
- Kinematics: study of the geometry of motion. Kinematics is used to
relate displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time without reference to
the cause of motion.
- Kinetics: study of the relations existing between the forces acting on a
body, the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is used
to predict the motion caused by given forces or to determine the forces
required to produce a given motion.
Rectilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it
moves along a straight line.
Curvilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it
moves along a curved line in two or three dimensions.
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Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
11 - 4
Particle moving along a straight line is said
to be in rectilinear motion.
Position coordinate of a particle is defined by
positive or negative distance of particle from
a fixed origin on the line.
The motion of a particle is known if the
position coordinate for particle is known for
every value of time t. Motion of the particle
may be expressed in the form of a function,
e.g.,
3 2
6 t t x =
or in the form of a graph x vs. t.
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Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
11 - 5
Instantaneous velocity may be positive or
negative. Magnitude of velocity is referred
to as particle speed.
Consider particle which occupies position P
at time t and P at t+At,
t
x
v
t
x
t A
A
= =
A
A
=
A 0
lim
Average velocity
Instantaneous velocity
From the definition of a derivative,
dt
dx
t
x
v
t
=
A
A
=
A 0
lim
e.g.,
2
3 2
3 12
6
t t
dt
dx
v
t t x
= =
=
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Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
11 - 6
Consider particle with velocity v at time t and
v at t+At,
Instantaneous acceleration
t
v
a
t A
A
= =
A 0
lim
t
dt
dv
a
t t v
dt
x d
dt
dv
t
v
a
t
6 12
3 12 e.g.
lim
2
2
2
0
= =
=
= =
A
A
=
A
From the definition of a derivative,
Instantaneous acceleration may be:
- positive: increasing positive velocity
or decreasing negative velocity
- negative: decreasing positive velocity
or increasing negative velocity.
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Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
11 - 7
Consider particle with motion given by
3 2
6 t t x =
2
3 12 t t
dt
dx
v = =
t
dt
x d
dt
dv
a 6 12
2
2
= = =
at t = 0, x = 0, v = 0, a = 12 m/s
2

at t = 2 s, x = 16 m, v = v
max
= 12 m/s, a = 0
at t = 4 s, x = x
max
= 32 m, v = 0, a = -12 m/s
2

at t = 6 s, x = 0, v = -36 m/s, a = 24 m/s
2

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Determination of the Motion of a Particle
11 - 8
Recall, motion of a particle is known if position is known for all time t.
Typically, conditions of motion are specified by the type of acceleration
experienced by the particle. Determination of velocity and position requires
two successive integrations.
Three classes of motion may be defined for:
- acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)
- acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)
- acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)
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Determination of the Motion of a Particle
11 - 9
Acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t):
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
} } }
= = = =
= = = = =
t t t x
x
t t t v
v
dt t v x t x dt t v dx dt t v dx t v
dt
dx
dt t f v t v dt t f dv dt t f dv t f a
dt
dv
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x):
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
= = =
= = = = =
x
x
x
x
x v
v
dx x f v x v dx x f dv v dx x f dv v
x f
dx
dv
v a
dt
dv
a
v
dx
dt
dt
dx
v
0 0 0
2
0
2
1
2
2
1
or or
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Determination of the Motion of a Particle
11 - 10
Acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v):
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
}
} }
}
} }
=
= = = =
=
= = = =
t v
v
t v
v
t x
x
t v
v
t t v
v
v f
dv v
x t x
v f
dv v
dx
v f
dv v
dx v f a
dx
dv
v
t
v f
dv
dt
v f
dv
dt
v f
dv
v f a
dt
dv
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
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Sample Problem 11.2
11 - 11
Determine:
velocity and elevation above ground at
time t,
highest elevation reached by ball and
corresponding time, and
time when ball will hit the ground and
corresponding velocity.
Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity
from window 20 m above ground.
SOLUTION:
Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
Solve for t at which velocity equals
zero (time for maximum elevation)
and evaluate corresponding altitude.
Solve for t at which altitude equals
zero (time for ground impact) and
evaluate corresponding velocity.
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Sample Problem 11.2
11 - 12
( )
( ) t v t v dt dv
a
dt
dv
t t v
v
81 . 9 81 . 9
s m 81 . 9
0
0
2
0
= =
= =
} }
( ) t t v |
.
|

\
|
=
2
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
1
0
0
81 . 9 10 81 . 9 10
81 . 9 10
0
t t y t y dt t dy
t v
dt
dy
t t y
y
= =
= =
} }
( )
2
2
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
10 m 20 t t t y |
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
SOLUTION:
Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
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Sample Problem 11.2
11 - 13
Solve for t at which velocity equals zero and evaluate
corresponding altitude.
( ) 0
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10
2
= |
.
|

\
|
= t t v
s 019 . 1 = t
Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and evaluate
corresponding velocity.
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
s 019 . 1
s
m
905 . 4 s 019 . 1
s
m
10 m 20
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
10 m 20
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
y
t t t y
m 1 . 25 = y
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Sample Problem 11.2
11 - 14
Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and
evaluate corresponding velocity.
( ) 0
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
10 m 20
2
2
= |
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+ = t t t y
( )
s 28 . 3
s meaningles s 243 . 1
=
=
t
t
( )
( ) ( ) s 28 . 3
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10 s 28 . 3
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
10
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
v
t t v
s
m
2 . 22 = v
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Sample Problem 11.3
11 - 15
Brake mechanism used to reduce gun
recoil consists of piston attached to barrel
moving in fixed cylinder filled with oil.
As barrel recoils with initial velocity v
0
,
piston moves and oil is forced through
orifices in piston, causing piston and
cylinder to decelerate at rate proportional
to their velocity.
Determine v(t), x(t), and v(x).
kv a =
SOLUTION:
Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find v(t).
Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).
Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find
v(x).
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Sample Problem 11.3
11 - 16
SOLUTION:
Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find v(t).
( )
( )
kt
v
t v
dt k
v
dv
kv
dt
dv
a
t t v
v
= = = =
} }
0
0
ln
0
( )
kt
e v t v

=
0
Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).
( )
( )
( )
t
kt
t
kt
t x
kt
e
k
v t x dt e v dx
e v
dt
dx
t v
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
(

= =
= =

} }
( ) ( )
kt
e
k
v
t x

= 1
0
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Sample Problem 11.3
11 - 17
Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).
kx v v
dx k dv dx k dv kv
dx
dv
v a
x v
v
=
= = = =
} }
0
0
0
kx v v =
0
Alternatively,
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
0
1
v
t v
k
v
t x
kx v v =
0
( )
( )
0
0
or
v
t v
e e v t v
kt kt
= =

( ) ( )
kt
e
k
v
t x

= 1
0
with
and
then
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Uniform Rectilinear Motion
11 - 18
For particle in uniform rectilinear motion, the acceleration is zero and
the velocity is constant.
vt x x
vt x x
dt v dx
v
dt
dx
t x
x
+ =
=
=
= =
} }
0
0
0
0
constant
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Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion
11 - 19
For particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the acceleration of
the particle is constant.
at v v
at v v dt a dv a
dt
dv
t v
v
+ =
= = = =
} }
0
0
0
0
constant
( )
2
2
1
0 0
2
2
1
0 0
0
0 0
0
at t v x x
at t v x x dt at v dx at v
dt
dx
t x
x
+ + =
+ = + = + =
} }
( ) ( )
( )
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
2
1
2
constant
0 0
x x a v v
x x a v v dx a dv v a
dx
dv
v
x
x
v
v
+ =
= = = =
} }
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Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion
11 - 20
For particles moving along the same line, time
should be recorded from the same starting
instant and displacements should be measured
from the same origin in the same direction.
= =
A B A B
x x x relative position of B
with respect to A
A B A B
x x x + =
= =
A B A B
v v v relative velocity of B
with respect to A
A B A B
v v v + =
= =
A B A B
a a a relative acceleration of B
with respect to A
A B A B
a a a + =
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Sample Problem 11.4
11 - 21
Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level
in elevator shaft with initial velocity of
18 m/s. At same instant, open-platform
elevator passes 5 m level moving
upward at 2 m/s.
Determine (a) when and where ball hits
elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball
and elevator at contact.
SOLUTION:
Substitute initial position and velocity
and constant acceleration of ball into
general equations for uniformly
accelerated rectilinear motion.
Substitute initial position and constant
velocity of elevator into equation for
uniform rectilinear motion.
Write equation for relative position of
ball with respect to elevator and solve
for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
Substitute impact time into equation
for position of elevator and relative
velocity of ball with respect to
elevator.
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Sample Problem 11.4
11 - 22
SOLUTION:
Substitute initial position and velocity and constant
acceleration of ball into general equations for
uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.
2
2
2
2
1
0 0
2
0
s
m
905 . 4
s
m
18 m 12
s
m
81 . 9
s
m
18
t t at t v y y
t at v v
B
B
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+ = + + =
|
.
|

\
|
= + =
Substitute initial position and constant velocity of
elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.
t t v y y
v
E E
E
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
=
s
m
2 m 5
s
m
2
0
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Sample Problem 11.4
11 - 23
Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to
elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
( ) ( ) 0 2 5 905 . 4 18 12
2
= + + = t t t y
E B
( )
s 65 . 3
s meaningles s 39 . 0
=
=
t
t
Substitute impact time into equations for position of elevator
and relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator.
( ) 65 . 3 2 5+ =
E
y
m 3 . 12 =
E
y
( )
( ) 65 . 3 81 . 9 16
2 81 . 9 18
=
= t v
E B
s
m
81 . 19 =
E B
v
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Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion
11 - 24
Position of a particle may depend on position of one
or more other particles.
Position of block B depends on position of block A.
Since rope is of constant length, it follows that sum of
lengths of segments must be constant.
= +
B A
x x 2 constant (one degree of freedom)
Positions of three blocks are dependent.
= + +
C B A
x x x 2 2
constant (two degrees of freedom)
For linearly related positions, similar relations hold
between velocities and accelerations.
0 2 2 or 0 2 2
0 2 2 or 0 2 2
= + + = + +
= + + = + +
C B A
C B A
C B A
C B A
a a a
dt
dv
dt
dv
dt
dv
v v v
dt
dx
dt
dx
dt
dx
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Sample Problem 11.5
11 - 25
Pulley D is attached to a collar which
is pulled down at 3 in./s. At t = 0,
collar A starts moving down from K
with constant acceleration and zero
initial velocity. Knowing that velocity
of collar A is 12 in./s as it passes L,
determine the change in elevation,
velocity, and acceleration of block B
when block A is at L.
SOLUTION:
Define origin at upper horizontal surface
with positive displacement downward.
Collar A has uniformly accelerated
rectilinear motion. Solve for acceleration
and time t to reach L.
Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.
Calculate change of position at time t.
Block B motion is dependent on motions
of collar A and pulley D. Write motion
relationship and solve for change of block
B position at time t.
Differentiate motion relation twice to
develop equations for velocity and
acceleration of block B.
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Sample Problem 11.5
11 - 26
SOLUTION:
Define origin at upper horizontal surface with
positive displacement downward.
Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear
motion. Solve for acceleration and time t to reach L.
( ) ( ) | |
( )
2
2
0
2
0
2
s
in.
9 in. 8 2
s
in.
12
2
= =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
A A
A A A A A
a a
x x a v v
( )
s 333 . 1
s
in.
9
s
in.
12
2
0
= =
+ =
t t
t a v v
A A A
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Sample Problem 11.5
11 - 27
Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion. Calculate
change of position at time t.
( )
( ) ( ) in. 4 s 333 . 1
s
in.
3
0
0
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ =
D D
D D D
x x
t v x x
Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar
A and pulley D. Write motion relationship and
solve for change of block B position at time t.
Total length of cable remains constant,
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) | | ( ) | | ( ) | |
( ) ( ) ( ) | | 0 in. 4 2 in. 8
0 2
2 2
0
0 0 0
0 0 0
= + +
= + +
+ + = + +
B B
B B D D A A
B D A B D A
x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
( ) in. 16
0
=
B B
x x
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Sample Problem 11.5
11 - 28
Differentiate motion relation twice to develop
equations for velocity and acceleration of block B.
0
s
in.
3 2
s
in.
12
0 2
constant 2
= +
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= + +
= + +
B
B D A
B D A
v
v v v
x x x
s
in.
18 =
B
v
0
s
in.
9
0 2
2
= + |
.
|

\
|
= + +
B
B D A
v
a a a
2
s
in.
9 =
B
a
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Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems
11 - 29
Given the x-t curve, the v-t curve is equal to
the x-t curve slope.
Given the v-t curve, the a-t curve is equal to
the v-t curve slope.
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Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems
11 - 30
Given the a-t curve, the change in velocity between t
1
and t
2
is
equal to the area under the a-t curve between t
1
and t
2
.

Given the v-t curve, the change in position between t
1
and t
2
is
equal to the area under the v-t curve between t
1
and t
2
.

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Other Graphical Methods
11 - 31
Moment-area method to determine particle position at
time t directly from the a-t curve:
( )
}
+ =
=
1
0
1 1 0
0 1
curve under area
v
v
dv t t t v
t v x x
using dv = a dt ,
( )
}
+ =
1
0
1 1 0 0 1
v
v
dt a t t t v x x
( ) =
}
1
0
1
v
v
dt a t t first moment of area under a-t curve
with respect to t = t
1
line.
( )( )
C t
t t a-t t v x x
centroid of abscissa
curve under area
1 1 0 0 1
=
+ + =
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Other Graphical Methods
11 - 32
Method to determine particle acceleration
from v-x curve:
= =
=
=
BC
AB
dx
dv
v a
u tan
subnormal to v-x curve
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Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
11 - 33
Particle moving along a curve other than a straight line
is in curvilinear motion.
Position vector of a particle at time t is defined by a
vector between origin O of a fixed reference frame and
the position occupied by particle.
Consider particle which occupies position P defined
by at time t and P defined by at t + At, r

r '

=
=
A
A
=
=
=
A
A
=
A
A
dt
ds
t
s
v
dt
r d
t
r
v
t
t
0
0
lim
lim

## instantaneous velocity (vector)

instantaneous speed (scalar)
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Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
11 - 34
=
=
A
A
=
A dt
v d
t
v
a
t

0
lim
instantaneous acceleration (vector)
Consider velocity of particle at time t and velocity
at t + At,
v

'
In general, acceleration vector is not tangent to
particle path and velocity vector.
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Derivatives of Vector Functions
11 - 35
( ) u P

## Let be a vector function of scalar variable u,

( ) ( )
u
u P u u P
u
P
du
P d
u u A
A +
=
A
A
=
A A

0 0
lim lim
Derivative of vector sum,
( )
du
Q d
du
P d
du
Q P d

+ =
+
( )
du
P d
f P
du
df
du
P f d

+ =
Derivative of product of scalar and vector functions,
Derivative of scalar product and vector product,
( )
( )
du
Q d
P Q
du
P d
du
Q P d
du
Q d
P Q
du
P d
du
Q P d

+ =

- + - =
-
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Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
11 - 36
When position vector of particle P is given by its
rectangular components,
k z j y i x r

+ + =
Velocity vector,
k v j v i v
k z j y i x k
dt
dz
j
dt
dy
i
dt
dx
v
z y x

+ + =
+ + = + + =
Acceleration vector,
k a j a i a
k z j y i x k
dt
z d
j
dt
y d
i
dt
x d
a
z y x

+ + =
+ + = + + =
2
2
2
2
2
2
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Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
11 - 37
Rectangular components particularly effective
when component accelerations can be integrated
independently, e.g., motion of a projectile,
0 0 = = = = = = z a g y a x a
z y x

with initial conditions,
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , , 0
0
0
0
0 0 0
= = = =
z y x
v v v z y x
Integrating twice yields
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0
0
2
2
1
0
0
0
0
= = =
= = =
z gt y v y t v x
v gt v v v v
y x
z y y x x
Motion in horizontal direction is uniform.
Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.
Motion of projectile could be replaced by two
independent rectilinear motions.
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Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation
11 - 38
Designate one frame as the fixed frame of reference.
All other frames not rigidly attached to the fixed
reference frame are moving frames of reference.
Position vectors for particles A and B with respect to
the fixed frame of reference Oxyz are
. and
B A
r r

Vector joining A and B defines the position of
B with respect to the moving frame Axyz and
A B
r

A B A B
r r r

+ =
Differentiating twice,
=
A B
v

velocity of B relative to A.
A B A B
v v v

+ =
=
A B
a

acceleration of B relative
to A.
A B A B
a a a

+ =
Absolute motion of B can be obtained by combining
motion of A with relative motion of B with respect to
moving reference frame attached to A.
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Tangential and Normal Components
11 - 39
Velocity vector of particle is tangent to path of
particle. In general, acceleration vector is not.
Wish to express acceleration vector in terms of
tangential and normal components.
are tangential unit vectors for the
particle path at P and P. When drawn with
respect to the same origin, and
is the angle between them.
t t
e e

'
and
t t t
e e e

'
= A
u A
( )
( )
u
u
u
u
u
u u
d
e d
e
e e
e
e
t
n
n n
t
t

=
=
A
A
=
A
A
A = A
A A 2
2 sin
lim lim
2 sin 2
0 0
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Tangential and Normal Components
11 - 40
t
e v v

= With the velocity vector expressed as
the particle acceleration may be written as
dt
ds
ds
d
d
e d
v e
dt
dv
dt
e d
v e
dt
dv
dt
v d
a
t t
u
u

+ = + = =
but
v
dt
ds
ds d e
d
e d
n
t
= = = u
u

After substituting,

2 2
v
a
dt
dv
a e
v
e
dt
dv
a
n t n t
= = + =

Tangential component of acceleration reflects
change of speed and normal component reflects
change of direction.
Tangential component may be positive or
negative. Normal component always points
toward center of path curvature.
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Tangential and Normal Components
11 - 41

2 2
v
a
dt
dv
a e
v
e
dt
dv
a
n t n t
= = + =

Relations for tangential and normal acceleration
also apply for particle moving along space curve.
Plane containing tangential and normal unit
vectors is called the osculating plane.
n t b
e e e

=
Normal to the osculating plane is found from
binormal e
normal principal e
b
n

=
=

## Acceleration has no component along binormal.

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11 - 42
When particle position is given in polar coordinates,
it is convenient to express velocity and acceleration
with components parallel and perpendicular to OP.
r
r
e
d
e d
e
d
e d

= =
u u
u
u
dt
d
e
dt
d
d
e d
dt
e d
r r
u u
u
u

= =
dt
d
e
dt
d
d
e d
dt
e d
r
u u
u
u u

= =
( )
u
u
u
u
e r e r
e
dt
d
r e
dt
dr
dt
e d
r e
dt
dr
e r
dt
d
v
r
r
r
r r

+ =
+ = + = =
The particle velocity vector is
Similarly, the particle acceleration vector is
( ) ( )
u
u
u u
u
u u u
u u u
u
e r r e r r
dt
e d
dt
d
r e
dt
d
r e
dt
d
dt
dr
dt
e d
dt
dr
e
dt
r d
e
dt
d
r e
dt
dr
dt
d
a
r
r
r
r

2
2
2
2
2
2
+ + =
+ + + + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
r
e r r

=
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11 - 43
When particle position is given in cylindrical
coordinates, it is convenient to express the
velocity and acceleration vectors using the unit
vectors . and , , k e e
R

u
Position vector,
k z e R r
R

+ =
Velocity vector,
k z e R e R
dt
r d
v
R

+ + = =
u
u
Acceleration vector,
( ) ( ) k z e R R e R R
dt
v d
a
R

+ + + = =
u
u u u 2
2
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Sample Problem 11.10
11 - 44
A motorist is traveling on curved
section of highway at 60 mph. The
motorist applies brakes causing a
constant deceleration rate.
Knowing that after 8 s the speed has
been reduced to 45 mph, determine
the acceleration of the automobile
immediately after the brakes are
applied.
SOLUTION:
Calculate tangential and normal
components of acceleration.
Determine acceleration magnitude and
direction with respect to tangent to
curve.
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Sample Problem 11.10
11 - 45
ft/s 66 mph 45
ft/s 88 mph 60
=
=
SOLUTION:
Calculate tangential and normal components of
acceleration.
( )
( )
2
2 2
2
s
ft
10 . 3
ft 2500
s ft 88
s
ft
75 . 2
s 8
s ft 88 66
= = =
=

=
A
A
=

v
a
t
v
a
n
t
Determine acceleration magnitude and direction
with respect to tangent to curve.
( )
2 2 2 2
10 . 3 75 . 2 + = + =
n t
a a a
2
s
ft
14 . 4 = a
75 . 2
10 . 3
tan tan
1 1
= =
t
n
a
a
o
= 4 . 48 o
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Sample Problem 11.12
11 - 46
Rotation of the arm about O is defined
by u = 0.15t
2
where u is in radians and t
in seconds. Collar B slides along the
arm such that r = 0.9 - 0.12t
2
where r is
in meters.
After the arm has rotated through 30
o
,
determine (a) the total velocity of the
collar, (b) the total acceleration of the
collar, and (c) the relative acceleration
of the collar with respect to the arm.

SOLUTION:
Evaluate time t for u = 30
o
.
and first and second derivatives at
time t.
Calculate velocity and acceleration in
cylindrical coordinates.
Evaluate acceleration with respect to
arm.
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Sample Problem 11.12
11 - 47
SOLUTION:
Evaluate time t for u = 30
o
.
s 869 . 1 rad 524 . 0 30
0.15
2
= = =
=
t
t u
Evaluate radial and angular positions, and first
and second derivatives at time t.
2
2
s m 24 . 0
s m 449 . 0 24 . 0
m 481 . 0 12 . 0 9 . 0
=
= =
= =
r
t r
t r

2
2
s rad 561 . 0 30 . 0
rad 524 . 0 15 . 0
=
= =
= =
u
u
u

t
t
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Sample Problem 11.12
11 - 48
Calculate velocity and acceleration.
( )( )
r
r
r
v
v
v v v
r v
s r v
u
u
u
|
u
1 2 2
tan
s m 270 . 0 s rad 561 . 0 m 481 . 0
m 449 . 0

= + =
= = =
= =

= = 0 . 31 s m 524 . 0 | v
( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
r
r
r
a
a
a a a
r r a
r r a
u
u
u

u u
u
1 2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
tan
s m 359 . 0
s rad 561 . 0 s m 449 . 0 2 s rad 3 . 0 m 481 . 0
2
s m 391 . 0
s rad 561 . 0 m 481 . 0 s m 240 . 0

= + =
=
+ =
+ =
=
=
=

= = 6 . 42 s m 531 . 0 a
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Sample Problem 11.12
11 - 49
Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm.
Motion of collar with respect to arm is rectilinear
and defined by coordinate r.
2
s m 240 . 0 = = r a
OA B